The EU and overseas territories

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 I. The EU’s outermost regions and overseas territories
 II. Development of OR and OSCTs of the EU
 III. Case Study - Martinique: outermost region of the EU
I. Outermost Regions and
Overseas Territories of the EU
Outermost regions based on the
following 5 characteristics:
 integration into a double geo-economic space constituted, on the
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one hand, by a proximate geographical zone, and on the other,
by a political space of belonging;
relative isolation, resulting from the its distance from the
European continent, reinforced by insularity or enclave status;
limited extent of local domestic market, linked to the size of the
population;
geographical and climatic conditions limiting endogenous
development of primary and secondary industries (lack of
natural resources, characteristics of an archipelago, active
volcanic areas etc);
economic dependence on a small number of, or even a single,
product.
8 ultra-peripheral or outermost
regions in the EU
 5 French overseas departments (Réunion, Guadeloupe,
French Guiana, Saint-Martin and Martinique),
 2 Portuguese autonomous regions (Azores and
Madeira)
 1 Spanish autonomous community (Canary Islands).
Canary Islands
Guadeloupe
The Reunion
French Guiana: the only non-island
EU Outermost Regions
Azores
Canary
Islands
Guadelo
upe
Guiana
Madera
Martiniq
ue
The
Reunion
Saint
Martin
Mayotte*
Capital
Ponta
Delgada
Las
Palmas
Pointe-àPitre
Cayenne
Funchal
Fort-deFrance
St Denis
Marigot
Mamoudz
ou
Surface
area
2322
7447
1628
83846
828
1128
2504
53
374
Populatio
n
244
2062
404
232
247
400
833
37
215
Density
105
277
248
2.7
308
356
326
693
578
GDP 2006
67
94
71
50
95
76
62
62
23
Unemploy
ment 2008
5.5
17.4
22.7
20.7
6
21.3
24.5
30
17.6
EU Funds
2007-2013
1698
1941
745
484
781
622
1864
--
*OR
status in
2014
8 (now 9) Jewels in the EU’s Crown
 Outline of the cohesion policy 2014-2020 proposals.
 The new legislative package takes account of the special
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circumstances of ultra-peripheral regions
- the specific allocation to compensate for additional costs
due to their insularity is to be maintained;
- ultra-peripheral regions will continue to benefit from
Community co-financing of up to 85%;
- they will also receive a larger envelope of the European
Regional Development Fund (ERDF) for territorial
cooperation (up from EUR 150 million to 275 million).
The European Commission is in the process of planning a
new strategy for the ultra-peripheral regions, to be adopted
in 2012, which will make the most of their numerous
advantages.
EU Territorial cohesion: towards a more
balanced development
Areas with specific geographical features
 Mountainous areas, coastal and maritime regions, islands
and archipelagos form an important part of the Union and
are even more significant in some Member States. Most of
the ultra-peripheral regions are islands. These, however, do
not form a distinct geo-morphological area as such, but are
treated as a group of 7 regions listed in the Treaty and
recognised as having a number of inherent disadvantages,
particularly because of the problem of accessibility caused
by their remoteness from other parts of the Union.
Source: www.europa.eu
Islands
 Islands are particularly important in the four Southern Member States,
three of which are cohesion countries, though there is also a large
number of islands in France, the UK and the three Nordic countries,
many of them eligible for Structural Funds support. Indeed, nearly
95% of the population of EU island regions is eligible for such support.
 In the case of the smaller islands, accessibility is the main problem
which makes it difficult to maintain economic activities which are
competitive and a young work force with a high level of education.
 Accessibility is an even greater problem for ultra-peripheral regions.
The largest islands are much better integrated into the rest of the EU
economy, even if many are at present reliant on structural support to
catch up with other parts of the Union.
 The areas identified above have marked differences in terms of their
economic and social characteristics. Regional policies for furthering
their development should continue to be aimed at strengthening
relations between different parts of the Union rather than take the
form of isolated measures specific to individual types of areas.
Nevertheless, such policies should include cooperation programmes
between areas of the same type, which are tailored to their particular
geographical features and which can bring additional benefit.
II. Development of EU ORs and
OSCTs
EU Commissioner visit to Guiana’s Space Center
EU funds and
Regional
Cooperation
The Reunion is involved in
several territorial
cooperation and
development programs with
nearby states in the Indian
Ocean:
•Mauritius Islands,
Seychelles, Madagascar,
And further afield:
• India, Australia
Programs concern the
environment, risk prevention
(tsunamis), fishing, tourism
and scientific research
Structural handicaps in Common
 Geographic remoteness – major handicap
 Geographic discontinuity brings extra costs
 Small size of insular islands (exception Guyana)
 Located in tropical zones with high natural risks (active
volcanoes, public health issues (Chikungunya)
 Rich in biodiversity
 Incomplete Economic Development
 Plantation Agriculture in crisis – noncompetitive
 Industrial sector very weak
 Service Sector overly dominant (80%)
 Highly dependent on massive importation of goods
 Result: standard of living much lower than in France
(30%)
EU aid for economic development
 2 statutes: ORs (Outermost Regions) and OSCTs
(Overseas Countries and Territories)
 ORs
 receive structural funds
 Belong to Euro zone
 Receive European Development Funds

Finance major infrastructure (roads, airports, ports)
 Aid received makes ORs areas of isolated wealth in their
regional areas

Attract poor population from neighboring territories (illegal
immigrants)
 Rarely participate in regional organizations, exchange almost
exclusively with their home country
Outermost Regions in the Euro
Zone
The Zoom on this bill makes it
possible to identity the
outermost regions which use
the Euro
Unequal Development
 France only state whose overseas territories benefit from 2
different statutes which qualify them for EU aid
 ORs
 Ethnically diverse
 High demographic growth
 Economic fragility
 OSCTs
 More autonomy
 New Caledonia rich in nickel
 Polynesia paradise for tourists
 Canary Islands - Spanish OR
 Demographic growth fed by illegal immigration (entry to
Schengen Zone)
 Major destination for international tourism
Statute of Overseas Countries and
Territories (OSCT)
 Integral part of territory of member States of EU but not
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considered part of the EU territory
EU law does not directly apply to these areas
Do not benefit from structural funds whereas the OR do
Belong to an associative regime by which they benefit from
advantageous commercial ties (imported products not
subject to import tax or restrictive quantities)
OSCT benefit from EU financing through EDF (European
Development Funds )
2008-2013
OSCT received 286 million euros
OR received 78 billion euros
Illegal Immigrants arriving in the
Canary Islands
Illegal immigration in the Canary Islands increases in a regular basis. 2 modes
of action: through harbors and airports (Latin Americans); small boats
(Africans)
Promoting Sustainable Bananas in
the French West Indies
 What organization have
financed this promotional
campaign?
 Is this poster an indicator of
regional integration?
III. Case Study - Martinique
A. Double Handicap: insularity and
remoteness
A Distant French Territory: Martinique Key Facts
Description
Figure
French/EU comparison
Surface Area
1128 km²
0.18% of national territory
Population 2012
390,000 inhabitants
0.6% of the French population
Density
346 inhabitants/km²
French average: 113 inhab/km²
Birth Rate 2011
11.4%
France: 12.6%
Population under 20
31.5%
French average: 30.8%
Unemployment Rate 2012
21%
French average: 10%
GDP/inhabitant
16,924 euros
EU average: 23,600 euros
Flight Connections: the umbilical
cord with France
•2011, the French
government asked Air
France to open direct
flights between Paris CDG
and Martinique
•Aim: to facilitate the
transfer of European
tourists to Martinique
•# passengers in Caribbean
area (excl. Guadeloupe and
Guyana) represents less
than 8% of total air traffic
of Aimé Césaire airport in
Fort de France
High Risk Zones: Volcanic Activity
Major eruptions in 1902 and 1929
Mount Pelle and Saint
Pierre
Mount Pelle in 2007
Risk of Seismic Activity
Environment
and Territory
Activities and
Development
Total Agricultural Production in
Martinique =
188 million euros
Agricultural Production in Millions of Euros
8.2
Fruit including bananas
7.1 3.5 1.9
15.3
74.5
16.2
Vegetables and roots
Industrial plants
including sugar cane
58.2
beekeeping products
large bovines
flowers and plants
Source: Agreste Martinique, Memento 2010
B. What factors hinder or help
development?
Demonstrations and Protests in 2009
Social Malaise linked to
high unemployment
and high cost of living
especially for consumer
products imported from
France.
Chlordecone is a
pesticide used in
banana plantations with
serious health and
environmental
consequences
2012 Budget of the region of
Martinique
Expenditures
Territorial development
17.18
36.24
6.76
18.08
Education and Culture
Overhead,
administrative costs
21.74
Social cohesion and
solidarity
Economic and Social
Source: Région Martinique
2012 Budget of the region of
Martinique
Total = 387 million euros
Revenue
9.92%
25.22%
Regional Revenue
64.86%
State Revenue
EU Revenue
Source: Région Martinique
Tourism
C. Martinique in the Caribbean
Regional Area
 Key Questions:
 In what ways is Martinique an example of isolated
wealth in the Caribbean?
 What elements can contribute to a common Caribbean
identity?
 What actions can reinforce Martinique’s integration in
the region?
Martinique in the Caribbean Region
What can you say about Martinique compared to her neighbors?
How can you explain the migratory flows?
Common Identity based on
historical past
Festival to commemorate
the abolition of slavery in
Martinique (1998)
Reinforcing Regional Integration
 In 2011, the Region made the decision to propose
Martinique’s membership in various regional
Caribbean organizations. The application process was
therefore begun for the
 OECO (Organization of Eastern Caribbean states)
Consultative, Cooperative and Concerted Action
Organization for several countries and dependences in
the Eastern West Indies.
 CARICOM (Caribbean Community including 14
member states and 6 associated members)
 CEPALC (Economic Commission for Latin America and
the Caribbean) regional commission of the UN
2 Pilot Programs
 2011 Regional collectivity decided to begin cooperative
actions with the region of Para, Brazil
 Themes broached:
 Energy development
 Biomass importation
 2011 Cooperative Project with Antigua
 Tourism sector
Regional Cooperation for Seismic
Activity
Case Study Questions:
 What are the specific characteristics of Martinique in terms
of:
 Environment
 Population
 Territorial organization
 What hinders or contributes to its development?
 Demonstrate the assets and limits of development in
Martinique
 What effects does its OR status have on the island?
 What policies or actions are taken to improve Martinique’s
regional attachment to the Caribbean area?

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