What are
Tracey Moffatt Something More # 1, 1989
series of 9 images Cibachrome
The Analytical Frameworks are
structures that allow students to
interpret the meanings and
messages of artworks from
various points of view
When the Analytical Frameworks are
applied collectively, students learn to
appreciate how an artwork may contain a
number of different aspects and layers of
Throughout Units 1 – 4, students develop
an understanding of the Analytical
Frameworks through the research of
historical and contemporary artists from a
variety of cultures
There are 4 Analytical Frameworks
Formal Framework
Personal Framework
Cultural Framework
Contemporary Framework
In Units 1 and 2 Art, students will study the
Personal, Formal and Cultural Frameworks
In Units 3 and 4, the Contemporary
Framework is added
The Personal Framework is used to
interpret how an artist’s experiences,
feelings, thinking and/or personal
philosophy can be reflected in an artwork
It can also be used to gain awareness of the
effect of a viewers personal background
and experience on their own interpretation
of an artwork
Consider the following:
What relationship does the artwork have to
the artist’s life and experiences?
What visual evidence supports this?
Has the artist used a specific process or
practice in creating the artwork that may
reflect a personal philosophy or ideas?
Pain and Guilt 2011
Street Art
Darren Sylvester
What Happens Will Happen #1, 2010
lightjet print 90x120cm
How is the artwork linked to people, places
or experiences of personal significance to
the artist such as:
• Personal feelings
• Way of thinking
• Aspirations,
• Beliefs,
• Memories,
• Dreams etc.
How does the experience and background
of the viewer affect the interpretation of an
What are the symbols or metaphors
explored or used in the artwork?
Salvador Dali
The Persistence of Memory 1931
Oil on Canvas
MOMA, New York, USA
The Formal Framework involves assessing the
use of the Elements and Principles of Art
Also to be considered is the distinctive artistic
style and materials and techniques used by
the artist. Students are required to think
about how these contribute to the meanings
and messages in the work
In using the Formal Framework, students
should consider the following questions:
Visual Analysis
How have the formal elements and principles
of composition, focal point, balance, line,
texture, shape, form, scale, colour, tone etc.,
been applied by the artist and to what effect?
How do these qualities contribute to the
meanings and messages of the work?
Piet Mondrian
Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue 1937 – 1942
Oil on Canvas
Tate Gallery, UK
What materials and techniques have been
How do the materials or technical skills
used shape or affect interpretation?
Wendy McDougall
Paul Kelly 2010 photograph
Melbourne, Victoria
What are the distinctive stylistic qualities of
the artwork and how do they contribute to
How does the artwork relate to other works
in a similar style or from the same historical
period or cultural background?
Barbara Kruger
Belief+Doubt 2012 Installation, text printed vinyl
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC
Symbols and Metaphors
How do aspects of the artwork contain
symbolic meaning or use of metaphor?
Angelo Burgoyne Judda
Goanna Dreaming
Acrylic on canvas
The Cultural Framework is used to identify
influences on an artwork including the
time, place, purpose and cultural and
political settings in which it was made
These influences may include historical,
political, social, socio-economic and
religious contexts as well as aspects of
ethnicity and gender
Self Portrait 1498
Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain
Culture exists in different ways in different
It can be a learned behaviour – for
example, a Japanese tea ceremony will be
different to an Ethiopian coffee ceremony
These behaviours will depend on where
you come from and in what time frame you
A particular civilisation at a certain point in time
The artistic and social pursuits, expression and
tastes valued by a society, class or group in manner,
dress etc.
The sum of inherited beliefs, attitudes, customs,
activities and ideas that distinguishes one group of
people from another
Culture is transmitted through language, material
objects, ritual, institutions and art, from one
generation to the next
Max Beckman
The Synagogue in Frankfurt Am Main 1919
Oil on canvas
Stadel Museum, Frankfurt
Products of culture are things like music,
food, art and literature.
Culture can be influenced by:
family, social groups, war, peace, lifestyle,
thoughts, opinions, attitudes, values,
religion, health, ability, experiences, school,
laws, customs, habits, politics, behaviours,
dress, costume, hairstyle, sport etc.
Zhang Xiaogang
A Big Family 1995
Oil on canvas
Saatchi gallery – London Contemporary Art Gallery
Personal, Formal and Cultural
Personal Framework
Mary Cassatt often used members of her family as
models to depict the daily lives of women in the late
Formal Framework
This image is closely cropped and uses shallow
space to invite the audience into this personal
event. Tonal modelling and the use of subtle colour
is used to create a realistic look to the child’s skin.
Pattern is a strong art element in this composition
as shown by the wallpaper, the rug and the dress
and this provides contrast between the various
Cultural Framework
The invention of the camera meant that candid
scenes were often captured. Cassatt was also
influenced by the Japanese prints that were on
display in Paris in the 1890’s
Mary Cassatt
The Bath 1892
Formal and Cultural
Masami Teraoka
McDonald’s hamburgers Invading
Japan/Flying Fries 1974
Formal Framework
Teraoka works with watercolours as well as woodblock techniques which
incorporate the use of traditional calligraphic lines and flat areas of colour
Cultural Framework
“My McDonald's Hamburgers Invading Japan in the 1970's ……reflects my cultural
heritage from Japan. The Ukiyo-e or wood block print tradition represents my
cultural identity. The Geisha and Samurai images I use are a way to depict
traditional-thinking Japanese people.” Teraoka became interested in American
culture and this can be seen in the theme of this work, a humorous comment on
fast food invading traditional Japanese culture

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