### File

```Presentation
Sl
Name
01 A.K.M Mohsin
ID
Group Member
10202061
02 Md. Moshiur Rahman
10202065
03 Md. Kabir Hossain
10202071
04 Roma Akter
10202073
05 Suraia Sultana
10202100
06 Md. Rasheduzzaman
10202107

Contribution margin is the
amount remaining from sales
revenue after variable
expenses have been
deducted
Formula of contribution margin

Sales revenue − Variable cost
=Contribution Margin

Formula of Net operating Income or
Loss
Contribution margin − Fixed cost= Net
operating Income or Loss

ABC company annual sales \$50,0000 and variable cost
is \$50,000 and fixed cost \$ 40,0000. calculate
contribution margin and Net operating Income or Loss
Solution:
Contribution margin = (Sales revenue − Variable cost )
=(\$ 500,000 - \$ 500,00)
=\$450,000

Net operating Income or Loss =(Contribution margin −
Fixed cost)
=(\$450,000 - \$ 400,000)
Net operating Income
=\$ 500,00
Formula of calculate profit
Profit =( sales * cm ratio) – fixed
cost

Problem : Sales = \$5,000,000 , cm
ratio
= 0.40 and Fixed cost = \$1,600,000
Solution :
Profit =( sales * cm ratio) – fixed cost
=(\$5,000,000 * 0.40 ) - \$1,600,000
=\$2,000,000 - \$1,600,000
= \$400,000
Gross Margin
Contribution
Margin
• Gross Margin is the Gross Profit as a percentage of
Net Sales.
• The calculation of the Gross Profit is: Sales minus
Cost of Goods Sold.
• The Cost of Goods Sold consists of the fixed and
variable product costs, but it excludes all of the
• Contribution Margin is Net Sales minus the variable
product costs and the variable period expenses.
• The Contribution Margin Ratio is the Contribution
Margin as a percentage of Net Sales.
Let’s illustrate the difference between gross margin and contribution margin with
the following information: company had Net Sales of \$600,000 during the past
year. Its inventory of goods was the same quantity at the beginning and at the
end of year. Its Cost of Goods Sold consisted of \$120,000 of variable costs and
\$200,000 of fixed costs. Its selling and administrative expenses were \$40,000 of
variable and \$150,000 of fixed expenses.
• The company’s Contribution Margin is: Net Sales of
\$600,000 minus the variable product costs of \$120,000
and the variable expenses of \$40,000 for a Contribution
Margin of \$440,000. The Contribution Margin Ratio is
73.3% (\$440,000 divided by \$600,000).
• The company’s Gross Margin is: Net Sales of
\$600,000 minus its Cost of Goods Sold of
\$320,000 (\$120,000 + \$200,000) for a Gross Profit
of \$280,000 (\$600,000 - \$320,000). The Gross
Margin or Gross Profit Percentage is the Gross
Profit of \$280,000 divided by \$600,000, or 46.7%.
The relationships among revenue, cost, profit and volume can be expressed
graphically by preparing a cost-volume-profit (CVP) graph or break even
chart. A CVP graph highlights CVP relationships over wide ranges of activity
and can give managers a perspective that can be obtained in no other way.
Preparing a CVP Graph or Break-Even Chart:
In a CVP graph some times called a break even chart unit volume is
commonly represented on the horizontal (X) axis and dollars on the vertical
(Y) axis. Preparing a CVP graph involves three steps.
1. Draw a line parallel to the volume axis to present total fixed expenses. For
example assume total fixed expenses \$35,000.
2. Choose some volume of sales and plot the point representing total
expenses (fixed and variable) at the activity level you have selected. For
example we select a level of 600 units. Total expenses at that activity level are
as follows:
Fixed Expenses
Variable Expenses (150×600)
\$35,000
\$90,000
--------Total Expenses
\$125,000
======
After the point has been plotted, draw a line through it back to the point where the
fixed expenses line intersects the dollars axis.
3.Again choose some volume of sales and plot the point representing total
sales dollars at the activity level you have selected. For example we have
chosen a volume of 600 units. sales at this activity level are \$150,000
(600units × \$250) draw a line through this point back to the origin. The break
even point is where the total revenue and total expense lines cross. See the
graph and note that break even point is at 350 units. It means when the
company sells 350 units the profit is zero. When the sales are below the
break even the company suffers a loss. When sales are above the break
even point, the company earns a profit and the size of the profit increases
as sales increase.
Definition of
Contribution
Margin Ratio:
Formula of CM
Ratio
• The contribution margin as a percentage of
total sales is referred to as contribution margin
ratio (CM Ratio).
• This ratio is extensively used in cost-volume
profit calculations.
• CM Ratio= Contribution Margin/ Sales
Consider the following contribution margin income statement of A. Q. Asem private
Ltd. in which sales revenues, variable expenses, and contribution margin are
expressed as percentage of sales.
Total
Per Unit
Percent
of Sales
Sales (400 units)
\$100,000
\$250
100%
Less variable expenses
60,000
150
60%
---------------------------------Contribution margin
\$40,000
\$100
40%
======
===
Less fixed expenses
35,000
-----------Net operating income
\$5,000
======
Calculate contribution margin ratio
According to above data of A. Q. Asem private Ltd. the computations are:
Contribution Margin Ratio = (Contribution Margin / Sales) × 100
= (\$40,000 / \$100,000) × 100
= 40%

In a company that has only one product such as A. Q. Asem CM ratio can also be calculated as
follows:
Contribution Margin Ratio = (Unit contribution margin / Unit selling price) × 100
= (\$100 / \$250) × 100
= 40%
The following data is used to show the effect of changes in sales price on
contribution margin and profitability.

Basic Data:
Selling price:
Variable Expenses:
Contribution Margin:
Fixed Expenses:
\$250 (100%)
\$150 (60%)
\$250 – \$150 = \$100 (40%)
\$35,000 per month
The company is currently selling 400 units per month. The company has an
opportunity to make bulk sale of 150 units to wholesaler if an acceptable
price can be worked out. This sale would not disturb the company's regular
sales and would not affect the company's total fixed expenses. What price
per unit should be quoted to the wholesaler if company wants to increase its
monthly profits by \$3,000?

Solution:
Variable cost per unit
Desired profit per unit
Quoted price per unit
\$150
20
---------\$170
======
Notice that fixed expenses are not included in the
computation. This is because fixed expenses are not affected
by the bulk sale, so all of the additional revenues that is in
excess of variable costs increase the profit of the company.

Definition and explanation:
This is that level of materials at which a new
order for supply of materials is to be placed. In other words, at this level a
purchase requisition is made out. This level is fixed somewhere between
maximum and minimum levels. Order points are based on usage during time
necessary to requisition order, and receive materials, plus an allowance for
protection against stock out.

Formula of Re-order Level or Ordering Point:
1. Ordering point or re-order level = Maximum daily or weekly or monthly
The above formula is used when usage and lead time are known with certainty;
therefore, no safety stock is provided. When safety stock is provided then the
following formula will be applicable:
2. Ordering point or re-order level = Maximum daily or weekly or monthly
usage ×Lead time + Safety stock

Example 1:
Minimum daily requirement
800 units
Time required to receive emergency supplies
4 days
Average daily requirement
700 units
Minimum daily requirement
600 units
Time required for refresh supplies
One month (30 days)
Calculate ordering point or re-order level

Calculation:
Ordering point = Ordering point or re-order level = Maximum daily or weekly
= 800 × 30
= 24,000 units

Definition and Explanation:
The minimum level or minimum stock is
that level of stock below which stock should not be allowed to fall. In
case of any item falling below this level, there is danger of stopping of
production and, therefore, the management should give top priority
to the acquisition of new supplies.

Formula:
Minimum limit or level = Re-order level or ordering point – Average or
normal usage× Normal re-order period
Or the formula can be written as:
Minimum limit or level = Re-order level or ordering point – Average usage
for Normal period

Example:
Normal usage
Maximum usage
Minimum usage
Re-order period
100 units per day
130 units per day
70 units per day
25 to 30 days
Calculate: minimum limit or level
[ To calculate minimum limit of materials we must calculate re-order point or re-order
level first ]
 Calculation:
Ordering point or re-order level = Maximum daily or weekly or monthly usage
× Maximum re-order
= 130 × 30
= 3,900 units
Minimum limit or level = Re-order level or ordering point – Average or normal usage
× Normal re-order period
= 3900 – (100 × 27.5*)
=1150 units
=*(25 + 30 ) / 2

Definition: Break even point is the level of sales at which profit is zero.
According to this definition, at break even point sales are equal to fixed cost
plus variable cost. This concept is further explained by the following equation:
[Break even sales = fixed cost + variable cost]
The break even point can be calculated using either the equation method or
contribution margin method. These two methods are equivalent's.

Equation Method: The equation method centers on the contribution
approach to the income statement. The format of this statement can be
expressed in equation form as follows:
Profit = (Sales − Variable expenses) − Fixed expenses
Rearranging this equation slightly yields the following equation, which is widely
used in cost volume profit (CVP) analysis:
Sales = Variable expenses + Fixed expenses + Profit
According to the definition of break even point, break even point is the level
of sales where profits are zero. Therefore the break even point can be
computed by finding that point where sales just equal the total of the
variable expenses plus fixed expenses and profit is zero.

For example:
Sales price per unit
variable cost per unit
Total fixed expenses
\$250
\$150
\$35,000
Calculate break even point
Calculation:
Sales = Variable expenses + Fixed expenses + Profit
\$250Q* = \$150Q* + \$35,000 + \$0**
\$100Q = \$35000
Q = \$35,000 /\$100
Q = 350 Units
Q* = Number (Quantity) of units sold.
**The break even point can be computed by finding that point where profit
is zero
The break even point in sales dollars can be computed by multiplying the
break even level of unit sales by the selling price per unit.
350 Units × \$250 Per unit = \$87,500
```