The Acute Effectiveness of Exercise on Cognitive

Report
The Acute Effects of Exercise on
Cognitive Performance in Older
Adults
Presented by Rachel
Pennington
Research Directed by Dr.
Shellie Hanna
Department of Curriculum
and Research
Arkansas Tech University
jeffhurtblog.com
Purpose of Research
 How can applications of
recent neuroscience
findings help improve
memory retention, mental
processing speed, and
selective attention in older
adults (60+)?
 Do we have to consistently
workout for these results,
or can they start happening
right away?
 Exploring the effects of
EXERCISE on the BRAIN
ebrainsupplements.com
Background Information
• Past Views
• What you were BORN with is all you have– The brain
is hardwired.
• The brain functions separately from the rest of the
body
• There isn’t much that you can do to alter damage
done to the brain over time
Background Information
• New Findings
•
The human brain is much
more malleable then we
originally thought
•
New neurons can be
developed through
neurogenesis
•
Humans can have
significant influence over
their brain function
•
Neuronal networks are
continually modified
Neuron (cidpusa.org)
Background Information
• The Long Term Effects of Exercise on
the Body
• Improved cardiovascular and respiratory Functioning
• Reduced coronary artery and disease risk
• Prevention/management of high blood pressure, type
2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer
• INCREASED QUALITY OF LIFE
If exercise has such positive
effects on the body, then is it
possible that it has an equally
powerful impact on the brain?
New neuroscience finding say
“yes”!
Background Information
• The Immediate Effects of Exercise on
Cognitive Function
• Increase in mental processing speed and selective
attention
• Mood enhancement
• Reduces mental and muscular tension
• Increases concentration and memory level
“I am convinced that integrating
exercise into those eight hours at
work or school will not make us
smarter. It will only make us
normal.”
--Dr. John Medina, Brain
Rules
What We Now Know
About the Brain
• It is plastic (flexible).
• It is an adaptable organ that can be molded
much in the same way a muscle can be
sculpted by lifting weights.
• In order for the brain to be at optimal
performance, the body needs to work hard.
• The brain is not hardwired, but continually
rewired.
What We Now Know
About The Brain
• Exercise improves learning on three
levels:
• It optimizes your mind-set to improve alertness,
attention, and motivation short term and long term.
• It prepares nerve cells to bind to one another, which is
the cellular basis for logging in new information.
• It spurs the development of new nerve cells from stem
cells in the hippocampus.
Brain Scan Studies
 Kramer, a neuroscientist at
the University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign (UIUC),
studies how fitness training
can mold the mind and stave
off the effects of aging.
 Used sedentary test subjects
between ages 60-80.
 Had Subjects undergo
aerobic exercise for at least
40 minutes 3 days a week for
6 months.
http://scicom.ucsc.edu/publications/
Brain Scan Studies
 All subjects saw an approximate 15% increase in
memory, decision making skills, and selective
attention.
 Kramer took Brain scans of all 60 participants and
saw an actual INCREASE in size in the
hippocampus, which is the area that’s responsible
for memory and decisions.
 This shows that it is truly a myth that older brains
MUST decrease in plasticity as they age, it can be
prevented easily!
Brain Scan Studies
 Exercise helps maintain and even build brain
plasticity (strength in-between neurons that
reinforce brain connections), stopping, and even
REVERSING memory loss.
 Exercise causes more blood flow to the brain,
enhancing energy production and waste removal.
The brain scans also show that in response to
exercise, cerebral blood vessels can grow.
Extending the Research to
the Local Setting
Hypothesis
 My hypothesis is that the memory retention, mental
processing speed, and selective attention would
acutely improve in the participants after they had
exercised in comparison to their memory retention,
mental processing speed, and selective attention
prior to exercise
 A second purpose of my research is to prove that
positive cognitive effects can start taking place right
away, encouraging older adults to get active and
prolong the amount of time they have leading a
good quality of life.
Methods
 Arkansas Tech University’s institutional review
board reviewed and approved all protocol and
procedures pertaining this study.
 30 adults (13 men, 18 women; M age =67.8)
volunteered.
 Class choices included Pilates or Muscular Strength
& Range Of Motion (MSROM Silver Sneakers)
 9 participants chose Pilates (4 male, 5 female, M
age=62.7) and 21 chose MSROM (9 male, 12 female,
M age = 70.39)
Methods: The Stroop Test
 This is widely used and accepted assessment tool
for testing cognitive quickness and executive
function (Levine, Stuss, and Milberg 1995)
 I used this because it places demands on cognitive
flexibility by requiring shifting of perceptual set in
accordance with changing external demands, as
well as the inhibition of a habitual response in favor
of a novel one.
Methods: The
Stroop Test
(Sharp Brains 2011)
)
Methods: The Stroop Test
 The Stroop test used (Neuroscience for Kids 2011)
was created by the Center for Sensorimotor Neural
Engineering in Seattle, Washington, and can be
accessed an taken at
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/words.htm
l
 Results are reliable and valid when tested online
(Campbell et al. 1999)
Methods: Ratings of
Percieved Exertion
 Maintaining a moderate intensity level is key.
 Detrimental effects from fatigue could mask the
benefits of exercise on performance (Tomporowski
2003; Tomporowski and Ellis 1986)
 Participants exercised at a self determined moderate
intensity level using the Borg scale of Perceived
Exertion (RPE)
Methods: Borgs RPE scale
 This scale has been shown
to be psychometrically
sound, with reliability
coefficients above .90 and
validity coefficients at .77
and higher (Borg 1998).
 RPE measures were taken
every 10 min throughout
the exercise protocol.
 Participants stayed within
the parameter of 13-15
Methods:
Exercise
Protocol
When compared by a OneWay ANOVA test, these two
classes were determined to
have no differences from each
other.
Methods: Exercise Protocol
Silver Sneakers
Pilates
• 5 minute warm-up with
stretching.
 5 minute warm-up with
stretch
• Equipment used: 2-3 lb
weights, resistance band
with handles
 Equipment used: floor mat
• Followed an instructor for
40 minutes
• 5 minute cool down period
 Followed an instructor for
40 minutes
 5 minute cool down period
Methods: Procedure
 Each Participant took the Stroop Test prior to
exercise, and the response time was recorded on a
computerized program
 Participants exercised for 50 total minutes, RPE was
monitored every 10 minutes
 Participants rested quietly for 30 minutes, them
completed the Stroop test post-exercise and the
response time was recorded via computer program.
Methods:
Analysis
Three separate
analyses were
performed:
1. One way ANOVA
2. Descriptive
Statistics
3. Paired Samples TTests
RESULTS:
Table 1. One-Way ANOVA
Showing the Comparison
Between Pilates and
SilverSneakers MSROM
Sum of df
Squares
Mean
F
Square
Sig.
Before Exercise:
Between Groups: 15.629
1
Within Groups:
1089.770 28
Total :
1105.398 29
After Exercise:
15.629
38.920
0.40 0.53
2
1
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
9.046
34.750
0.26 0.61
0
4
9.046
973.000
982.046
1
28
29
Results
Table 2. Total Mean Test Scores
Showing the Difference in Testing
Results Before and After Exercise
Before
Exercise
After
Exercise
Mean
20.33297
16.31967
N
30
30
Std. Deviation
6.173912
5.819248
Table 3. Paired Samples Test
Showing Paired Differences
Paired Differences
Mean
Test
BeforeTest After
4.013300
Std.
Deviation
3.074691
Std. Error
Mean
0.561359
Results
Table 4. Paired Samples
Correlation Test Showing the
Relationship Between Exercise
and Cognitive Function
N
Test
30
Before and
After
Correlation Sig.
0.870
0.000
Table 5. Paired Samples Test
Showing the Confidence Interval
of the Difference
Paired
Differences
95%
Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower Upper T
Test
2.8651 5.1614 7.149
Before 92
08
- Test
After
Df
29
Sig. (2tailed)
0.000
Conclusions/Discussion
MY HYPOTHEIS WAS SUPPORTED
 Both exercise groups completed the post-exercise
test faster than the pre-exercise test
 Out of the 30 test subjects, none failed to improve
their test scores post-exercise.
 There was such a difference in test scores that the
level of significance was p=0.000, which is the ideal
statistical condition.
Conclusions/Discussion
 The increase in cognitive ability was shown to be
beyond a doubt due to the physiological effects
caused by the exercise protocol.
 These positive results are very encouraging, and
prove that there is a safe and healthy way to
improve cognitive function.
 The results also show that the benefits of exercise
start taking place right away, and improve function
immediately.
Discussions/Conclusion
 Improvement in Data Collection
 Other processes related to physiological arousal such as the
increase in catecholamines of neurotrophins may also drive
improvements in cognitive performance, and were not
directly evaluated in this study
 No physical fitness test was used to set and monitor
exercise intensity, RPE’s were self monitored
 Like to have a larger number of participants
 MAIN GOALS: Continuing the efforts of this research
and spreading the word about neuroscience findings!
 HOW DO WE GET EDUCATORS, STUDENTS, PARENTS,
ETC ON BOARD?
References
 Borg, G.V. 1998. Borg’s Perceived Exertion and Pain Scales.
Illinois: Human Kinetics.
 Levine, B., Stuss, D.T., & Milberg, W.P. 1995. “Concept
Generation; Validation of a Test of Executive Functioning
in a Normal Aging Population. “ Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Neuropsychology 17: 740-58.
 Sharp Brains. 2011. “Physical Exercise: Why Aerobic
Exercise Enhances Neurogenesis and Neuroplasticity”.
Accessed October 22.
http://www.sharpbrains.com/resources/2-the-4-pillarsof-brain-maintenance/physical-exercise-why-aerobicexercise-enhances-neurogenesis-and-neuroplasticity/
•Campbell, Keith A., Rohlman, Diane S., Storzback, Daniel., Binder,
Laurence M., Anger, Kent W., Kovera, Craing A., Davis, Kelly L.,
Grossmann, Sandra J. 1999. “The reliability of computerized testing. “Test
Retest Reliability of Psychological and Neurobehavioral Tests Self-Administered
by Computer Assessment 6: 21-32
•Tomporowski, P.D. 2003. “Effects of Acute bouts of Exercise on
Cognition.” Acta Psychologica 112: 297-324
•Tomporowski, P.D., Ellis, N.R. 1986. “Effects of Exercise on Cognitive
Processes; A Review. Psychological Bulletin 99: 338-46.

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