History of Oceanography

Unit 2
Mrs. Jeffcoat
Unit 2 Objectives:
 Define Marine Science
 What are the four branches of oceanography?
 What are careers in the field of oceanography?
 Explain the history of oceanography including
contributions from various cultures and time periods
 List, identify, and describe common tools used in
What is Marine Science
 Marine: Related to the sea or ocean
 Science: Body of knowledge and an organized method
used to gain knowledge about the observable universe
 Marine Science: Process of discovering facts, processes
and unifying principles that explains the nature of
oceans and their associated life form
 Oceanography = Marine Science
4 Branches of Oceanography
Biological Oceanography: (AKA Marine Biology) Studies
the diversity of life in the ocean and the ocean's role as
their habitat
2. Chemical Oceanography: Studies the chemistry of
seawater and the affect of chemical reactions on oceans
3. Geological Oceanography: Examines the composition of
marine sediments and rocks including undersea
volcanoes, seabed movement, undersea earthquakes, etc.
4. Physical Oceanography: Studies water movement (waves,
currents, tides, etc.)
Complete careers in oceanography poster project...
History of Oceanography
 In class project...
 History of Seafaring People Keynote Options:
 Phoenicians
 Polynesians
 Greeks
 Egyptians
 Portuguese and Spanish
 Vikings
 Chinese
History of Oceanography
Rise of Seafaring: 5,000 BC to 800 AD
 5,000 BC Early civilizations interact with oceans to
obtain food
 early evidence from primitive fish hooks and spears
 4,000 BC Earliest reference to voyage on a ship is
the story of Noah and the Ark...widely debated
History of Oceanography
 -3,200 BC Egyptian Pharaoh Snefru brought 40 ships
from Phoenicia to Egypt
 -2,750 BC First recorded sea voyage for explorations
 (recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphics)
 -2,585-2,560 BC Egyptians built reed boat with oars
and entombed the entire ship in the pyramid of Khufu
History of Oceanography
 -2,000-500 BC Polynesians routinely
crossed ocean over 1,000's of kilometers
(1 mile=1609 m)in canoes made from
tree trunks or planks that were sewn
together with fiber rope and cracks
sealed with tree sap
 this is the earliest known regular long
distance open ocean travel
 in over 1,000 years they settled Fiji,
Tonga, Samoa, Hawaii
 used the north star and constellations to
History of Oceanography
 Polynesians were able to use:
- wind and cloud formation
- Color and clearness of the sea
- Used cold and warm currents
- Cold currents are sources of food _green, red or brown
- Warm currents are clear and blue..
- Sediments from rivers turn water brown and change
the odor
History of Oceanography
 Polynesians discovered Hawaii 1400 years ago.
 http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Ntt=polyn
History of Oceanography
History of Oceanography
 Were the first to use mathematics to make sophisticated
maps for seafaring
 Knew the earth was a sphere NOT flat
 Pytheas (about 400 BC)- Determined the Atlantic tides
are based on the phases of the moon and used degrees
north and south of the north star to navigate
 Eratosthenes (264- 194 BC)- Calculated the Earth's
circumference and invented the 1st longitude/latitude
 Ptoleny (150 AD) - Mapped a portion of the Earth as a
sphere on flat paper and continued to improve longitude
and latitude grids into degrees, min, sec of the arc... we are
still using this today!
Longitude and Latitude System
 Imaginary grid lines used to
identify specific locations on
 Both longitude and latitude
lines are numbered in degrees
and are further subdivided into
minutes and seconds
 Knowing longitude and
latitude can pinpoint a location
on Earth
 Latitude is written first and
then followed by longitude
 Latitude lines run east-west
 They never intersect and are called parallels
 0o parallel is the equator (the equator runs around the
Earth at its widest point)
 Parallels above the equator are called north latitudes
 Parallels below the equator are called south latitudes
 Longitude lines run north-south
 Begin at one pole and end at the other
 Sometimes called meridians
 The 0o or Prime meridian runs through Greenwich,
Practice Using Longitude and Latitude
 Pretend that you want to find the wreck of the Titanic...
 It's coordinates are 49o 56' 49'' W, 41o 43' 57''
 Those coordinates mean that 49 degrees, 56 minutes, and 49 seconds
west longitude and 41 degrees, 43 minutes, and 57 seconds north
 Those coordinates will put you directly on the Titanic...
Practice Using Longitude and Latitude
 Complete Longitude and Latitude Activity....
History of Oceanography
The Middle Ages (800 A.D. – 1400 A.D.)
 Europe is in the “Dark Ages”
 Fall of the Roman Empire
 People thought the Earth was flat
 Except for Vikings there is little ocean exploration
 Vikings travelled the oceans from 790 A.D. to 1100 A.D.
when global warming freed the North Atlantic of ice.
 Explored, raided, and established trade routes to
Southern Europe, North Africa, Central Asia, Iceland,
Greenland, and the Americas
 Leif Eriksson landed in Newfoundland, Canada
Age of Discovery-United Streaming
History of Oceanography
The Middle Ages (800 A.D. – 1400 A.D.)
 China
 1000 A.D. Invention of the magnetic compass
 Ships with central rudders and watertight
History of Oceanography
European Voyages of Discovery (1400 -1700)
 European Renaissance (rediscovery) sparks new
interest in ocean exploration
 1400’s Prince Henry of Portugal searched for a route to
the East… didn’t make it but mapped out Western
Africa in the process
 1487 Bartholomeu Dias completes first voyage around
the Cape of Good Hope (tip of southern Africa)
 1497 Vasco de Gama led the first voyage around the
Cape of Good Hope to India
History of Oceanography
European Voyages of Discovery (1400 -1700)
 1492 Portuguese explorer Christopher Columbus set out to
find a route to Asia and accidentally discovers the Americas
 1454-1512 Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci voyaged to
South America and is the first person to recognize the
“New World” as a separate continent
 1500’s Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of the
Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean on the other side
and was the first European to sail into the Pacific
 1519 Ferdinand Magellan led exploration to sail around the
world (he died but the 18 men from his crew that survived
finished the voyage)
History of Oceanography
Birth of Marine Science (1700-1900)
 Captain James Cook (England)
receives credit for first sea
expedition devoted to scientific
 1735 – Harrison Invented
Made it possible to determine
longitude in open sea (latitude
was already calculated with star
 Chronometer: Clock or watch
that is not affected by the
waves or motion of the sea
History of Oceanography
Birth of Marine Science (1700-1900)
 Wilkes Expedition (United States) is authorized by
congress to explore the southern Atlantic and the
Pacific Ocean
 Travelled to Madeira, both coasts of South America,
Tierra del Fuego, many South Pacific Islands, Australia,
New Zealand, Hawaii, California, Oregon, the
Philipines, Singapore, and St. Helena
 Visited and proved the existence of Antaratica
 At their conclusion they had 19 volumes of maps, texts,
and illustrations documenting their discoveries as well
as many specimens of flora and fauna
Route of Wilke’s Expedition
History of Oceanography
Birth of Marine Science (1700-1900)
 Father of Physical
Oceanography- Mathew
 US Naval officer that
discovered a world wide
pattern of surface winds and
 1855 Published the first
textbook on modern
oceanography – The Physical
Geography of the Sea
History of Oceanography
Birth of Marine Science (1700-1900)
 1831 Charles Darwin’s voyage on
the H.M.S. Beagle
 Published two important
scientific documents:
Structure and Distribution of
Coral Reefs
The Origin of a Species – Outlines
his theory of natural selection and
History of Oceanography
Birth of Marine Science (1700-1900)
 The Challenger Expedition 1872
 Devoted entirely to marine science exploration
 Gathered physical, geological, chemical, and biological
data as they documented temperature, currents, water
chemistry, marine organisms, and bottom sediments
 Some of the many accomplishments of this mission
First soundings deeper than 4,000 meters
 Discovered marine organisms in the deepest part of the ocean
 Identified 715 new genera and 4, 717 new species
*NASA named the second space shuttle in honor of this
Challenger Expedition
History of Oceanography
 Tools of Oceanography—Woods Hole Interactive
 http://www.divediscover.whoi.edu/tools/atlantis.html
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science
 Many changes including the industrial revolution
occurred during this time some of the major
advancements include:
 Steam engines and iron ships (allow sailors to travel
without being at the mercy of the wind and currents)
 Submarines (made possible by the inventions of the
diesel engine, electric motor, and lead batteries)
 Science and technology feed each other as funding from
countries and private industry increases
 Technology needs for wars also increase technology and
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science
 Three “super” important expeditions:
 German Meteor -1925
Mapped the Atlantic sea floor using echo-sound technology
 Atlantis – 1931
First ship specifically built and designed for ocean study
Confirmed existence of Mid-Atlantic Ridge
 Challenger II – 1951
Found the deepest known part of the ocean located in the
Marianas Trench (10,838 m or 35,558 ft)
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science
 As a result of advances in science and technology the
20th century brought about many important tools for
studying oceanography (this list includes just a few):
-Self-Contained Diving/Scuba
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
 Until the 20th Century scientists studied the oceans
from above until the invention of the submersible
 There are 3 Types of Submersibles:
 Bathysphere
 Bathyscaphe
 Deep-diving submersibles
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
 Bathysphere: (1930’s)
Steel Ball with a window
connected to the boat
by an umbilical that
communications and
 Limited because only
operated vertically and
was lowered and raised
by a cable on ship
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
 Bathyscaphe: Sphere
attached to a large float
instead of a cable and ship
with a small electric motor
(operates like a blimp)
 The float contains fluid that’s
buoyant in water and a heavy
ballast – by releasing fluid or
some of the ballast the sphere
could rise or descend
 Limitations – difficult to
operate and horizontal motion
is limited
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
 Deep-diving Submersibles: 2-3
person submersibles that that
dive in moderate to deep
depths with excellent
horizontal maneuverability
 Less fragile that previous
submersibles and easier to
launch in rough seas
 Limitations – cannot travel as
deep as bathyscaphe
 Some are equipped with
robotic arms to grasp samples
or perform experiments
outside of the sub
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
Self-Contained Diving:
 First equipment had hard hat that was supplied
air from the surface through a hose – this
equipment was heavy and hard to maneuver
Men of Honor Clip
 Scuba: Lightweight self contained system for
underwater exploration
1943 Jacques Cousteau developed scuba system that
used compressed air and was relatively lightweight
and simple
 Within 20 years, scuba was in use by the military,
scientists, and for recreation
 Hardsuits: Wearable submersibles
 Protect the diver from temperature and pressure and
are far smaller and more mobile than conventional
Comparing the use of Scuba and
Submersibles in Oceanography
Greater Depth &
High Cost
Large Size
Low Cost
Limited Depth
Short Duration
*Today many scientists use both submersibles and scuba
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
 Remotely Operated
Vehicles (ROV): Small
unmanned submarines
with propellers, a video
camera, and an umbilical
to the surface
 Operated by remote
 Can have claws, robotic
arms, and other tools
 Used to explore the
wreck of the Titanic
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
 Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV):
Untethered robotic devices that are controlled by
onboard computers
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
 Electronic Navigation:
 1960’s LORAN-C location
system was based on
transmitted radio signals and
was accurate within a few
Limits - would only work where
LORAN transmitters were
located and became less
accurate farther away from
 Global Positioning System
(GPS) – Uses satellites to
determine and display
location within three – six
meters of accuracy
 Satellites: Objects that orbit
the Earth and provide
continuous measurements of
sea-surface height,
temperature, color,
pollutions, etc
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
 Mapping the Ocean Floor with Echo
To map the seafloor, scientists bounce a
beam of sound waves off the ocean
bottom. Research ships moving along the
sea surface repeatedly “ping” the seafloor
with sound to map a continuous line of
seafloor elevations below.
 Multibeam Bathymetry - The
Successor to the Single-Beam Echo
By sending out many beams of sound
simultaneously, research vessels can
collect data on a wide swath of the
seafloor, rather than a single line. So they
can map much larger areas during a single
History of Oceanography
Twentieth-Century Marine Science Tools
 Sea-Net: A new communications system developed in
1995 to extend the Internet to ships at sea
 Much more affordable than using satellites to relay

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