How to Write a 9!

Report
AP World History
SHANNAN CONRAD
HOW TO WRITE A 9!
AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY INFORMATION
AP World History
 11 years teaching APWH
 Mona Shores High School
 1,350 Students
 40% Free and Reduced
 AP Stats
 Open Enrollment
 212 in 2008 and 346 in 2012
 82% in 2008 and 77% in 2012

AP Honor Roll
AP World History
 Know your format
 Rubric Quizzes
 Know your time
*On the clock
*Periodization
 Read and follow the directions carefully.
 Answer the question that is there, not the question you want to
be there.
 Each Question will be linked to a theme.
 Write often—parts of essay practiced every chapter (oral and
written).
 Look for points—Drink the kool- aid, trust the system
Themes of APWH
Theme 1: Interaction Between Humans
and the Environment
• Demography and disease
• Migration
• Patterns of settlement
• Technology
Theme 2: Development and Interaction
of Cultures
• Religions
• Belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies
• Science and technology
• The arts and architecture
Theme 3: State-Building, Expansion, and
Conflict
• Political structures and forms of
governance
• Empires
• Nations and nationalism
• Revolts and revolutions
• Regional, transregional, and global
structures and organizations
Theme 4: Creation, Expansion,
and Interaction of Economic
Systems
• Agricultural and pastoral
production
• Trade and commerce
• Labor systems
• Industrialization
• Capitalism and socialism
Theme 5: Development and
Transformation of Social
Structures
• Gender roles and relations
• Family and kinship
• Racial and ethnic constructions
• Social and economic classes
*Adriel Shearer
Document Based Question
 2.45 out of 9
 Practice often
 Bell Ringers
 KBATS (Know and Be Able To—Study Guides)
 Daily work—Peer edits, teacher walks


Book, study guides, multiple choice, readers (Human Record), The
Economist, Facebook.
Summative Assessments

Quiz on time (World Context)
Attack the Question
1.
Identify the theme—Bold it. (Underline it)
Globalization-2013
 Politics-2012
 Revolution-2011

2. Identify what it’s asking you to do/describe/explain
etc.—Italicized. (Circle it.)
•
•
•
Analyze connections between--2013
Analyze the relationship between--2012
Analyze the causes and consequences--2011
Attack the Question
Identify the theme. Bold it. (Underline it.)
2. Identify what it’s asking you to do/describe/explain
etc. Italicize it. (Circle it.)
2013
Analyze connections between regional issues and
European struggles for global power in the mideighteenth century. Identify an additional type of
document and explain how it would help your analysis
of these connections.
1.
Attack the Question
2011
Using the following documents, analyze the causes
and consequences of the Green Revolution in the
period from 1945 to the present. Identify and explain
one additional type of document and explain how it
would help your analysis of the Green Revolution.
2012 DBQ Question
Using the following documents, analyze the
relationship between cricket and politics in South
Asia from 1880 to 2005. Identify an additional type of
document and briefly explain how it would help
analyze the relationship between cricket and politics.
 Historical Background: Great Britain directly
ruled the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947,
when the colony was split into the independent
states of predominantly Hindu India and
predominantly Muslim Pakistan.
Thesis
*From the College Board
 The thesis must address a specific relationship
between cricket and politics in South Asia, using
evidence from the documents.
 The thesis must be explicitly stated in the
introduction or the specified conclusion of the essay.

Address Theme and Example from documents
 Can’t “double-dip” on the thesis.
Thesis
Reword
2. Address the theme. (Politics)
3. Address what its asking you to do, (relationship
between cricket and politics) using evidence from
the documents.
1.


Use the “evidence” from your groups to help develop your
thesis.
This will also make it easier to relate your documents to your
thesis.
Acceptable?
Example-Student A
Cricket in South Asia between 1880-2005 played a
political role in not only easing tensions and
restrictions of caste members but allowing Pakistan
and India to relieve some political tension on the
playing field – although not always easing tension
from a religious aspect.
YES
 Cricket in South Asia between 1880-2005 played a
political role in not only easing tensions and
restrictions of caste members but allowing Pakistan
and India to relieve some political tension on the
playing field – although not always easing tension
from a religious aspect.
Acceptable?
Example—Student IN
“The relationship between cricket and politics are very
closely related form 1880 to 2005 in South Asia. The
game of cricket unites political rulers. Also, the world
of politics and the game of cricket can have their
differences in the relationship. I saw this because
cricket also has a relationship with cricket.”
NO
“The relationship between cricket and politics are very
closely related form 1880 to 2005 in South Asia. The
game of cricket unites political rulers. Also, the
world of politics and the game of cricket can have their
differences in the relationship. I saw this because
cricket also has a relationship with religion.”
*Does not use evidence from the documents.
Acceptable?
Student B
Cricket was a common ground for which India and
Great Britain met and often discussed politics.
YES
 Cricket was a common ground for which India and
Great Britain met and often discussed politics.
Evaluation (Groups)
 3 Groups
 Within the groups, the students “address or use” the
documents
 Support thesis with evidence from the documents
 Make sure it relates to the thesis or theme (in this
case, politics)
 Evaluating the documents-not grouping them
 State groups clearly, somewhere other than the
thesis.
Relate to thesis
*From CB
 Unity within South Asia or India
 Unity between South Asia/India and Great Britain
 Relaxing of religious tensions between Hindus and
Muslims
 Exacerbating religious tensions
 Breaking caste or ethnic barriers
 Development of Nationalism
Point of View
 More students are trying! *CB
 Relate to world historical context *CB
 Situate the author tone or perspective
 “Contextualization. POV requires students to contextualize
WHY someone would exaggerate, obfuscate, minimize,
deceive, etc. in a single document. In order to earn the POV
point the student has to "connect" some characteristic "in" the
words of the doc to the intangible context "surrounding" the
doc.” –Bill Strickland
POV
 Real life experiences
 Wanted/Hero posters
 How do I feel about? How do you feel about? How
do your parents feel about? How does the
administration feel about?





Prom
Snow Days
Homecoming—Assemblies!
Test
PRIDE passes
POV
 Who the author is
 Why the author is saying what they are saying
OR
 How they feel and why they feel that way
IN TERMS OF


Contextualization (World Context)
Theme and Event
POV Examples-Student 1A
Source: Cecil Headlam, English cricketer
and historian, Ten Thousand Miles
through India and Burma: An Account of
the Oxford University Cricket Tour, 1903.
“First the hunter, the missionary, and
the merchant, next the soldier and
the politician, and then the
cricketer—that is the history of
British colonization. And of these
civilizing influences, the last may,
perhaps, be said to do least harm.
Cricket unites the rulers and the
ruled. It also provides a moral
training, an education in pluck, and
nerve, and self-restraint, far more
valuable to the character of the
ordinary native than the mere
learning by heart of a play by
Shakespeare.”
Cricket gave a chance to
unite people and was not
only less harmful then any
other attempts but also
beneficial. Coming from
and English cricket
historian (who) it is
understandable how such a
point of view would favor
cricket (What/why) as a
means of easing civil
unrest.” (relate to
theme)
“
POV Examples—Student 1A
 Source: Prabhat Kumar
Mukhopadhyay, Indian writer and
supporter of the Natore XI cricket
club, article in a monthly
magazine, Calcutta, India, 1925–
1926.
“Whenever the Natore XI defeated
the European teams of Calcutta in
1914, our chests swelled with pride.
This is because this is the only arena
where we are allowed to compete on
even terms with the English. The
English have always ridiculed us as
“effete.” It is on the sporting field that
we may counter such false
allegations.”
 “The
rivalry atmosphere
that cricket caused
swelled up in the presence
of Indian victory. It is
clear how a nationalistic
(relate to theme) feel
the writer of document 6
felt as the Indians
victored over the English
(who) in the only thing
they were allowed to
compete in (why). This is
why cricket became a sort
of political ground.”
Additional Document
–Dean Ferguson, Chief Reader.
 Additional Document must contribute to answering
the specific prompt

In this case political relationship between cricket and South
Asia. (Theme/Thesis!)
 Conceive an additional document for each of their
prepared groups.

Paragraph can serve as justification for the new document.
Additional Document
 Missing Voice
 MUST relate to theme/thesis
 Relate to a group—DF—new to me this year.
 Simply “doing what you do”
 Who is speaking
 What they are saying (what would that document say if it were
included)
 Why the author would be saying what they are saying (POV).
 Why it would be helpful
Additional Document
Student 1A
“One from how a low-caste Indian feels (Who) about
cricket. By having a chance to read a low-caste
members perspective (what they would say) it
would give an outlook to how cricket really helped ease
or (or worsen) the lower members lives (What) giving
an entire picture of how everyone was effected (Why
helpful).”
Addition Document
Student 1 LOL
“An additional document that could be benefited to
portraying this (opening up trade relations) would be a
compendium of foreign sport/athletic companies who
export goods into India as well as cricket sponsors
(Who) who witness an increase in trade with India.
(Why) If such data was provided, it would most likely
renew a similar pattern to Nike or Coca Cola in the
modern world branching out into various countries
and improving trade relations.” (What)
Expanded Core
 Clear thesis
 Multiple POV analyses
 Strong additional documents
 4th group
 If you write a strong essay you will get expanded
core!
Change Over Time
 2.2 out of 9
 Aligned with a theme
 World Context
 Why did these events happen?
 Application of historical thinking skills
 Know your time, know your time, know your time…
Change Over Time
 Practice Often
 Timelines
 Flow Charts
 Changes in Periodization
 In isolation (ticket out the door)
 KBAT—Study guides
 Theme posters as a review of unit

How the theme changed throughout the unit
Change Over Time
Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks
between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 C.E. to
1450 C.E.
Thesis
*From the College Board
 The thesis accurately addresses and qualifies change
and continuity in trade networks between Africa
and Eurasia from circa 300 C.E. to 1450 C.E.
 The thesis must be explicitly stated in the
introduction or the specified conclusion of the essay.
 Can’t double-dip on the thesis.
Thesis
 Address the theme
 Underline it. Bold it.
 Note what it’s asking you to do.
 Circle it. Italicized.
 If you can only restate the prompt, then do so.
 Include a (specific) change within the topic.
(Historical Evidence)

It looked like this (point A/HE) and changed to this (point
B/HE).
 Include a (specific) continuity.
 This (HE) stayed the same.
Acceptable?
Student 1A
“Between 300 CE and 1450 CE, Africa became
increasingly interconnected with Eurasia. In 300
trade routes were mostly between Europe and the
North and they expanded southward and westward
until by 1450 they also encompassed sub-Saharan
Africa, west Africa and the Indian Ocean. However,
one thing stayed the same. The north coast was always
involved in the trade.”
YES
 “Between 300 CE and 1450 CE, Africa became
increasingly interconnected with Eurasia
(restate/theme addressed). In 300 trade routes
were mostly between Europe and the North (point
A/HE) and they expanded southward and
westward until by 1450 they also encompassed subSaharan Africa, west Africa and the Indian Ocean.
(point B/HE). However, one thing stayed the
same. The north coast was always involved in the
trade.”(continuity/HE)
Acceptable?
Student C
“There were many changes and continuities between
the trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from
300 to 1450 CE. A change in the trade networks was
the way that things traveled and were delivered and
the items traded, but why they were traded began to
stay the same.”
No
 “There were many changes and continuities between
the trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from
300 to 1450 CE. A change in the trade networks was
the way that things traveled and were delivered and
the items traded, but why they were traded began to
stay the same.”
Although it addresses changes and continuities there
is no historical evidence. Nor does it address topic—
between trade networks, although it uses the word.
Address all parts of the Question
*From the CB
For 2 points:
 The essay addresses both change and continuity in
trade networks between Africa and Eurasia in the
relevant time period.
For 1 point:
 The essay accurately addresses either change or
continuity in trade networks between Africa and
Eurasia in the relevant time period.
Address all parts of the Question
 Stay on theme
 Note what it’s asking you to do and answer the
question that’s there.


Changes in networks between, not comparing networks.
Everything should relate back to this!
 Address changes
 Minimum of 2-4
 Address continuities
 Minimum of 1-3
Addresses all parts of the Question
Student 2A
 “In 300 Afro-Eurasian trade was very limited. (COT-
between) There was some interaction with
Mediterranean cultures. Olives (HE) and other
European goods were traded for African commodities
such as such as spices and precious metals. (HE).
 Though many aspects of trade between Africa and
Eurasia changed between 300 and 1450, one stayed the
same. Northern Africa was always a key player. In 300
Northern Africa was the only player in African-Eurasian
trade as it traded with the Mediterranean as it does today
(CT) with Gold-Salt. (HE)
*paraphrased.
Historical Evidence
*From the CB
For 2 points:
 The essay provides a minimum of five pieces of
evidence that support discussion of change and/or
continuity in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia
within the time period.
 Evidence provides supporting examples.
For 1 point:
 The essay provides a minimum of three pieces of
evidence that support discussion of change and/or
continuity in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia
within the time period.
 Evidence provides supporting examples.
Historical Evidence
 Anything specific/fact/information/unique about the
topic.

Could be a name, date, specific example of topic
 Must relate to prompt.
 Must stay within time period.
 Write as if you are teaching someone about the topic.
Over explain.
 Timeline on self—Unique to you!


Tattoo (COT), Books (COT), Movies (COT)
Activities (CT)

Friends? Family? Food?
Historical Evidence
 Development and growth of Indian Ocean and trans-
Saharan Trade networks.
 Political and technological developments

Rome (collapse)
 Religion
 Islam to North Africa and Christianity into East Africa.
 Reference of goods (gold, salt, slaves, spices). Need
origin and diffusion of trade (theme!).

Each a HE point.
 Continuity of Africa’s involvement
Analysis
 The essay accurately describes change or continuity,
or both, in trade networks between Africa and
Eurasia across the majority of the time period. *CB
 Explanation of your address pt. A COT or CT.

Why did that event take place?
 We use real life examples often (bellringers). Break
ups/relations are a good prompt.

Their relationship started out like ____ and now it’s like
_____ and this is why_______.
Analysis
Student A
“In 300 Afro-Eurasian trade was very limited. (COTbetween) There was some interaction with
Mediterranean cultures. Olives (HE) and other
European goods were traded for African commodities
such as such as spices and precious metals. (HE) This
limited interaction was mostly due to the declining
Roman Empire. Southern Europe was facing internal
problems and therefore was not looking outward
towards trade routes with Africa.” (Analysis)
World Historical Context
 The essay accurately describes change or continuity,
or both, in trade networks between Africa and
Eurasia across the majority of the time period. *CB
 What is happening in the rest of the world to make
this theme/topic take place?


Think globally
Make sure it relates to thesis.
World Historical Context
Student A
“By the 800’s and 900’s, Europe had become more
stable and the Islamic Empire had risen in the Middle
East. Therefore, these regions were ready to trade.”
“As the global center of trade shifted away from the
Indian Ocean and Mediterranean to the Atlantic.
India under the Mughals was in decline and Europe
began it’s age of exploration.”
Expanded Core
 Clear thesis
 More than 3 changes or continuities.
 More than 5 pieces of historical evidence.
 More than 1 piece of analysis
 More than 1 piece of historical context.
 Write to me like I have never heard of this theme/event/topic.
 Over explain.
 More communication is better than less.
Comparative
 1.63 out of 9 points
 Read the prompt and know what specifically it is
asking you to address about the topic.




Rise of Empires
Demographic and environmental changes
Political and economic changes
Methods of political control
 Outline your essay based on prompt.
 Stay within time period
Comparative
 Have students ignore the historical event or place
and focus on prompt.

Underline, circle, rewrite
 Answer prompts on weekly quizzes (helps with
historical context too)
 Real life examples
how graduation this year compared to last year’s.
 Teach structure of essay
 Use specific language.
 Stay away from positive, negative, both etc.
Comparative
 Compare demographic and environmental effects of
the Columbian Exchange on the Americas with the
Columbian Exchange’s demographic and
environmental effects on ONE of the following
regions between 1492 and 1750.
Africa
Asia
Europe
Thesis
*From the College Board
 The thesis must include both a valid similarity and a
valid difference of the prompt

In this case demographic and environmental effects on the
Americas and another region.
 The thesis must be explicitly stated in the
introduction or the specified conclusion of the essay.
 Can’t double-dip on the thesis
Thesis
 Address the prompt.
 If you can only restate the prompt, then do so.
 Specifically state both regions/empires
 Include a specific comparison (Historical Evidence)
in regards to the prompt.

In this case, include two pieces of historical evidence. One
demographic comparison between the regions and one
environmental comparison between the regions.
 Include a specific contrast (Historical Evidence)
 Include two pieces of historical evidence. One demographic
and one environmental.
Acceptable?
Student A
“Between 1492 and 1750, Africa and America
experienced similarities in the introduction of new
crops, movement of natives and disease, while having
differences in shift of gender population, amount of
death, ethnicity change and environment.”
Yes
 “Between 1492 and 1750, Africa and America (Both
regions) experienced similarities in the
introduction of new crops, movement of natives and
disease, (Comparison-demographic HE and
environmental HE) while having differences in
shift of gender population, amount of death,
ethnicity change and environment.” (Contrast –
demographic HE and environmental HE)
Acceptable?
Student B
“Two conclude both regions had exchanged diseases,
deforestation, natural resources, with the region that
were a part in the Columbian exchange. However, the
Americas suffered greatly from the Columbian
exchange where as the Europeans were able to benefit
from the forced labor and goods and natural resources
they had received.”
No
 “Two conclude both regions had exchanged diseases,
deforestation, natural resources, with the region that
were a part in the Columbian exchange. However,
the Americas suffered greatly from the Columbian
exchange (Does not adequately address
differences-No HE) where as the Europeans were
able to benefit from the forced labor and goods and
natural resources they had received.”
Address all parts of the Question
*From the CB
For 2 points:
• Addresses at least one valid similarity AND one valid
difference in the effects on the Americas and on one other
region during the time period.
• Discusses the Americas and the other region but not
necessarily evenly.
For 1 point:
• Addresses at least one valid similarity OR at least one
valid difference in the effects on the Americas and on one
other region during the time period.
• Discusses the Americas and the other region but not
necessarily evenly.
Addresses all parts of the Question
 Stay on the topic of the prompt
 Demographic and Environmental
 Stay within time period
 Address appropriate regions
 Minimum of “4” addresses
 Address similarities
 Minimum of 3
 Address differences
 Minimum of 1
 Stay within time period
Historical Evidence
*From the CB
For 2 points:
• Must provide at least seven pieces of relevant and accurate
evidence related to demographic or environmental effects of the
Columbian Exchange.
• At least two pieces of evidence related to demographic or
environmental effects of Columbian Exchange must relate to the
non-American region.
For 1 point:
• Must provide at least four pieces of relevant and accurate
evidence related to demographic or environmental effects of the
Columbian Exchange.
• At least one piece of evidence related to demographic or
environmental effects of the Columbian Exchange must relate to
the non-American region.
Historical Evidence
 Anything specific/fact/information/unique
characteristic to the topic

Could be a name, date, specific example of topic
 Must relate to prompt
 Stay with time period
 Write as if I have never heard of the topic.
 Contests—boys V. girls
 Set a goal
Historical Evidence
 Environmental
 Changes in crops (each recognized could receive a point)
 Plantations
 Agricultural production
 Demographic
 Disease
 Population changes
 Mixed ethnicities (each recognized could receive a point)
Direct, relevant comparison
*From the CB
1 Point
 Makes at least ONE explicit, concrete, and factually
correct statement of similarity difference between
the effects of the Columbian Exchange in the two
regions.
 The statement must also be a comparison that is
different from the ones used to address a similarity
and a difference
Direct, relevant comparison
 Compares historical evidence within the same sub-
topic.
 Try to stay away from the word both and make a
more analytical comparison.
Direct, relevant comparison
Student 3AAA
“While the Europeans exported millions of slaves
(HE) from Africa to the Americans and exploited
them for labor, they did not import such a large
number to Europe.” (DC)
Analyzes at least one reason for similarity or
difference
*From the CB
 Analyzes at least one reason for a similarity or a
difference identified in a direct comparison
 Explains one effect of the Columbian Exchange
linked to a similarity or difference.
Analyzes at least one reason for similarity or
difference
 Explains the reason
 They both used/did _____ because_____. Very
elementary…but it works!
 Bellringers
 Why do Mrs. Foley and I both start class with bellringers?

Mrs. Conrad uses_____ (HE), and Mrs. Foley uses____ (HE)
because______....
 Ticket out the door
 Why did the Han and Roman empires both use centralization
as a means of control?
Analyzes at least one reason for similarity or
difference
“While the Europeans exported millions of slaves
(HE) from Africa to the Americans and exploited
them for labor, they did not import such a large
number to Europe. (DC) This was because the need
for labor was met by European natives who
developed their own land. This led to a minor
demographic change in Europe where any slaves that
were brought to Europe were the lowest class, but
actually changes the demographic dynamic of the
world by establishing the institution of slavery in the
Americas.” (AN)
Analyze
“…effects of the Columbian Exchange in both the
Americas and Europe include an increase in the overall
population of Europeans in both areas. (DC) This is a
similarity because due to the Columbian Exchange,
the population of Europeans went up in the Americas
as they moved there to its newly-formed colonies or to
conquer open land. Likewise, in Europe the exchange
brought about a large population increase due to
increased agricultural production, increased food
supply.” (AN)
Expanded Core
 Clear Thesis
 Consistent attempts at analysis
 Ample Historical evidence
 Several direct comparisons
* Can apply historical context.
Resources
 Bill Strickland – East Grand Rapids High School
 Schoology
 Blogs!
 Mrs. Pugh--Review
 Coach Roberts—Movies
 Paul Filio--Maps
 Facebook—AP World History Teachers – Closed
Group—Only 462 members

Kyle Meidell—Take the exam yourself
 Bridging World History, The Western Tradition, The
Millennium Series

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