A Sensorimotor Playgroup for Children with Autism

Report
A Sensorimotor Playgroup for Children with Autism
Paige Avchen, OTS, Alicia Gurecki, OTS, Kelsey Lavelle, OTS, Kimberly Mitar, OTS & Meagan Triplett, OTS
Faculty Mentor: Sarah Fabrizi, PhD OTR/L
Abstract
Methods & Materials
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research study is to determine if a sensorimotor playgroup
will affect playfulness, sensory processing, and social participation of four children aged 1536 months with ASD.
PRE- TEST
RESULTS: There was no significant effect (p> 0.05) on playfulness (F [1,1]= .638, p= .571),
social participation (F [2,2]= 6.48, p= .134), or sensory processing ( [2]= .933, p= .627)
from the sensorimotor playgroup.
CONCLUSION: Due to limitations in sample size and missing data, results from this study
have limited generalizability to inform on the use of playgroups in occupational therapy
intervention of young children with Autism.
Sensory Profile
30 minute Social Profile
15 minute ToP
Measured by
Description
Playfulness
Test of Playfulness
(ToP)
15 minute video of child during free play; observational assessment
Social
Social Profile
Participation
30 minute video of group during free play; observational assessment
Sensory
Processing
Caregiver questionnaire about child’s sensory processing
Infant/Toddler
Sensory Profile
• Four male participants, 18 to 37 months, were
recruited through Early Steps of Southwest Florida
• Inclusion Criteria:
• 15 months to 3 years of age
• Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)
classification of autism
• English speaking caregiver present at each session
• Informed consent was obtained from each caregiver
and child
10:15 – 10:45
Structured Play
10:45 – 10:55
Sensory Play
10:55 – 11:00
Circle Time
Session 1:
Jumping Skills
•
•
Hello Song
Listen & Move
Unstructured
Motor Play
7 Stations focused on jumping •
over, on, in, and down
•
Cars & Trucks
•
Musical Instruments •
Parachute
Goodbye Song
Session 2:
Prone Movements
•
•
Hello Song
Listen & Move
Unstructured
Motor Play
7 Stations focused on skills in
prone position
•
•
Cars & Trucks
•
Musical Instruments •
Parachute
Goodbye Song
Session 3:
Kicking and
Throwing
•
•
Hello Song
Listen & Move
Unstructured
Motor Play
7 Stations focused on kicking
and throwing (Sports theme)
•
•
Cars & Trucks
•
Musical Instruments •
Parachute
Goodbye Song
•
•
Hello Song
Listen &Move
Unstructured
Motor Play
7 Stations focused on climbing
•
up, down, on, over, and under
•
obstacles
Cars & Trucks
•
Musical Instruments •
Parachute
Goodbye Song
Session 5:
Sensory and
Balance
•
•
Hello Song
Listen & Move
Unstructured
Motor Play
7 Stations focused on balance •
and sensory activities
•
Cars & Trucks
•
Musical Instruments •
Parachute
Goodbye Song
Session 6:
Combination
•
•
Hello Song
Listen & Move
Unstructured
Motor Play
Stations consisting of a
combination of skills from
previous sessions
Cars & Trucks
•
Musical Instruments •
Parachute
Goodbye Song
Session 4:
Climbing
Participants
10:10 – 10:15
Unstructured
Motor Play
10:00 – 10:10
Circle Time
Intervention
Session
All children have the right to
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) benefit from being instructed how to play
via modeling of the parent; this will contribute to learning and social inclusion 2.
Sensory integration is essential to the child's ability to engage in play and maintain active
engagement 3,4.
Children who engage in playgroups on a regular basis experience improvements in:
sense of well being, enhanced cognition and behavior, improved self-confidence,
opportunity for social participation, and a sense of belonging and acceptance from their
peers 1.
•
4 weeks
without
playgroup
Sensory Profile
30 minute Social Profile
15 minute ToP
Intervention
play 5.
•
FOLLOW-UP
Variable
Introduction
•
•
POST- TEST
6 weekly
60 minute
intervention
sessions
Parent Questionnaire
Sensory Profile
30 minute Social Profile
15 minute ToP
METHOD: A quasi-experimental, pre-test/post-test repeated measures design was
implemented to examine three research questions:.
• Does the playgroup increase playfulness in the children (Test of Playfulness)?
• Does the playgroup influence sensory processing as reported by caregivers on the
Sensory Profile?
• Does the playgroup increase social participation in the children (Social Profile)
NO
INTERVENTION
SENSORIMOTOR
PLAYGROUP
•
•
Layout of Room
References
1Dadich, A., & Spooner, C. (2008). Evaluating playgroups: An examination of issues and options. The Australian Community Psychologist, 20(1), 95-104.
2Lifter, K., Mason, E., J., & Barton, E., E. (2011). Children’s play: Where we have been and where we could go. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 281-297. doi:10.1177/1053815111429465.
3Wieder, S. (1996). Integrated treatment approaches for young children with multisystem developmental disorder. Infants and Young Children, 8(3), 24–34.
4Williamson, G., & Anzalone, M. (1997). Sensory integration: A key component of the evaluation and treatment of young children with severe difficulties in relating and communicating. Zero to Three, 17(5), 29–36.
5United Nations High Commission for Human Rights. (1993). Fact Sheet No. 10 (Rev. 1), The rights of the child. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet10rev.1en.pdf.
Results
Playfulness (ToP)
Social Participation (Social Profile)
3.50
3.20
3.00
3.00
2.83
3.11
90
50
2.46
2.40
70
2.20
2.10
65
60
1.50
30
38
40
46
47
46
30
37.5
33.33
Pre-Test
Post-Test
Follow-Up
Child 4
24
27
30
24
20
15
Pre-Test
Post-Test
Child 1
Child 2
Follow-Up
Child 3
Child 4
Pre-Test
Post-Test
Sensory Sensitivity
Follow-Up
Sensation Avoiding
46
45
40
32
40
29
37
31
24
30
22
20
10
5
0
0
Sensation Seeking
44
10
5
Low Registration
51
50
15
10
0
44
20
10
0
Child 3
35
27
43
45
37
25
10
Child 2
40
20
0.50
Child 1
45
30
20
0.00
39
35
25
60
45
30
39
46.25
40
1.00
41
40
46
48
57.5
55
50
46
73.33
66.66
65
1.96
2.00
45
48
38
40
Child 4 (Sensory Processing)
Child 3 (Sensory Processing)
50
41
93.33
80
2.50
45
60
100
3.10
Child 2 (Sensory Processing)
Child 1 (Sensory Processing)
Low Registration
Sensation Seeking
Pre-Test
Sensory Sensitivity
Follow-Up
Sensation Avoiding
0
Low Registration
Sensation Seeking
Pre-Test
Sensory Sensitivity
Follow-Up
Sensation Avoiding
Low Registration
Sensation Seeking
Pre-Test
Sensory Sensitivity
Follow-Up
Sensation Avoiding

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