Autism Strategies

Report
Autism Strategies
Requirements From
Texas Administrative Code
89.1055 e 1-11
Janis McClure, MA LPC
Region 8 ESC
Vision and Mission of Region 8
ESC8 Vision Statement
It is the vision of Region 8 Education Service Center to create a state-wide systemic
culture to sustain a high performing learning community.
ESC8 Mission Statement
It is the mission of Region 8 Education Service Center to create a partnership among all
stakeholders by providing quality services to cultivate Level 5 Leaders that will prepare
students to cope with the challenges of the future.
Purpose of Webinar
• To give participants an overview of the
11 strategies required by TAC 89.1055 e
1-11.
• Give resources
• Each district will have to decide how to
implement strategies based on
assessment of individual student need.
11 Strategies
• Added 2007
• Found at TAC 89.1055 (e) (1-11)
• http://www.txautism.net/docs/rules_sidebyside.
pdf Rule/Guidance document from TEA found at
• Texas Statewide Leadership for Autism
homepage click on link for Commissioner’s Rule.
• www.txautism.net
Before we start
• Not every student will need every strategy
• Based on assessment of individual student
need. Data must support the need for the
service.
• Based on current IEP goals/objectives
• Some over-lapping of areas.
TAC 89.1055
• For students eligible under §89.1040(c)(1) of
this title (relating to Eligibility Criteria), the
strategies described in paragraphs (1)-(11) of
this subsection shall be considered, based on
peer-reviewed, research-based educational
programming practices to the extent
practicable and, when needed, addressed in
the IEP.
TAC 89.1040 (c) (1)
Defines eligibility for autism and states that
students with pervasive developmental
disorders are included in this category.
Pervasive developmental disorders include:
Autism, Asperger’s, Rett’s Syndrome, Childhood
Disintegrative Disorder and Pervasive
Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise
Specified (PDD-NOS).
Area is not neededReference 89.1055 (f)
• When the ARD committee determines that
services are not needed in one or more of the
areas specified in 89.1055(e)(1)-(11), the ARD
committee must include in the IEP a statement
indicating that the services are not needed and
the basis upon which the determination was
made. The statement may address the services
collectively or individually. An ARD committee
may wish to include specific examples of a
student’s current level of competency when
addressing services. (TEA Guidance Document)
Area not needed
• “Service is not needed at this time.” Not a
sufficient explanation of why a service is not
needed.
• Why is service (strategy) not needed? Based
on what data? Is the student making
reasonable progress toward IEP goals without
service? How do you know?
Evidenced-Based Practices
• Evidence -Based Practices Briefs http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs.The National
Professional Development Center (NPDC) on ASD has
developed Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Briefs for 24
identified evidence based practices. Each brief contains: an
overview, which gives a general description of the practice and
how it can be used with learners with ASD; explicit step-bystep directions detailing exactly how to implement a practice,
based on the research articles identified in the evidence base;
an implementation checklist which offers a way to document
the degree to which practitioners are following the directions
for implementation; and the list of references (evidence base)
that demonstrate that the practices is efficacious and meets
the NPDC’s criteria for being identified as an evidence-based
practice. Also some briefs include supplemental materials such
as data collection sheets. ( From Texas Statewide Leadership
for Autism Homepage-Resources)
OVERVIEW OF THE 11 STRATEGIES
(1) Extended Educational Programming
• extended educational programming (for
example: extended day and/or extended
school year services that consider the duration
of programs/settings based on assessment of
behavior, social skills, communication,
academics, and self-help skills);
• (TAC 89.1055 e-1)
Extended School Year
• Extended Educational Programming can
include ESY , but is more than ESY.
• ESY based on regression/recoupment and
must meet specific criteria. (see handout ESY)
• An ARD committee MAY, based on student
need, extend the school year with or without
ESY services.
Example Extended Year
• A student did not qualify for ESY services, but
based on assessments of communication and
social skills, ARD committee decides the
student needs to continue to work on IEP
goals of appropriate conversation and
mealtime behaviors with a variety of people
across settings. District provides
transportation to their community summer
lunch program where a staff member works
with student on specific skills during lunch
times 3x per week.
Extended School Day Example
• High school student with Asperger’s needs
socials skills instruction as determined by
assessment. However, this student is on
“distinguished” graduation plan and does not
have an open period. The staff develop 15
minute social skills lessons delivered at the
end of each school day. This is agreeable to
the student.
Before extending the day or year
• Consider other options such as tutoring,
adding related service, changing
instructional setting, adding staff
support, class with lower staff/student
ratio, peer coaching, in-home training,
etc. If data shows progress with
additional supports extension of the day
or year may not be needed.
(2) Daily Schedules
• daily schedules reflecting minimal
unstructured time and active engagement in
learning activities (for example: lunch, snack,
and recess periods that provide flexibility
within routines; adapt to individual skill levels;
and assist with schedule changes, such as
changes involving substitute teachers and pep
rallies); (TAC 89.1055 e-2)
Schedules
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The student’s schedule not staffs’
Intended to be actively used by student
Reflect active learning
Teach independence
Teach flexibility
Help with transitions/changes
Specific to individual student
Visual Schedule
Visual Schedule
Resources
• www.ocali.org autism internet modules
• Online module on visual schedules
• Calendars for Students with Multiple
Impairments including Deaf Blindness- by
Robbie Blaha- Texas School for the Blind and
Visually Impaired-concrete objects
Not Needed?
• Can the student use the same schedule as
everyone else with no problems including
when change occurs?
• Is a staff person “leading” the student
around?
• If the student is having problems with
transitions, probably needs a schedule.
(3) In-Home, Community Training
• in-home and community-based training or
viable alternatives that assist the student with
acquisition of social/behavioral skills (for
example: strategies that facilitate
maintenance and generalization of such skills
from home to school, school to home, home
to community, and school to community);
(TAC 89.1055 e-3)
In-Home/Community Based
• Direct services with the student at home, in
the community or “viable alternative”.
• Viable Alternative might be daycare,
recreation center, church, grandma’s houseviable alternative not clearly defined in law or
guidance document.
What is the purpose of in-home and
community-based training ?
• A student with autism may have difficulty
generalizing skills from one environment to
another. In-home/community-based training
is an option an ARD committee may choose
for a student with autism in order for the
student to learn or reinforce social skills in a
variety of settings. ( TEA Guidance
Document)
Level of Learning
Level of Learning
Staff/Student
Prompting
Reinforcement
1. Acquisition-new
learning
Close supervision
and teaching; small
group or 1-1
Heavy prompting
with verbal,
gestural and
physical prompts
High rate of
reinforcement
given
2. Fluency
Amount of needed
supervision
decreasing; teacher
able to walk away
Prompting still
needed but not as
heavy
Reinforcement rate
gradually deceasing
3. Maintenance
Student
Minimal prompts
independent;
needed
minimal supervision “reminders”
for task
Reinforcement
intermittent
4. Generalization
Student
independent
Looks like everyone
else
No prompting
needed
Example
• Acquisition- student is learning to sign- needs
lots of repetition, small staff/student ratio, high
level of feedback and reinforcement.
• Fluency- student is learning more signs, signs are
coming more easily, reinforcement still needed
consistently, prompting and correction still
needed but at lower rate.
• Maintenance- student uses known signs easily,
may require minor help, independent with signs
• Generalization-student signs with variety of
people in a variety of settings, uses signs as
needed without prompting.
Resource
Autism and ABA: A "How-To" Handbook for
Teachers by
• Autism In Action by Dr. Beverly Braman (BCBAD) and Dr. Susan Catlett (BCBA-D).
In-Home
• Based on needs assessment
• Duty of the school, if there is a documented
need, to offer a plan.
• Based on ALL current IEP goals.
• Parents have the right to decline in-home
even if there is a documented need.
(4)Positive Behavior Supports
• Positive behavior support strategies based on
relevant information, for example: A. antecedent
manipulation, replacement behaviors,
reinforcement strategies, and data-based
decisions; and B. a Behavior Intervention Plan
developed from a Functional Behavioral
Assessment that uses current data related to
target behaviors and addresses behavioral
programming across home, school, and
community-based settings; (TAC 89.1055 e-4)
The “ABC”
Antecedent Manipulation
Replacement Behaviors
Reinforcement Strategies
/Consequences
Changing the “BEFORE”
Teaching a new Behavior
Changing the “AFTER”
Changing something to
keep the behavior from
occurring in the first place
such as using a visual
schedule so the student
can predict when he will
get computer time thus
preventing frustration
because he can’t have
computer all the time.
You don’t want the student
to blurt out but raise his
hand. Actively teaching a
student a new behavior
that will get the student
the same thing, but in a
more appropriate way.
Reinforcing appropriate
behavior you want to see
with something the
student actually likesmaking sure we aren’t
reinforcing negative
behavior that maintain that
negative behavior.
Key Elements of PBS
• The key features of PBS, as identified by a pioneer
in the field George Sugai, include :
• A prevention-focused continuum of support
• Proactive instructional approaches to teaching
and improving social behaviors
• Conceptually sound and empirically validated
practices
• Systems change to support effective practices
• Data-based decision making.
So What Are these
“Conceptually sound and
empirically validated practices”?
The list that follows is not
exhaustive, just examples.
Examples
•
•
•
•
•
•
Antecedent Manipulation
Teaching Replacement Behaviors
Reinforcement Strategies
Identifying maintaining consequences
Data based decisions
Functional Behavior Assessment
Resources
• OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive
Behavioral Interventions and Supports
• www.pbis.org
• Evidence -Based Practices Briefs http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs
.The National Professional Development
Center (NPDC) on ASD has developed
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) Briefs for 24
identified evidence based practices.
Resources
• Texas PBIS Project Resources Link
• http://www.txbehaviorsupport.org/default.a
spx?name=usefullinks
• Texas Statewide Leadership for AutismTARGET Document and online Behavior
Module
• www.txautism.net
So this means…..
• That if a student has challenging behaviors
that are interfering with learning, an ARD
committee may need to consider developing a
behavior intervention plan, based on a
functional behavior assessment composed of
relevant, current data. The plan should
include positive behavior supports
individualized for that student.
(5) Futures Planning
• §89.1055(e)(5)
– beginning at any age, consistent with
subsections (g) of this section, futures
planning for integrated living, work,
community, and educational
environments that considers skills
necessary to function in current and
post-secondary environments;...
Subsection (g) Transition
§89.1055(g) Content of the IEP
For each student with a disability,
beginning at age 16 (prior to the date on
which a student turns 16 years of age) or
younger, if determined appropriate by the
ARD committee, the following issues must
be considered in the development of the
IEP, and if appropriate, integrated into the
IEP... ( In 2011 TEC 29.0111/ 29.011
Amended age 16 to 14)
The Fitting Together
Futures Planning
becomes the
Transition Plan
at age 14 in Texas.
So what is the difference?
• The transition plan has nine areas that must be
addressed and must begin for all students
with disabilities by age 14 in Texas. The ARDC
can decide to begin transition earlier if needed.
 Futures Planning is a requirement unique to the
autism eligibility in Texas and can begin at any
age. There are four areas specifically mentioned
in rule.
Consider the Four Areas
•
•
•
•
•
Integrated Living
Work
Community
Educational Environments
Where is the student now in regard to these
areas? Where do you want the student to be
at the end of elementary, jr. high, high school
in each area? What is the final goal?
Futures Planning
• Driven by the family and student
• Futures Planning becomes the transition plan
at age 14 in Texas.
• Is there ever a time this is not needed?
Stating the student is “too young” is not a
valid reason to mark this strategy as “not
needed”.
Resources
• Texas Statewide Leadership for Autism
Futures Planning online module
• www.txautism.net
• Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence
• Social Supports for Transition Aged Individuals and
Employee with Autism online modules
• www.ocali.org
Resources
• Texas Transition Network
http://www.transitionintexas.org/Page/1
• Indiana Resource Center for Autism
“I Wake Up for MY Dream!” Personal Futures
Planning Circles of Support, MAPS and PATH
http://www.iidc.indiana.edu/?pageId=422
Begin with the End in Mind.
(6) Parent/Family Training and
Support
• parent/family training and support,
provided by qualified personnel with
experience in Autism Spectrum Disorders
(ASD), that, for example:
• A. provides a family with skills necessary
for a child to succeed in the
home/community setting;
• includes information regarding resources (for
example: parent support groups, workshops,
videos, conferences, and materials designed
to increase parent knowledge of specific
teaching/management techniques related to
the child's curriculum); and …
• facilitates parental carryover of in-home
training (for example: strategies for behavior
management and developing structured home
environments and/or communication training
so that parents are active participants in
promoting the continuity of interventions
across all settings); TAC 89.1055 e-6
What does this mean?
• Schools should provide information and local
resources to families to increase knowledge of
strategies that relate to child’s IEP and help
foster continuity and generalization of skills
across settings.
• Variety of methods of parent training available
• Staff responsible for parent training needs to
be experienced in the area of autism.
• Based on individual need
• Need assessment of some kind to help
determine parent/family training needs.
• Parents/families have the right to decline even
if a need has been identified.
(7) Staff to Student Ratio
• suitable staff-to-student ratio appropriate to
identified activities and as needed to achieve
social/behavioral progress based on the child's
developmental and learning level (acquisition,
fluency, maintenance, generalization) that
encourages work towards individual
independence as determined by, for example: A.
adaptive behavior evaluation results; B.
behavioral accommodation needs across settings;
and C. transitions within the school day;
TAC89.1055 e-7
Determining Ratio
• What is the learning level of the child for the
activity given?
• How independent is the child?
• What is the developmental level of the child?
• How intensive does the instruction need to be
for the child to make progress on IEP?
• How much supervision does the child need to
be safe?
Level of Learning
Level of Learning
Staff/Student
Prompting
Reinforcement
1. Acquisition-new
learning
Close supervision
and teaching; small
group or 1-1
Heavy prompting
with verbal,
gestural and
physical prompts
High rate of
reinforcement
given
2. Fluency
Amount of needed
supervision
decreasing; teacher
able to walk away
Prompting still
needed but not as
heavy
Reinforcement rate
gradually deceasing
3. Maintenance
Student
Minimal prompts
independent;
needed
minimal supervision “reminders”
for task
Reinforcement
intermittent
4. Generalization
Student
independent
Looks like everyone
else
No prompting
needed
Staffing
• Staff ratios can vary depending on the activity,
number of children, task, etc.
• For example a student may be able to
participate in circle time with entire class
(2:15), but need small group instruction
(1:2-4 ) for literacy and (1:1) for
communication training.
(8) Communication
• communication interventions, including
language forms and functions that enhance
effective communication across settings (for
example: augmentative, incidental, and
naturalistic teaching);
• TAC 89.1055 e-8
Form and Function
• Form- How a student communicates
• Verbal, picture exchange, voice out-put
device, sign language, using behavior…
• Function-What is the student trying to
communicate
• Request something, telling you “no”,
commenting, frustration, trying to get
information, start a conversation…
Communication
• Not just about articulation
• Communication includes the ability to use
language functionally when needed and in
social contexts.
• Intent is for students to have effective
communication “across settings”.
Communication is taught across settings and
people.
Importance of Communication
to Carly
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vNZVV4Ci
ccg&feature=related
• Time 9.5 minutes.
What forms of communication did Carly use?
Resources
• Many assessments SLPs use to determine
need.
• Assessment of Basic Language and Learning
Skills. (ABLLS-R) Partington
• The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment
and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) Sundberg
• Educating Students with Autism Webber and
Scheuermann-chapter 9
• Texas Statewide Leadership for Autism
www.txautism.net TARGET Document Evaluation
section- under Speech Language
Texas Assistive Technology Network
http://www.texasat.net/
10 apps for students with autism
http://www.b12patch.com/blog/autism/10-greatipad-apps-for-autistic-children/
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGU1ELjS
7bQ&feature=related
• On U-Tube presentation on using I-PAD apps
with disabled children 59.0 minutes.
(9) Social Skills
• social skills supports and strategies based
on social skills assessment/curriculum
and provided across settings (for
example: trained peer facilitators (e.g.,
circle of friends), video modeling, social
stories, and role playing);
• TAC 89.1055 e-9
What does it mean?
• Lack of appropriate social skills is a
key feature of autism spectrum
disorders.
• Assess, make a plan, and actively
teach social skills across the day.
• May overlap with behavior(4) and
communication (8).
Resources
• Apps for Autism
• http://itunes.apple.com/au/app/autismapps/id441600681?mt=8
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ly71oA2rrhA
• The iPad app in this video was developed for a
MicroSpark-funded project to explore the use of our
interactive robot, Popchilla, as an autism therapy tool.
The iPad app was designed to let users guide Popchilla
through a variety of activities that help children with
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) practice their social
referencing skills.
Resources
www.ocali.org various online social
skills modules such as, “The Incredible
5 Point Scale”, peer mediated learning
and more.
www.txautism.net training module on
social skills.
Assessments Resources
• TARGET Document Evaluation- Social Skills
• http://www.txautism.net/docs/Guide/Evaluation/
SocialRelationship.pdf
• Jed Baker -Social Skills Training and Preparing for
Life
• Michelle Gracia-Winner- Thinking About You and
Thinking About Me.
(10) Professional Support
• professional educator/staff support (for
example: training provided to personnel who
work with the student to assure the correct
implementation of techniques and strategies
described in the IEP);
TAC 89.1055 e-10
TEA Guidance Document
• Will schools provide training for personnel
working with students with autism?
• Schools are responsible for training teachers
and paraprofessionals to effectively
implement programs for students with autism.
Training may include a foundation of
scientifically-based research
interventions/strategies.
What does it mean?
• Training is available at many online resources
• Training is ongoing
• Training can include book studies, reading
articles online, in-house training, conferences,
ESC trainings, online modules…
• Teachers/Staff need to keep up with all
documentation of training completed.
(11) Teaching Strategies
• Teaching strategies based on peer reviewed,
research-based practices for students with
ASD (for example: those associated with
discrete-trial training, visual supports, applied
behavior analysis, structured learning,
augmentative communication, or social skills
training).
This means…
• There are many strategies available to teach
students with autism.
• Strategies are based on individual need
determined by assessment
• Evidence -Based Practices Briefs http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs
.The National Professional Development
Center (NPDC)
National Professional Development Center
24 Evidenced Based Briefs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Antecedent-Based Interventions
(ABI)
Computer-Aided Instruction
Differential Reinforcement
Discrete Trial Training
Extinction
Functional Behavior Assessment
Functional Communication Training
Naturalistic Intervention
Parent-Implemented Intervention
Peer-Mediated Instruction and
Intervention
Picture Exchange Communication
System (PECS)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pivotal Response Training
Prompting
Reinforcement
Response Interruption/Redirection
Self-Management
Social Narratives
Social Skills Groups
Speech Generating Devices/VOCA
Structured Work Systems
Task Analysis
Time Delay
Video Modeling
Visual Supports
What it means…
• Take data- is what you are doing working?
• Be ready to change a strategy if it is not
working-be flexible.
• If there is a particular strategy that is needed
for the student, train staff to use the strategy
appropriately. (10)
Summary
• Not all students will need all strategies
• There is no “one size fits all” approach-based
on individual need.
• Strategies do overlap
• All decisions should be data driven-even the
decision to not address a strategy in the IEP.
Thank You
“I cannot emphasize enough the
importance of a good teacher.”
• Dr. Temple Grandin
To Obtain CEU Credit
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Complete registration and evaluation forms
Complete the training assessment
Send all 3 forms- via email, fax, or snail mail to:
Region 8 ESC
Attn: Janis McClure
PO Box 1894, Mt. Pleasant, TX 75456
[email protected]
Fax: 903-575-2712

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