PowerPoint - Wisconsin PBIS Network

Report
Functional Behavior Assessment
Daniel Parker
Autism and Family Engagement
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
Dave Kunelius
State-wide Trainer, Regional Technical Assistance Coordinator
Wisconsin PBIS Network
Introduction
• Housekeeping
• Terms
• Goals for Today
• Assumptions
• What it Looks Like
Speaker Profiles
Daniel Parker
As Autism and Family Engagement Consultant for the WI
Department of Public Instruction, Daniel provides autism related
professional development across the state of Wisconsin. He has a
unique blend of home based, general and special education
teaching, and administrative background at the school, district, and
statewide levels with a focus on data, applied behavior analysis,
social peer mediated interventions, and the use of technology in
teaching. Daniel works closely with WSPEI and other statewide
parent organizations to supports families and educators with efforts
to improve family engagement activities and outcomes for students
with disabilities.
Daniel received a Masters Degree in Human and Development and
Family Life and a Masters Degree in Special Education both from
the University of Kansas. He has a wife, Sarah, a cat, Lily, and the
cutest dog in the world, ZuZu.
Speaker Profiles
Dave Kunelius
Dave has been supporting the use of positive behavior
interventions and supports across the state for the last 15 years as
a behavioral specialist and previous to that was was a teacher for
students with Emotional-Behavioral Disabilities. In addition to his
role as PBIS Coordinator, he is also a local Special Education
Director and a WI PBIS Trainer.
Dave and his family of 4 children and their Labradoodle, Rocket,
live in the beautiful Northwoods of Wisconsin. They enjoy being
involved in community organizations that support youth, travelling,
family activities and enjoying the great outdoors.
Quick Poll
Who is Here Today?
a) Family Member
b) Administrator
c) General Educator
d) Special Educator
e) Student Support/Pupil Services
f) Other Professional
Presentation Goals
Today you walk away with …
• Importance of Using Functional Behavior
Assessments (FBAs) and Developing Meaningful
Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs)
• Suggestions and Considerations when Developing
FBAs / BIPs
• Frameworks for Developing FBAs
• Review Steps for Implementation
• Resources for Further Study
Terms Used Today
• BIP = Behavior Intervention Plan
• EBP = Evidence Based Practice
• FBA = Functional Behavior Assessment
• IEP = Individualized Education Program
• PBIS = Positive Behavior Interventions and
Supports
• RTI = Response to Intervention
• UDL = Universal Design for Learning
Terms Used Today
• ABC’s = Describes the chain of events before
(antecedent), during (behavior) and after
(consequences) in a period of time.
• Antecedent = What Happens Before a Behavior
• Behavior = Any Action or Non-Action in a Period
of Time
• Consequence = What Happens After a Behavior
• Competing Pathways = A Model For Thinking
about and Creating BIPs
Terms Used in Workshop
• Reinforcement describes a relationship
between learner behavior and a consequence
that follows the behavior. This relationship is
only considered reinforcement if the
consequence increases the probability that a
given behavior will occur in the future, or at least
be maintained.
• Positive reinforcement refers to the
presentation of a reinforcer after a learner uses
a target behavior that increases the likelihood
the learner will use the target behavior again.
Terms Used in Workshop
• Negative Reinforcement: The removal of a
stimulus immediately following a behavior
increases the likelihood that the behavior will
occur again under similar stimulus conditions.
(This is NOT punishment, most people like it)
• Extinction: A procedure used in applied
behavior in which reinforcement of a previously
reinforced behavior is discontinued. Extinction
requires consistency to be effective.
Terms Used Today
• Fading: The systematic process of gradually reducing or
eliminating an instructional prompt.
• Modeling: Demonstrating the action or skill you would like
the learner to display.
• Prompt: Prompts are any help given to learners that assist
them in using specific skills. Prompts are generally given by
an adult or peer before or as a learner attempts to use a skill.
Prompts can be verbal, gestural, or physical in nature.
• Shaping: A process of systematically and differentially
reinforcing successive approximations to the whole behavior.
Terms Used Today
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA): Functional
behavior assessment (FBA) is a systematic set of
strategies that is used to determine the underlying function
or purpose of a behavior, so that an effective intervention
plan can be developed. FBA consists of describing the
interfering or problem behavior, identifying antecedent or
consequent events that control the behavior, developing a
hypothesis of the behavior, and testing the hypothesis.
Data collection is an important part of the FBA process.
Often, teachers/practitioners use functional
communication training (FCT), differential reinforcement,
response interruption/redirection, extinction, and stimulus
control/environmental modification to address these
behaviors in learners with ASD.
Definition Adapted from National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders:
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/functional-behavior-assessment
Terms Used Today
Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP): A
Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) is often
developed after a Functional Behavior
Assessment has been conducted. The BIP
outlines the antecedent and consequence
focused interventions that will assist the
learner to improve in more skillful behavior.
BIPs often outline who, what, when, where,
and how the interventions take place.
Quick Poll
Why are you attending FBA webinar today?
a) Improve skills and get new ideas /
systems to implement FBAs.
b) To reflect and improve fidelity of use of
FBAs.
c) Better connect FBAs to BIPs.
d) General interest in improving strategies
for students / child?
Assumptions
Our Presenters Have the Following Assumptions
• Presume Competence about Student Abilities
– Students at all levels have the ability to learn new
skills
• Common Goal to Assist Students to become
more Skillful and Independent
• Basic Understanding of the Need for Both
Clear Consequences and Antecedent
Interventions (e.g., Teaching)
Assumptions
•
Problem Behaviors ARE Adaptive
Responses to the Environment –
Just not Acceptable Ones
•
Sometimes Adaptive becomes
Maladaptive
Assumptions about “Behavior”
•
“Differences” vs. “Deficits”
•
“Skillful and Unskillful” vs. “Good and Bad”
•
Teaching vs. Telling
Review
• Evidence Based Practices
(EBPs)
• NPDC-ASD and AIM
• Needs of Students on the
Autism Spectrum
Review of Evidence Based Practices
• Several Sources Discuss Evidence Based
Practices
• All Strategies Discussed Today Have
Several Years of Research and Proven
Effectiveness
NPDC-ASD Criteria for ASD
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs
•
•
•
•
•
Antecedent-based interventions
Computer-aided instruction
Differential reinforcement
Discrete trial training
Extinction
• *Functional behavior
assessment
•
•
•
•
•
Functional communication training
Naturalistic interventions
Parent-implemented intervention
Peer-mediated
instruction/intervention
Picture Exchange Communication
System
*These modules are not yet on AIM
•
•
•
•
•
Pivotal response training
Prompting
Reinforcement
Response interruption/redirection
Self-management
• Social narratives
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Social skills training groups
Speech generating devices
Structured work systems
Task analysis
Time delay
*Video modeling
Visual supports
NPDC-ASD
Evidence-Based Practice Briefs
• All Briefs Contain:
– Evidence Base
– Overview
– Steps for Implementation
– Fidelity Implementation Checklist
NPDC-ASD Criteria for ASD
• Important to note: Even when a specific
evidence based practice may be effective,
the design, layout, format, presentation,
and other details of the practice should be
designed to fit the individual needs of
each learner.
Consider Student’s Basic Needs
• Ability to Protest (Break Cards)
• Access to Communication System(s)
• Access to General Education Curriculum and Peers
• Adults Attributions (impairment or behavior)
• Adult Expectations
(predestination vs. predetermination)
Consider Student’s Basic Needs
•
Choices in Day
•
Culture and History of Student
•
Curriculum is Meaningful, Motivating and Engaging
•
Relationships with Care Givers
•
Sensory and Movement Regulation
•
Visual Supports, Schedules, and Boundaries
(for day and specific activities)
Think about how kids with behaviors that
interfere with learning are built
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Traditional Behavior
Interventions
• Reasoning
• Verbal Reprimand
– Hurry Up!
– You Need to Get Ready To . . . !
– You know what to do!
• Time Out or Reduced Access
• Suspension / Expulsion
When We Are Faced with Behaviors
that Interfere with Learning
We have the choice to . . .
1)
2)
3)
4)
Ignore or Do Very Little
Use Traditional Behavior Interventions
Use PBIS and EBP
Use PBIS and EBP with Fidelity
Introduction to
FBAs
• Definitions
• Research Base
• Connections to
Students on the Autism
Spectrum
• Why we Like FBAs
• Settings and
Resources
Functional Behavior Assessment
(FBA)
Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is a systematic set
of strategies that is used to determine the underlying
function or purpose of a behavior, so that an effective
intervention plan can be developed. FBA consists of
describing the interfering or problem behavior, identifying
antecedent or consequent events that control the
behavior, developing a hypothesis of the behavior, and
testing the hypothesis. Data collection is an important part
of the FBA process. Often, teachers/practitioners use
functional communication training (FCT), differential
reinforcement, response interruption/redirection,
extinction, and stimulus control/environmental modification
to address these behaviors in learners with autism.
Definition Adapted from National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders:
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/functional-behavior-assessment
Functional Behavior Assessment
• FBA is a continuous process
(not a one-time event) for identifying,
(1) the purpose or function of the behavior,
(2) the variables that influence the
behavior, and
(3) components of an effective behavioral
intervention plan (BIP)
* From WI DPI Bulletin 07-01: http://sped.dpi.wi.gov/sped_bul07-01#q5
Common FBA Qualities
Most Functional Behavior Assessments are
Looking for Patterns
•
•
•
•
•
When Does the Behavior Occur?
Who Does the Behavior Occur with?
For How Long does the Behavior Occur?
What Happens Before Behavior? (antecedent)
What Happens After Behavior? (consequence)
Form versus Function
• Most of us Think of Problem Behaviors by
their Form (e.g., hitting)
• The Function of a Problem Behavior can
be Very Different (e.g., young love)
• MUST Look Beyond Intention
(e.g., lecture)
• It is no More or Less than a Different way
of Thinking About/Interpreting Behavior
35
Common FBA Qualities
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Goal of Many FBA’s is to
Seek Function in Terms of:
Attention
Access to Object or Activity
Escape / Avoidance
Automatic Reinforcement
Power or Control
Imitation (TV, peer pressure, etc)
Self Protection (feels threatened)
Self Esteem
Difference Between Functional Analysis and
Functional Assessment
• Functional (Behavioral) Assessment:
– Based on information collected from others
– Based on direct observation in everyday
environment
• Functional Analysis:
– Based on manipulating conditions in the
natural or clinical environment
– Also Called Analog or Experimental FA
37
Why We Like
FBAs
•
•
•
•
Gives Us a Framework for Problem Solving
Can be a Great Collaborative Approach
Uses Data to Inform Instructional Decisions
Assists Students to become More Skillful
Learners
• Can be Useful in Many Ways!
FBAs and
Needs of Students with Autism
• FBAs can Assist Students with . . .
– Sensory / Movement Needs
– Basic Communication
– Social Communication
– Transitions
– Understanding Meaning of Activities
FBAs and
Needs of Students with Autism
• Easier with External, High-Frequency
Behaviors
• More Difficult with low-frequency or
internalizing behaviors (e.g., depression,
suicidal thoughts)
Some Resources
Used to Implement FBAs
• Data Collection Forms
• Medical Evaluations / Health
History
• Observations
• Perspectives and Data from
Multiple Team Members
Some Resources
Used to Implement FBAs
•
•
•
•
•
•
Record Review (IEP / Evaluations)
Brief Questionnaires
Stress Surveys
Reinforcement Inventories
Preference Assessments
Surveys and Interviews
• Functional Behavior
Assessment
Interviews
— Families
— Educators
— Providers
— Students
Functional Assessment Interview Tools
• Medical Evaluation/Health History
• Record Review (IEP, evaluations)
• Brief Questionnaires
– Motivation Assessment Scale
– Questions About Behavioral Function
– Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers
and Staff
• Interviews– Teacher, Parent, and Student
44
In Addition to ABC or Competing Pathways,
Many FBA’s Have Some Type of
Functional Assessment Interview Form
that Can be Completed by:
•
•
•
•
Educators
Professionals
Parent
Student
Resources Required
to Implement FBAs
• Someone to Follow up with Fidelity of
Implementation
— Step by Step Instructions
— Implementation Checklists
Student Considerations when
Using FBAs
• Consider Underlying Intellectual and
Social Challenges
• Consider Including the Student in
Discussions of “Behavior” and when
Developing Behavior Intervention Plans
Settings to Use FBAs
• Any Settings
– Indoor and outdoor
– School, Home, Community
– Across Adults and Activities
When Should an FBA be Used?
• When Behavior Interferes with Learning
• When Behavior is Harmful
• When Behavior Interferes with Relationships
• When Behavior is of a Concern and Appears
for “No Reason”
Compliance and FBA / BIP
• Understand
Compliance and
Best Practice
IEP Development
Behavior Considerations
•
If Behavior Interferes with Learning then . . .
– IDEA Regulation: “consider use of positive
interventions and supports.”
– Best Practice: Develop a Functional Behavior
Assessment (FBA) and Behavior Intervention
Plan (BIP)
Compliance Requirements for FBA
•
FBA is Required if Seclusion / Restraint is Used
•
Data for Evaluations (FBA required)
– When a disciplinary change of placement occurs and
behavior is a manifest of the disability
– Additional tests or evaluations are part of the FBA
– Determining eligibility or nature and extent of the
special education and related services
– Refer to DPI bulletin 07.01 http://sped.dpi.wi.gov/sped_bul07-01#q5
•
Requires Parent Consent
Is Conducting an FBA Part of an
Evaluation?
The IEP Team determines if the FBA is
necessary as part of the evaluation in order
to determine whether the child has a
disability or the extent of special education
and related services that are needed. If the
IEP Team determines the FBA is part of the
evaluation, parent consent must be obtained,
as is the case for all data collected in the
evaluation process.
Best Practice Considerations
for FBA
• Data for Monitoring Progress (optional)
– is collected as a service specified in the student's
IEP
– is part of ongoing classroom observation and
assessment conducted in the normal course of the
student's program
– is part of ongoing review of the effectiveness of
the behavioral intervention plan (BIP) included in
the student's IEP
• Parent Participation Improves Outcomes
Steps for Implementation
• NPDC-ASD Evidence
Base Practice Briefs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/
content/briefs
Steps for Implementation
• NPDC-ASD Evidence Base Practice Briefs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs
Steps for Implementation
• NPDC-ASD Evidence Base Practice Briefs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs
Steps for Implementation
• NPDC-ASD Evidence Base Practice Briefs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs
Steps for Implementation
• NPDC-ASD Evidence Base Practice Briefs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs
Steps for Implementing FBAs
1. Establish a Team
2. Identify the Behavior of Concern
3. Collect Baseline Data
4. Develop a Hypothesis Statement
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Steps for Implementing FBAs
5. Develop Interventions
6. Monitor Intervention Effectiveness
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Steps for Implementing FBAs
1. Establish a Team
• Provides a Variety of Perspectives and
Information
• Identify Someone to Coordinate the Team
–
–
–
–
Establish timelines
Manages data collection
Communicates between team members
Develop protocols
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Steps for Implementing FBAs
1. Establish a Team
• Families
• Special Education Staff
• General Education Staff
• Other Agency / Providers / Therapists
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Steps for Implementing FBAs
2. Identify the Behavior of Concern
• Is the Behavior a Skill or Performance Deficit?
— Skill Deficit: The student is behaving because
she/he has not learned the appropriate skillful
behavior.
— Performance Deficit: The student can display
the skills sometimes but not all the time.
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Steps for Implementing FBAs
2. Identify the Behavior of Concern
• When you Read the Behavior / Term . . .
— Do you think everyone will agree what it means?
— If it was your child being described do you think
better words could have been chosen?
— How could you make it more specific to the exact
behavior you see?
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Activity
Specific, Abstract, or “Loaded”
For Each Word / Phrase Say if the Behavior is
Specific, Abstract, or “Loaded” . . .
1. “runner”
2. “reaches out and pulls hair without letting go”
3. “throws tantrums”
4. “when teacher asks a question to whole class
during group instruction, student shouts answer
without raising hand”
5. “student puts head back and cries”
Steps for Implementing FBAs
3. Collect Baseline Data
• ABC Analysis
• Scatter Plots
• Frequency
• Duration
• Intervals
• Interview Forms
• Reinforcer Preference Inventories
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Direct Observation
• Focus on observable events (ABC’s) and
environment (time, activity, staff, etc.)
• Scatterplots
• A-B-C charts (open-ended)
• A-B-C checklists
• Frequency/Intensity/Duration recording
• Compliance and Attention Recording
(usually best if conducted by dedicated
observer).
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Observation Data
Scatter Plot: Student A
E = Engaged/working
9:10-9:15
9:15-9:20
9:20-9:25
9:25-9:30
9:30-9:35
9:35-9:40
9:40-9:45
A = Using angry words
C = Using calming strategies
9/24
9/28
10/1
10/5
10/6
10/8
E
E
C
C
E
E
E
C
C
C
C
E
A
C
C
C
C
C
A
A
A
A
A
C
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
C
A
A
A
A
C
C
A
A
A
A
Scatter Plot: Student B
E = Engaged/working
9:10-9:15
9:15-9:20
9:20-9:25
9:25-9:30
9:30-9:35
9:35-9:40
9:40-9:45
A = Using angry words
C = Using calming strategies
9/24
9/28
10/1
10/5
10/6
10/8
A
E
E
E
E
E
A
E
E
A
E
E
A
C
E
E
C
E
A
E
E
E
E
E
A
E
E
E
E
E
C
E
E
E
E
E
A
E
E
E
E
E
Data Activity
1) Look at the Scatterplots from the Two
Previous Slides
Based on this Data . . .
2) What Does the Data Tell You?
3) What Questions Would You Want to Ask for
Each Student?
Scatter Plots: Student C
From NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Analyzing ABC Data
The “Tally” Method – On your own
Steps for Implementing FBAs
3. Collect Baseline Data
• NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for
FBA Provides Suggestions on a Variety of
FBA Forms
• For more information on Specific Forms:
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc
.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
What To Do, When, & How Long
• Indirect Assessment
(e.g. FBA interview)
– Do it right away, or just talk to people
– 1 time, unless new information
– Suggests repeat
What To Do, When, & How Long
• Direct Assessment (e.g., ABC, Frequency/FID)
– If only 1 possibility from indirect assessment then
maybe there is no need for a direct assessment
• ABC data,
– 2 weeks, or sample of all behavior
– 10 or more ABC analysis per behavior
• Scatter plot
– 2 weeks or when you start to see a clear pattern
• Frequency/FID
– Potentially forever
So What Do We Do with All This
• Analyze your ABC’s to determine the function of
individual behaviors
• Analyze your scatter plot to find a pattern on
when behaviors occur – then dig to find why
• Analyze your FID’s to find out how the problem
is and record baseline
• Once you know WHY the behaviors are
occurring, you can then find an acceptable
replacement behavior(s), reinforce that behavior
and put undesired behavior on extinction. That
will be the heart of behavior plan
Steps for Implementing FBAs
4. Develop a Hypothesis Statement
• What are the Setting Events and
Antecedents Occur Prior to the Behavior
• What are the Consequences (Outcomes)
Occurring after the Behavior
• What is the Function of the Behavior?
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Examples of FBA – ABC’s
When . . . A Peer Bumps into the Student
The Student . . . Says “He Pushed Me” loudly
and begins to argue with the peer and teacher
Which Leads to . . . The teacher giving attention
to both peer and student. The student takes
approximately 5 minutes to calm down.
We Think the Behavior Occurs Because . . .
The student is attributing the contact from peer
as a threat to personal space and is upset that
the teacher and peer do not make the same
attribution.
Examples of FBA – ABC’s
When . . . The teacher pulls out the math book.
The Student . . . Puts head back and starts to cry.
Which Leads to . . . The teacher talking to the
student assuring the student it is ok. This takes 510 minutes. The student spends less time
completing math activity.
We Think the Behavior Occurs Because . . .
The student is trying to escape from doing the
math homework and is reinforced in the behavior
by reduced time doing the math work.
Steps for Implementing FBAs
5. Develop Interventions
•
Note: This is Step 6 on NPDC-ASD Step by
Step Instructions
•
Utilize Evidence Based Practices
•
Focus on Different Areas of Student Need
•
Consider Multiple Interventions to Address
Function of Behavior in Different Ways or to
Address Multiple Functions
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Steps for Implementing FBAs
5. Develop Interventions
• Interventions May be Needed To Address . . .
– Basic and/or social communication
– Peer / adult relationships
– Sensory and movement needs (breaks)
– Regulation strategies
– Visual supports (schedules / boundaries)
– Transitions
– Reinforcement
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Steps for Implementing FBAs
5. Develop Interventions
• Outline Interventions in a Behavior
Intervention Plan (BIP)
– Definition(s) of behavior of concern
– Definition(s) of replacement behaviors
– Clear descriptions of intervention(s)
– Steps for implementing intervention
– Accommodations provided
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Steps for Implementing FBAs
5. Develop Interventions
• Outline Interventions in a Behavior
Intervention Plan (BIP)
– Responses from adults to behavior of concern
– Strategies to motivate student (consider natural
reinforcement and utilizing interests)
– Description of how data will be collected
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
3 Necessary People for a Good
Behavior Plan to be Written
1) Expert on Behavior Procedures/Techniques
Contributes how to do things optimally.
2) Expert on the Child/Person – Contributes
what will actually work for the individual.
3) Expert on the Staff/Location the plan will be
implemented – Contributes what can realistically
be done.
• Interestingly, you may be asked to fill any one of
these 3 roles, depending on who else is present.
Steps for Implementing
FBAs
6. Monitor Effectiveness of Interventions
• When was Intervention Implemented?
• How often was Intervention Used?
• Where was Intervention Used?
• Who Used the Intervention?
• How did Student Respond to Intervention?
Adapted from NPDC-ASD Step by Step Instructions for FBAs
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/FBA_Steps_0.pdf
Frameworks for FBAs
• ABC Analysis
• Competing
Pathways
Quick Poll
What Frameworks of FBAs do You Use
Currently?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence Analysis
Competing Pathways Model
Functional Behavior Assessment Interviews
District FBA Forms
Type other FBA forms or types into the
question box.
Frameworks of FBAs
• ABC Analysis
—Antecedent
—Behavior
—Consequence
A simplified example…
Student
avoids
written
tasks
Setting Event
Difficulty with Academic
Tasks
Antecedent: Student is
asked to complete
written work, such as
assignments or tests in
general education
classroom.
Student
refuses to
complete, and
instead gets
out of seat to
talk with
others.
Teacher
provides
one-onone help
Student
takes
written
work
home
Setting Events and Antecedents for
Problem Behavior
• Setting Events are issues that affect the
person broadly and make problem
behavior more or less likely
– May be biological (lack of sleep, illness,
menstruation)
– May be environmental (crowded room, noisy)
• Antecedents are triggers for the behavior
– Examples: instruction, transitions, disliked
activity, having to wait
96
Setting Event Examples
• Setting Events
–
–
–
–
Sleep / Exhaustion
Food / Diet / Water
Interest
Pain or Medical Needs
Consequences / Outcomes or
Reinforcers for Behavior
(These events occur after the behavior & make it more likely to happen again)
Positive Reinforcement
(something is presented that the person likes)
- Examples: toys, praise, physical attention, scolding
Negative Reinforcement
(something is removed that the person doesn’t like)
- Examples: demands, noise, crowded situation
Sensory Reinforcement (something internal occur)
 Examples: stereotypic/self-stimulatory behavior,
rubbing cheek to soothe toothache, head banging
98
What is Positive?
•
“Positive” (and as its opposite “negative”)– Positive is used in many ways, both in
this talk, behavior analysis, and in our daily lives. This can be really confusing, so
here are the three different ways positive is used in this talk:
•
Positive – Common Language: This means that you are upbeat, energetic, focus
on the good parts of life – opposite to critical/downer (“negative” common language)
•
Positive – Positive Behavior Intervention: This is kind of a blend of the common
language and behavioral language use of positive. It generally means that you are
going to focus on reinforcement and teaching skills – opposite of punishment. When
these interventions reduce behavior, it is through the use of Extinction.
•
Positive – Behavior Analysis: All of the behavioral techniques discussed today,
including those from PBIS, come from a branch of psychology called behavior
analysis. This branch uses the term positive in a VERY different way. This means
something is added to the environment as opposed to something taken away (which
would be negative). This has NOTHING to do with good or bad. For example,
getting punched would be “positive” – pain/a hit is added to the environment and
going home early on Friday would be “negative”–work is taken from the environment.
Frameworks of
FBAs
• Competing Pathways
— Identifying a More
Skillful Behavior
to Replace the
Behavior of
Concern
Competing Behavior Pathways Model
Desired
Behavior
Setting
Event(s)
Antecedent Behavior
Interferes
w/Learning
Alternative
(Taught)
Behavior
Ideal
Outcome
Current
Outcome
Key Ideas of Competing Behavior
Pathways Model
Replacement Behavior that will be
Taught MUST have the SAME
Function as Behavior that
Interferes with Learning
Competing Behavior Pathways
Model
Conscious choice to
ignore,
regulation
Desired
skill,
appropriate
Behavior
comment
Sleep
Setting
medicine
Event(s)
impairment
Peer
Antecedent
Comment
Behavior
Threats,
Interferes w/
loud voice
Learning
Allowed
Goes
to
to
leave
Taught
to
use
Replacement
to
independent
get a drink
regulation
skillof
(Taught)
reading
water
area and
when
in hallway
writes
in
the
in
hallway
journal
Behavior
for drink
Completes
Ideal
all work in
Outcome
class
Work
Current
output is
Outcome
reduced
Benefits of Competing Pathway Model
• When Looking at Competing Pathways, We
are Looking Beyond “What Intervention can
we Try”
• Instead we Focus on a Replacement
Behavior that is MORE Acceptable and
Meets the Same Function as the Behavior
Interfering with Learning
Deficits of Competing Behavior
Pathways Model
• Suggests a Focus on a Single Competing
Pathway
• Complex Behavior will Require Multiple
Interventions
• Multiple Functions Require Multiple
Interventions
Behavior Intervention Plans
• BIP = Behavior
Intervention Plan
— Clear
Consequences
— Teaches Skillful
Behavior
— Strategies,
Skills and
Accommodations
BIP Questions to Ask
• How will we teach appropriate school
behaviors?
• Will the methods be evidence or research
based?
• Are we considering both our responses
(consequences) to behavior as well as
antecedents (what we will teach) to help the
student?
• How will the student and family be involved in
the process?
BIP Best Practice
• Balance Behavior Removed with Supports
and/or Behavior Added
• Program for Independence and Choice
• Include Student and Family in
Understanding Intervention
• See if Interventions can be Universal
BIP Best Practice
• Create a Timeline and Include Follow Up
• Develop a Behavior Intervention Plan with:
– Brainstorming ideas and input from whole team
– Clear plan on how to respond to behavior
– Multiple plans on how to “teach” socially
acceptable behaviors
Data, Data Collection, Analysis
Data can Ensure you have a System for
Problem Solving
– Shows if interventions are working
– Communication tool with families
– Data is objective
– Data allows you to implement programs with
fidelity
Data, Data Collection, Analysis
• Data for Program Fidelity
– Ensures everyone is teaching the same way
– Ensures good teaching over time
– Allow staff to monitor fidelity
• Data for Student Outcomes
– Focus on positive attributes learned vs. deficits
– Make data collection easy
– Teach self monitoring when possible
Wrap Up
•
•
•
•
•
•
Key Ideas
Tips / Tweaks
Engaging Families
Technology
Data Collection
Resources
Keys
to Success
• Bottom line is that interventions based
on why the person does the behavior
work better than those which don’t, and
to do it right, you just have to keep
digging until you get it.
Tips and Tweaks for FBAs
• Examine Your FBA Forms
– Does it ask all the relevant questions?
– Is this FBA form appropriate based on what you
know about this student?
– How in depth do you need to go to find the
function?
– Can and should you go beyond the boxes /
lines that are on the form?
Tips and Tweaks for FBAs
• Consider if Behavior Requires Change
– Harmful and/or impedes learning or social
– Developmentally appropriate
• Define the “Behavior”
• Include Student and Family in Data
Collection
Tips and Tweaks for FBAs
• Beware of …
– Known “Attention” bias of FBAs
– Adults/teachers stop implementing the plan after
behavior improves
– Not updating the plan to make adjustments may
result in the undesired behavior coming back as
reinforcement loses power
Connecting Families to FBAs
• Provide Family and Student with FBA Interview
Form
• Ask About Student Strengths, Likes, Goals,
Hopes, and Dreams
• Ask Family to Report on Data of Behavior
Occurrence at Home
Connecting Families to BIPs
• Involve Families in Discussion about Ideas to
Teach Alternative Behavior
• Teach Families and Student about Behavior
Intervention Plan and Strategies
• Develop Methods for Families to Implement
Behavior Plan at Home
Connecting Families to EBPs
• Provide Families Access to AIM Modules
• Develop Materials / Plans for Student to Use
at Home
• Meet Often to Review Data from EBP
Intervention
Wisconsin Family and Educator
Support Organizations
• Autism Society of Southeast Wisconsin
• Autism Society of Wisconsin
• Disability Rights Wisconsin (DRW)
• Family Voices of Wisconsin
• Parent to Parent
• Regional Centers (Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs)
• WI FACETS
• Wisconsin Community of Practice on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities
• Wisconsin Department of Health Services
• Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
• Wisconsin Family Ties
• Wisconsin First Step
• WSPEI (Wisconsin Statewide Parent Educator Initiative)
Resources
– Autism Internet Modules
http://www.autisminternetmodules.org/
– National Professional Development Center
on Autism Spectrum Disorders
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs
– WDPI Functional Behavior Assessment Page
http://sped.dpi.wi.gov/sped_sbfba
Resources
– WDPI Bulletin 07.01
Addressing the Behavior Needs of Students with
Disabilities
http://sped.dpi.wi.gov/sped_bul07-01
– WDPI Bulletin 06.02
Legal Requirements in Regards to Disciplining Children
with Disabilities
http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/briefs
– Wisconsin PBIS Network
http://www.wisconsinpbisnetwork.org/
Resources
– Prevent, Teach, Reinforce: The School-Based Model
of Individualized Positive Behavior Support, Dunlap
et. al
– Do-Watch-Listen-Say: Social and Communication
Intervention for Students with Autism, Quill, Kathleen
Ann
– Routines Based Early Interventions: Supporting
Young Children and Families, McWilliam, R.A.
– The Eclipse Model, Teaching Self Regulation,
Executive Function, Attribution, and Sensory
Awareness to Students .. Autism, Moyer, Sherry.
FBA and BIPs
Fit within Existing Educator Frameworks
• Wisconsin’s Guiding
Principles for Teaching
and Learning
• Educator Effectiveness
• PBIS / RTI
• UDL
Wisconsin’s Guiding Principles for
Teaching and Learning
– 1. Every student has the right to learn.
– 2. Instruction must be rigorous and relevant.
–3. Purposeful assessment drives instruction
and affects learning.
– 4. Learning is a collaborative responsibility.
– 5. Students bring strengths and experiences to
learning.
– 6. Responsive environments engage learners.
From WDPI Common Core Web Site: http://commoncore.dpi.wi.gov/
Educator Effectiveness
Wisconsin’s Educator Effectiveness Program
Utilizes the Danielson Framework for
Teaching ®
•
•
•
•
Domain 1: Planning and Preparation
Domain 2: Classroom Environment
Domain 3: Instruction
Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities
Educator Effectiveness
• Domain 1: Planning and Preparation
– 1a Demonstrating Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy
– 1b Demonstrating Knowledge of Students
– 1c Setting Instructional Outcomes
– 1d Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources
– 1e Designing Coherent Instruction
– 1f Designing Student Assessments
Educator Effectiveness
• Domain 2: Classroom Environment
– 2a Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport
– 2b Establishing a Culture for Learning
– 2c Managing Classroom Procedures
– 2d Managing Student Behavior
– 2e Organizing Physical Space
Educator Effectiveness
• Domain 3: Instruction
– 3a Communicating With Students
– 3b Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques
– 3c Engaging Students in Learning
– 3d Using Assessment in Instruction
– 3e Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness
Educator Effectiveness
• Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities
– 4a Reflecting on Teaching
– 4b Maintaining Accurate Records
– 4c Communicating with Families
– 4d Participating in a Professional Community
– 4e Growing and Developing Professionally
– 4f Showing Professionalism
PBIS / RTI
PBIS = Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports
RTI = Response to Intervention
• The Majority of NPDC-ASD and AIM Interventions are
Teaching Tools and Practices which Focus on Teaching
Skillful and Independent Behavior
• Many of these Delivery Methods for Instruction Could be
Considered Positive Behavior Interventions
WI PBIS Web Site: http://www.wisconsinpbisnetwork.org/
WI RTI Web Site: http://www.wisconsinrticenter.org/
Thank You and Questions
Daniel Parker
Autism and Family Engagement
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
Dave Kunelius
State-wide Trainer, Regional Technical Assistance Coordinator
Wisconsin PBIS Network

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