Autism PPT - Anne Arundel County Public Schools

Report
Anne Arundel County Public Schools
Division of Special Education
Para Educator Training Series
Autism Spectrum Disorders
PRE ASSESSMENT
Please Submit To Your Administrator
AACPS – Division of Special Education – Para Educator Training Series
Name:
School:
Date:
1) Circle the five disabilities that are Pervasive Developmental Disorders
(on the Autism Spectrum).
Autism
Asperger’s Disorder
Retts Syndrome
Traumatic Brain Injury
PDD-NOS
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Intellectual Disability
Sensory Integration Disorder
PRE ASSESSMENT
2) Autism is characterized by:
a) restricted independence, academic achievement and self-determination
b) impaired social interaction, communication and patterns of behavior
c) limited inclusion, ability to feel and educational opportunities
3) What are examples of sensory seeking behaviors?
a) doesn’t like clothes, takes off shoes
b) fidgeting, touching, chewing
c) doesn’t enjoy art, overreacts to being touched
4) What is a First/Then used for?
a) gives students clear expectations and helps motivate and assist with task
completion in a positive manner
b) assists children with understanding teacher expectations and the class schedule
c) teach and reinforce appropriate social skills
PRE ASSESSMENT
5) What is an indication that a student has a sensory need in the area of proprioceptive?
a) The cover their ears
b) They have problems with touch and balance
c) They cover their eyes
6) What is a sensory diet?
a) A communication system that children with autism use to support them in the
least restrictive environment
b) A gluten and wheat free diet
c) A systematic planned group of activities to provide sensory input at specific times
throughout a school day
7) All students with autism have cognitive disabilities.
True
False
PRE ASSESSMENT
8) What are social stories?
a) Stories that help with reading comprehension
b) Stories that teach and reinforce appropriate social skills
c) Stories that give students rewards for completing
9) When using a positive behavior support, students should always get a reward after they
complete one activity.
True
False
10) Rewards will help a child with their sensory needs.
True
False
Varying Diagnoses:
“Pervasive Developmental Disorders”
Autism
PDD-NOS
Childhood Disintegrative
Disorder
Asperger’s Syndrome
Continued development of
new skills
Rett’s Syndrome
Progressive permanent loss
of skills
Childhood
Disintegrative Disorder
• May appear by age two, but usually between
three or four
• Before – age-appropriate skills in
communication and social relationships
• Long period of normal development and then
regression
• Loss of bowel and bladder control
• Often have seizures and very low IQ
Rett’s Syndrome
• Very rare – most exclusively affects females
• One out of every 10,000 to 15,000 people
• Normal development between 6 and 18 months and
then regression
• No longer responds to parents and pulls away from
social contact
• Mutation in the sequence of a single gene
• Impairment in communication skills and social
interactions
• Restrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of
behavior
Aspgerger’s Syndrome
• Most distinguishing symptom – child’s obsessive
interest in a single object or topic
• High level of vocabulary and formal speech
patterns
• “professor like”
• Repetitive routines or rituals
• Socially and emotionally inappropriate behavior
• Problems with nonverbal communication
• Clumsy and uncoordinated motor movements
Autism
• Difficulties with social interaction
• Problems with verbal and nonverbal
communication
• Repetitive behaviors or narrow, obsessive
interests
• Reduced sensitivity to pain but increased
sensitivity to sound, touch or other sensory
stimulation
• Range from mild to disabling
Pervasive Developmental Disorder –
Not Otherwise Specified
• Delay in the development of social and
communication skills
• Wide array of abilities, intelligence and
behaviors
Defining Characteristics
Social Skills
Communication
Restricted Repertoire of Interest/Behavior
Defining Characteristics of ASD
Social Skills Deficits
– Interpretation of others’ words (i.e. sarcasm, multiple meanings, jokes,
etc.)
– Interpretation of others’ body language and facial cues
– Lack of understanding regarding how actions and words impact others
– Lack of initiation and/or maintaining reciprocation of typical, social
interactions
– Understanding of “rules” and/or expectations across settings
– Taking another person’s perspective
– Inferring another person’s interest and sharing enjoyment
Characteristics of ASD
Restricted Repertoire of Interests or Behavior
– Repetitive behavior (for stimulation, to reduce anxiety, in times of
stress, etc.)
– Perseveration… “getting stuck”
• Talking about a favorite topic
• Completing a task
• Physical movement
– High level of interest in one topic and low in
others
Characteristics of ASD
Communication Challenges
– Verbal skills vary
– May be more proficient with gestures or pictures
– May use vocabulary that is different than original
meaning
– Repetitive words may be used out of context
– Concrete vs. abstract understanding of vocabulary
and idiosyncratic phrases
– Typically process visual information more
effectively than auditory information
They Don’t Like Change!
• Desire to follow set patterns of behaviors and
interactions
• Desire to keep objects in a certain physical
pattern
• May have difficulty transitioning between
activities
• May want to control interactions
• They may exhibit aggression or self-injurious
behaviors
Underlying Medical Issues
• Children with autism sometimes suffer from
co-existing medical conditions.
• They may be dealing with seizures, allergies,
sleep issues, gastrointestinal discomfort, or
other medical conditions.
• These conditions can typically be diagnosed
with medical testing.
Some typical sensory behaviors
Sensory Seeking Behaviors
• Fidgeting
• Toe tapping
• Staring out the window
• Standing at desk
• Walking around the room
• Making noises
• Playing with hair
• Touching other students
• Chewing on objects
• Pressing hard when
writing
Avoiding Behaviors
• Refuses to touch textures
• Has to be at the end of
the line
• Overreacts to being
touched
• Taking off shoes
First/Then
Purpose:
The First-Then strategy gives students clear
expectations and helps motivate and assist with
task completion in a positive manner. This
strategy helps engage them in working from a
non preferred activity to preferred activities. The
First-Then format allows the child to focus on the
current activity and rewarding activity without
engaging in unneeded conversation. It also helps
to eliminate a power struggle.
First/Then
Directions:
• Place a picture of the activity or activities the child needs to
complete under “first”. Place a picture of the rewarding or
preferred activity under “then.”
•
Set up in close visual proximity.
•
Can be used in a stationary area or made portable.
• Use blank sides with replaceable tasks/schedule
pictures/preferred visuals.
• If student is a non reader you can use different colors for
First side/Then side.
First
Math Activity
Then
Build with blocks
Visual Schedule
Purpose:
The Visual Schedule assists children
with understanding teacher
expectations and the class schedule. It
helps to keep the student on task, and
reduces anxiety by letting the student
predict what comes next. The visual
schedule gives the student a sense of
accomplishment and control over their
day.
Schedules
• Daily, whole class
• Individualized
• Mini-schedules/within a task
• Location/multiple functions
• Student/teacher developed
• Embed choices
• Use computer
• Differentiate as needed (photos, words, PCS,
etc.)
Visual Schedule
Directions:
• The schedule pictures should be laminated, cut, and
mounted with Velcro. Put a small piece of Velcro on
the back center of each picture. Use the same type of
Velcro for the back of the pictures and the opposite
type for the schedule board.
• Place pictures of the daily schedule in sequential
order, on a laminated visual schedule folder/strip or a
To Do/Done Chart. Breaks and Rewards/”Special”
Activities can be added into the schedule when
needed.
Visual Schedule
Directions continued:
• Show the schedule to the child. Work with the child on
becoming familiar with the schedule.
• Model using the schedule by hand-over-hand, touching, or
pulling off the pictures and placing them in the envelope.
Remove pictures with the child at the end of each activity
and place in pocket/bag/envelope. Child can do this
independently, once familiar with the system.
• Keep the schedule in close proximity to the child and at eye
level. Use the schedule as part of the class routine.
Establish a routine for “checking in” with the schedule
throughout the day.
Sample Daily Schedules
Visual Prompts/Cues
Purpose:
Visual prompts provide a positive
reinforcement for behavior/classroom
expectations. Students are reminded of
expectations in a positive, non disruptive, and
explicit manner. Visual prompts provide
consistent and concrete reinforcement of rules
and routine classroom expectations. Students
often need visual supports, along with verbal
reminders to gain a better understanding of
what is expected throughout the school day.
Visual Prompts/Cues
• Directions:
•
Visual Prompts can be individual pictures cards in a
variety of sizes, or on a key ring with multiple pictures.
•
The pictures should be placed near the teacher for use
when reminders are needed.
•
Pictures can be displayed in the front of the whole group
area as reminders of behavior expectations. (teacher could
point or hold up appropriate picture, as needed)
•
Student and/or Teacher/TA/TSA could have pictures on a
ring for a quick reminder of the behavior expectations.
Sample Visual Prompts
Positive Behavior Token System
Purpose:
A positive reward/token system
provides a visible and tangible
acknowledgement of the desired, target
behaviors. It modifies undesirable
behaviors. The token system teaches
appropriate behaviors, and reduces the
focus on negative behaviors. It also
gives the student a sense of
accomplishment and builds self esteem.
Positive Behavior Token System
Directions:
• Token System should be created based on the child’s
preferences. It should be used consistently, and be
portable to go with the student throughout the school day.
• Use stars, smiley faces, favorite cartoon character,
stickers, etc. as tokens.
• Set up a system that allows the student to earn specific
number of tokens working towards a reward. Provide two
activities to choose from for a predetermined activity.
• Students can put tokens on the reward system strip or
move clip when each token is earned. (model doing this)
Positive Behavior Token System
Directions continued:
• After earning the specified number of tokens, the student
would then have a specified amount of time to engage in
the chosen activity. (5 -10 minutes is a reasonable time)
• A timer can be set. When the time is up they go back to
their work area and begin to earn new tokens, working for
their next chosen activity.
• Rewarding of tokens should be frequent with the initial
implementation, and/or when inappropriate responses are
frequent. Lengthen the time between earning tokens as
the target behaviors begin to increase, and the
inappropriate responses decrease.
Sample Token System
“
Use my words.
Keep my hands to myself.
5 Stars = Choice Activity
Social Stories
Purpose:
Social stories teach and reinforce appropriate
social skills. Ex. “How to Ask A Friend to Play”
They also help to modify undesirable and
inappropriate behaviors. Ex. “ Keeping My Hands
to Myself” Social stories offer acceptable
replacement problem solving ideas. Ex. “What I
Can Do When I Get Angry?”
A social story helps prepare a student when faced
with change or an anxiety causing situation. Ex.
“What Happens When I Have a Substitute
Teacher?”
Social Stories
Directions:
• Can be made on one sheet of paper or
made into a booklet.
• Should be laminated to ensure
durability.
• Send a copy home, when appropriate,
for practice and reinforcement.
• Keep it simple.
Social Stories
Directions continued:
• Can be used with the whole class.
• More effective when stories are personalized
to reflect the student and the setting.
• Positively state desired behaviors.
• Read and use often in a pro-active manner!!
Sample Social Stories
Work Task Schedule
Purpose:
Work task schedules foster and
encourage independent task
completion. They help students stay on
task and complete all steps. The use of
visual task pictures decrease the need
for verbal prompting. A work task
schedule gives the student a sense of
accomplishment and success when
completing the task.
Work Task Schedule
Directions:
• Use folded, laminated paper or long strip of laminated
paper to display work task pictures. (attach Velcro pieces
on paper strip and work task pictures)
• Task pictures should be placed in sequential order and
numbered.
• Model and practice using the work task schedule.
• Keep on student’s desk or work area.
• Student can remove each picture as task step is completed.
Sample Work Task Schedules
Visual/Material Guides For
Instructional Areas
Purpose:
Visuals such as footprints, lines, or shapes help
students learn important classroom routines
such as lining up, walking in line, staying in
defined spaces, etc. Visuals can support
classroom areas to define space, closed areas,
teacher areas, etc. Placing carpet squares or
cushions in the whole group instructional area
help define spaces for students to sit during
instruction. Visual supports/materials provide
needed structure and consistency in the
classroom environment.
Sample Visual Guides for The Classroom
Footprints to designate spots for
lining up.
Stop sign for
closed areas.
Cushion or carpet square to
designate spot for sitting
on carpet or floor.
STOP
Google Images @ thisnext.com
Lentini, R., Vaughn, B. J., & Fox, L. (2005). Teaching Tools for
Young Children
with Challenging Behavior. Tampa, Florida: University of
South Florida,
Early Intervention Positive Behavior Support.
Sensory Difficulties
• Body responds to sensory information differently
• Sensory difficulties are concerning if they are excessive and
interfere with participation in daily living activities
• Can be hypo or hyper sensitive
– Hypo sensitive – You need more stimulation to trigger a
response
– Hyper sensitive – It does not take much to trigger a response
• Can be sensory avoidant or sensory seeking
– Sensory avoidant – Avoiding stimulation that is uncomfortable
– Sensory seeking – Seeking stimulation to either arouse or selfregulate
Sensory Impact on Behavior
• Changes to the physical environment and how
activities are structured may decrease the
likelihood of meltdowns
• Rewards or punishment are not effective
strategies for sensory issues
Tactile Sense
(Touch) Characteristics
• Oversensitivity to unexpected, light touch
• Instantly show a “fight or fright” response to
harmless touch
• Dislike messy activities
• Be bothered by certain types of clothing
• Prefer wearing a certain type of clothing
• Dislikes swimming, bathing, brushing teeth or
having a hair cut
• Reacts negatively when approached from behind
How to Help
•
•
•
•
•
•
Student use gloves
Avoid heavy and light touches
Talk to families about cutting tags in clothing
Let pace or walk around to help with memory
Give fidgets – let move around
Do not do well sitting at desk – let move
around and stand
• Frequent breaks
• Allow to sit in a bean bag
• Use sensory diet
What is a Sensory Diet?
• Sensory diet is a systematic planned group of
activities to provide sensory input at specific
times throughout a school day
• The “diet” is child specific based on whether
the child needs arousal or calming
• It is usually done for preparation for learning
and not as a response to a behavior
Vestibular Sense (Balance and
Movement) Characteristics
• Overreact to ordinary movement
• Some dislike physical activities while others
swing for a long time
• Enjoys being upside down or not
• Fall frequently out of their seat (could be age
related)
• Thrill seeker - remember boys can be boys
How to Help
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use wiggle seats or T-Stool
Use trampolines
Heavy work
Weighted vests
Weighted book bags
Elastic bands
Frequent breaks
Jump
Proprioceptive Sense
(Body Position) Characteristics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Have problems with touch or balance
Poor body awareness
Stiff/guarded
Lean or bump into things
Falls or crashes into things
Pulls on fingers and cracks knuckles
Extreme loose or tight grip on pencils or
scissors
How to Help
• If a child is seeking deep pressure through the jaw, give
an appropriate oral object to chew on
• Use stress balls or fidgets
• Engage in up and down movement such as jump rope
and bouncing a ball
• Designate an area in the room to stomp feet or pace
• Provide the opportunity to move for calming
• Study by laying on the floor
• Sitting in a chair backwards
• Reading in a bean bag chair or rocker
• NEVER take away PE or recess
Visual Sense (Seeing) Characteristics
• Shield their eyes to screen out sights
• Have difficulty shifting their gaze from one object to
another. (Looking from the board to their paper)
• Turn or tilt their head as they read across the page.
• Fail to comprehend what he/she is reading or loses
interest.
• Fail to visualize when reading.
• Often confuse left and right and have poor sense of
direction.
• Often fatigue easily during schoolwork.
• Withdraw from classroom participation.
How to Help
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use schedules
Tape numberline and ABCs on desk
Keep visuals on a worksheet to a minimum
Keep visuals on the walls to a minimum
Allow student to sit with their back to the teacher
Use visuals
Use adaptive paper when writing and explore
colored paper when reading
• Option of using glasses or lower lights
• Be mindful of glare, especially on white boards
The Auditory Sense
(Hearing) Characteristics
•
•
•
•
Seem unaware of the sound source
Covers ears for fire drills or when class is too loud
Talks louder
Unable to pay attention to one voice when others
are speaking
• Hums or sings to himself (could be stimming?)
• Have difficulty reading aloud
• Hyper sensitivity to sounds
How to Help
•
•
•
•
•
Minimize/simplify verbal directions
Use earplugs or headphones
Use music
Use visuals
Excuse from or pre-warn student of fire drills,
large assemblies and the cafeteria
• Desensitize a student to a new area by slowly
integrating them into the area.
Oral Sense (Touch), Olfactory Sense (Smell)
and Gustatory Sense (Taste) Characteristics
• Doesn’t respond or over responsive to
offensive smells
• Licks or taste play dough or other toys
• Picky eater
• Gags
• Dislike strong scents
• Won’t visit certain areas because of smell
• May breathe through their mouths
How to Help
• Avoid wearing strong perfumes or body
lotions
• Use preferred foods if using foods as a reward
• Use chew objects
• Chewy foods to calm and sour foods/crunchy
foods to alert
A spectrum disorder: different children are affected to different
degrees in each area
“If you’ve seen one
child with Autism, you have
seen one child with Autism.”
Autism?
POST ASSESSMENT
Please Submit To Your Administrator
AACPS – Division of Special Education – Para Educator Training Series
Name:
School:
Date:
1) Circle the five disabilities that are Pervasive Developmental Disorders
(on the Autism Spectrum).
Autism
Asperger’s Disorder
Retts Syndrome
Traumatic Brain Injury
PDD-NOS
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Intellectual Disability
Sensory Integration Disorder
POST ASSESSMENT
2) Autism is characterized by:
a) restricted independence, academic achievement and self-determination
b) impaired social interaction, communication and patterns of behavior
c) limited inclusion, ability to feel and educational opportunities
3) What are examples of sensory seeking behaviors?
a) doesn’t like clothes, takes off shoes
b) fidgeting, touching, chewing
c) doesn’t enjoy art, overreacts to being touched
4) What is a First/Then used for?
a) gives students clear expectations and helps motivate and assist with task
completion in a positive manner
b) assists children with understanding teacher expectations and the class schedule
c) teach and reinforce appropriate social skills
POST ASSESSMENT
5) What is an indication that a student has a sensory need in the area of proprioceptive?
a) The cover their ears
b) They have problems with touch and balance
c) They cover their eyes
6) What is a sensory diet?
a) A communication system that children with autism use to support them in the
least restrictive environment
b) A gluten and wheat free diet
c) A systematic planned group of activities to provide sensory input at specific times
throughout a school day
7) All students with autism have cognitive disabilities.
True
False
POST ASSESSMENT
8) What are social stories?
a) Stories that help with reading comprehension
b) Stories that teach and reinforce appropriate social skills
c) Stories that give students rewards for completing
9) When using a positive behavior support, students should always get a reward after they
complete one activity.
True
False
10) Rewards will help a child with their sensory needs.
True
False

similar documents