ISA2015conference

Report
ISA ANNUAL CONVENTION 2015
REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, INTERNATIONAL NORMS
AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE OF CULTURE:
THE EU FOREIGN POLICY AND THE DIVERSITY OF
CULTURAL EXPRESSIONS
Antonios Vlassis, Center for International Relations Studies
(CEFIR), University of Liège, FNRS.
Introduction
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Convention on diversity of cultural expressions (CDCE) adopted
by UNESCO in 2005, main international instrument of the
global governance of cultural industries.
Cultural policies, specificity of cultural goods and services,
international cultural cooperation, culture in development
policies.
Internal cultural acquis and the European Commission’s external
competences towards cultural affairs.
The EU participated as a single entity within the
intergovernmental UNESCO arena.
The Commission, leading actor for the CDCE’s adoption.
Introduction
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Research question: What is at issue is of why and how the EU foreign
policy uses the CDCE and its normative framework, of what
purposes, and of how the CDCE influences the EU foreign cultural
policy (EUFCP) and its objectives.
European Commission, point of departure for highlighting the links
between regional organizations and international norms.
Structure:
Review on the findings of the recent theoretical literature;
Tease out empirically and qualitatively the links between the EU foreign
policy and the CDCE;
Institutional and decision-making limits of the Commission regarding the
promotion of the CDCE.
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A. Review of theoretical literature
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‘Singleness’ and ‘unitariness’ of the EU foreign policy,
degrees of actorness of the EU in external relations.
“Framing actor”, “civilian power”, “global actor”, “global
governor”, “normative and ethical actor”… focusing on
policy outcomes rather than on policy process,
overestimating perhaps the evolving EU’s influence in world
affairs.
The institutional and law features of the CDCE and its
implementation.
The ways which the global governance of culture interplays
with regional organizations in general and, in particular the
implications between the EU foreign policy and the CDCE.
B. European Commission, cultural cooperation and
CDCE: a moment of political emancipation?
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Towards an International Instrument on Cultural Diversity
2003
European Agenda for culture 2007
Conclusions on the promotion of cultural diversity and
intercultural dialogue in the external relations of the
Union and its Member States 2008
Resolution on the cultural dimensions of the EU’s external
actions 2011
Euromed Audiovisual Program, ACP Cultures+ Program,
Eastern Partnership Culture Program, MERCOSUR
Audiovisual.
B. European Commission, cultural cooperation and
CDCE: a moment of political emancipation?
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The Protocols on Cultural Cooperation
EU-CARIFORUM 2008, EU-Korea 2009, EU-Central America 2010,
EU-Peru/Colombia 2011.
Explicit reference to the CDCE.
Stipulate that the countries, which have not yet ratified the CDCE,
intend to do so expeditiously.
Implement the CDCE framework, and especially its Articles 14
(Cooperation for development), 15 (Collaborative arrangements)
and 16 (Preferential treatment for developing countries).
Transnational administration in terms of cultural industries: UNESCOEuropean Commission and the creation of an expert facility project
to make operational the CDCE at the country level (2010).
C. The institutional and decision-making limits of the
European Commission as a leading norm exporter
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Promoting the CDCE without political support
Protocols on Cultural Cooperation and strong reluctance
from the EU culture organizations and France.
Treat the CDCE as a selling point for proceeding with
trade deals and gain concessions in other economic
areas.
Audiovisual co-productions are guarded by national
actors.
French communication and specific proposals for the
EUFCP.
A top-down building of the Protocols hinders the
effective implementation of their provisions.
C. The institutional and decision-making limits of the
European Commission as a leading norm exporter
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Negotiations on TTIP between US and EU.
The Commission and the maximization of trade efficiency, inclusion of
audiovisual services – and especially digital audiovisual services – in the
agenda,
Project of EU mandate and different interpretation on the normative
framework of the CDCE.
Final mandate: exclusion of cultural services following the positions of
France, European Parliament, EU culture organizations, and other countries.
Culture as a post-2015 goal in UN development agenda: the establishment
of a big international coalition (UNESCO, China, culture NGOs, developing
countries), advocacy strategies based on the CDCE’s norms.
The European Commission, completely absent from this debate.
Concluding remarks
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CDCE as a legal basis and policy framework: opportunity for the European
Commission to establish itself as a foreign policy actor in cultural affairs.
Preference to the normative basis of the global governance of culture.
Key role for the CDCE’s promotion in third countries.
EU as a regional actor in cultural affairs.
Lack of social support, mistrust between Commission and culture organizations.
Actorness depending on the balance between intergovernmentalism method and the
Community.
Members states keeping strong powers in the decision-making process, especially,
France, key and primary actor throughout the agenda setting process.
Actorness depending on the sensitiveness of the issue and on the context that the
EUFCP is made.
Unitary regional actor, disaggregated global entity or salient international
absence.

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