What Is Body Image?

Report
PowerPoint® Lecture Outlines prepared by
Dr. Lana Zinger, QCCCUNY
10a
FOCUS ON
Your Body
Image
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
What Is Body Image?
 The National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA)
defines components of body image:
• How you picture yourself in your mind
• What you believe about your own appearance
• How you feel about your body, including your height,
shape, and weight
• How you sense and control your body as you move
• How you feel in your body, not just about your body
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What Is Body Image?
 Negative Body Image
• A distorted perception of your shape, or feelings of
discomfort, shame, or anxiety about your body
 Positive Body Image
• A true perception of your appearance: You see yourself
as you really are and you like yourself
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What Is Body Image?
 Many Factors Influence Body Image
• The Media and Popular Culture
• Underweight models and celebrities send the
message that being thin is best
• Striving to achieve these thin standards often makes
people ill
• A study of more than 4,000 television commercials
revealed that more than one out of every four sends
some sort of “attractiveness message”
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Is the Media’s Mania for Burly Men and Scrawny
Women a New Phenomenon?
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What Is Body Image?
• Family, Community, and Cultural Groups
• Parents are especially influential in body image
development
• Interactions with siblings and other relatives, peers,
teachers, coworkers, and other community members
can also influence body image development
• Associations within one’s cultural group appear to
influence body image
• Studies have found that European American
females experience the highest rates of body
dissatisfaction
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What Is Body Image?
• Physiological and Psychological Factors
• Differences in the brain’s ability to regulate
chemicals called neurotransmitters are seen in people
with eating disorders.
• One study linked distortions in body image to a
malfunctioning in the brain’s visual processing
region that was revealed by MRI scanning.
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Body Image Continuum
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
What Is Body Image?

How Can I Build a More Positive Body Image?
•
Bust these toxic myths pervasive in our society
Myth 1: How you look is more important than who
you are
Myth 2: Anyone can be slender and attractive if they
work at it
Myth 3: Dieting is an effective weight-loss strategy
Myth 4: Appearance is more important than health
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
What Is Body Image?

Ten Steps to a Positive Body Image
1.
Appreciate all that your body can do
2.
Keep a top-ten list of things you like about yourself
3.
True beauty is not simply skin deep
4.
Look at yourself as a whole person
5.
Surround yourself with positive people
6.
Shut down negative voices in your head
7.
Wear comfortable clothes
8.
Become a critical viewer of social and media messages
9.
Do something nice for yourself
10. Do something to help others instead of worrying about food,
calories, and your weight
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
What Is Body Image?
 Some People Develop Body Image
Disorders
• Social physique anxiety (SPA)
• The desire to “look good” is so
strong that it has a destructive and
sometimes disabling effect on the
person’s ability to function
effectively in relationships and
interactions with others.
• Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)
• A psychological disorder
characterized by an obsession
with a minor or imagined flaw in
appearance.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
What Are Eating Disorders?
• Disordered eating—a pattern of atypical behaviors
used to achieve or maintain a lower body weight.
• Chronic dieting, abuse of diet pills and laxatives, and
self-induced vomiting
• Not a clinical diagnosis
• Eating disorder—A psychiatric disorder characterized
by severe disturbances in body image and eating
behaviors.
• Can only be diagnosed by a physician
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Eating Issues Continuum
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What Are Eating Disorders?
 Who’s at Risk?
• In the U.S, about 24 million people of all ages meet the
established criteria
• Most common among those in their teens and twenties,
although children as young as 6 have been diagnosed.
• In 2007, 3.8 percent of college students reported that they
were dealing with either anorexia or bulimia.
• Obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety all
play a role
• Common among athletes
• Male sufferers are increasing, who currently represent up to
25 percent of anorexia and bulimia patients and almost 40
percent of binge eaters.
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What Are Eating Disorders?
 Anorexia Nervosa Involves Severe Food
Restriction
• Self-starvation
• Intense fear of fat
• Causes are complex and variable
• Nearly 1 percent of adolescent girls meet the criteria for
anorexia nervosa
• Highest death rate (20 percent) of any psychological
illness
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What Anorexia Nervosa Can Do to the Body
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What Are Eating Disorders?
 Bulimia Nervosa Involves Bingeing and Purging
• Binge and then take inappropriate measures to lose
calories (purge)
• Up to 3 percent of adolescent and young females are
bulimic
• Often at normal weight or overweight
• Caused by a combination of genetic and environmental
factors
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What Bulimia Nervosa Can Do to the Body
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What Are Eating Disorders?
 Some Eating Disorders Are Not Easily Classified
• Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)
• Patients with EDNOS are the highest treatment
seeking population
• Represents 40 to 75 percent of individuals with
eating disorders
• Binge-Eating Disorder
• Often clinically obese
• Characterized by eating large amounts of food
rapidly and feeling guilty or depressed after
overeating
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What Are Eating Disorders?
 Eating Disorders Can Be Treated
• Goal is to stabilize the patient’s life
• Long-term therapy
• Multidimensional approach
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What Are Eating Disorders?
 How Can You Help Someone You Suspect Has an Eating
Disorder?
• Learn as much as possible about eating disorders
• Set up a time to meet and share your concerns
• Provide examples of why you think there might be a problem
• Avoid conflicts or a battle of wills with this person
• Never nag, plead, beg, bribe, threaten, or manipulate
• Don’t talk about how thin the person is or focus on weight,
diets, or exercise
• Offer to go along to counseling
• Use “I” statements
• Stay calm and realize your own limitations
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What Are Exercise Disorders?
 Exercise Can Become a Compulsion
• Characterized not by a desire to exercise but a
compulsion to do so
• A person may struggle with guilt and anxiety if they
don’t work out
• Injuries to joints, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, broken
bones, and stress on the heart
• Often plagued by anxiety and/or depression
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What Are Exercise Disorders?
 Muscle Dysmorphia Is a Body Image and
Exercise Disorder
• When a man believes that one’s body is insufficiently
lean or muscular
• Behaviors include comparing oneself unfavorably to
others, frequently checking one’s appearance in the
mirror, and camouflaging one’s appearance
• Individuals suffering from muscle dysmorphia have a
higher rate of substance abuse (including steroid
abuse), and higher risk of suicide than those without
the disorder
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What Are Exercise Disorders?
 The Female Athlete Triad
Involves Three Interrelated
Disorders
• Low energy intake,
typically prompted
by disordered eating
behaviors
• Menstrual dysfunction
such as amenorrhea
• Poor bone density
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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