PowerPoint® Lecture Outlines prepared by Dr. Lana Zinger, QCCCUNY 10a FOCUS ON Your Body Image Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Body Image? The National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA) defines components of body image: • How you picture yourself in your mind • What you believe about your own appearance • How you feel about your body, including your height, shape, and weight • How you sense and control your body as you move • How you feel in your body, not just about your body Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Body Image? Negative Body Image • A distorted perception of your shape, or feelings of discomfort, shame, or anxiety about your body Positive Body Image • A true perception of your appearance: You see yourself as you really are and you like yourself Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Body Image? Many Factors Influence Body Image • The Media and Popular Culture • Underweight models and celebrities send the message that being thin is best • Striving to achieve these thin standards often makes people ill • A study of more than 4,000 television commercials revealed that more than one out of every four sends some sort of “attractiveness message” Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Is the Media’s Mania for Burly Men and Scrawny Women a New Phenomenon? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Body Image? • Family, Community, and Cultural Groups • Parents are especially influential in body image development • Interactions with siblings and other relatives, peers, teachers, coworkers, and other community members can also influence body image development • Associations within one’s cultural group appear to influence body image • Studies have found that European American females experience the highest rates of body dissatisfaction Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Body Image? • Physiological and Psychological Factors • Differences in the brain’s ability to regulate chemicals called neurotransmitters are seen in people with eating disorders. • One study linked distortions in body image to a malfunctioning in the brain’s visual processing region that was revealed by MRI scanning. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Image Continuum Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Body Image? How Can I Build a More Positive Body Image? • Bust these toxic myths pervasive in our society Myth 1: How you look is more important than who you are Myth 2: Anyone can be slender and attractive if they work at it Myth 3: Dieting is an effective weight-loss strategy Myth 4: Appearance is more important than health Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Body Image? Ten Steps to a Positive Body Image 1. Appreciate all that your body can do 2. Keep a top-ten list of things you like about yourself 3. True beauty is not simply skin deep 4. Look at yourself as a whole person 5. Surround yourself with positive people 6. Shut down negative voices in your head 7. Wear comfortable clothes 8. Become a critical viewer of social and media messages 9. Do something nice for yourself 10. Do something to help others instead of worrying about food, calories, and your weight Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Body Image? Some People Develop Body Image Disorders • Social physique anxiety (SPA) • The desire to “look good” is so strong that it has a destructive and sometimes disabling effect on the person’s ability to function effectively in relationships and interactions with others. • Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) • A psychological disorder characterized by an obsession with a minor or imagined flaw in appearance. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Eating Disorders? • Disordered eating—a pattern of atypical behaviors used to achieve or maintain a lower body weight. • Chronic dieting, abuse of diet pills and laxatives, and self-induced vomiting • Not a clinical diagnosis • Eating disorder—A psychiatric disorder characterized by severe disturbances in body image and eating behaviors. • Can only be diagnosed by a physician Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Eating Issues Continuum Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Eating Disorders? Who’s at Risk? • In the U.S, about 24 million people of all ages meet the established criteria • Most common among those in their teens and twenties, although children as young as 6 have been diagnosed. • In 2007, 3.8 percent of college students reported that they were dealing with either anorexia or bulimia. • Obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety all play a role • Common among athletes • Male sufferers are increasing, who currently represent up to 25 percent of anorexia and bulimia patients and almost 40 percent of binge eaters. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Eating Disorders? Anorexia Nervosa Involves Severe Food Restriction • Self-starvation • Intense fear of fat • Causes are complex and variable • Nearly 1 percent of adolescent girls meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa • Highest death rate (20 percent) of any psychological illness Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Anorexia Nervosa Can Do to the Body Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Eating Disorders? Bulimia Nervosa Involves Bingeing and Purging • Binge and then take inappropriate measures to lose calories (purge) • Up to 3 percent of adolescent and young females are bulimic • Often at normal weight or overweight • Caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Bulimia Nervosa Can Do to the Body Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Eating Disorders? Some Eating Disorders Are Not Easily Classified • Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) • Patients with EDNOS are the highest treatment seeking population • Represents 40 to 75 percent of individuals with eating disorders • Binge-Eating Disorder • Often clinically obese • Characterized by eating large amounts of food rapidly and feeling guilty or depressed after overeating Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Eating Disorders? Eating Disorders Can Be Treated • Goal is to stabilize the patient’s life • Long-term therapy • Multidimensional approach Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Eating Disorders? How Can You Help Someone You Suspect Has an Eating Disorder? • Learn as much as possible about eating disorders • Set up a time to meet and share your concerns • Provide examples of why you think there might be a problem • Avoid conflicts or a battle of wills with this person • Never nag, plead, beg, bribe, threaten, or manipulate • Don’t talk about how thin the person is or focus on weight, diets, or exercise • Offer to go along to counseling • Use “I” statements • Stay calm and realize your own limitations Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Exercise Disorders? Exercise Can Become a Compulsion • Characterized not by a desire to exercise but a compulsion to do so • A person may struggle with guilt and anxiety if they don’t work out • Injuries to joints, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, broken bones, and stress on the heart • Often plagued by anxiety and/or depression Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Exercise Disorders? Muscle Dysmorphia Is a Body Image and Exercise Disorder • When a man believes that one’s body is insufficiently lean or muscular • Behaviors include comparing oneself unfavorably to others, frequently checking one’s appearance in the mirror, and camouflaging one’s appearance • Individuals suffering from muscle dysmorphia have a higher rate of substance abuse (including steroid abuse), and higher risk of suicide than those without the disorder Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What Are Exercise Disorders? The Female Athlete Triad Involves Three Interrelated Disorders • Low energy intake, typically prompted by disordered eating behaviors • Menstrual dysfunction such as amenorrhea • Poor bone density Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.