What is Appreciative Inquiry (AI)?

Report
Appreciative Inquiry Research
Dealing with Student
Prescription Drug Abuse
Dr. Jeanelle Boyer, Dr. Marj Droppa, Dr. John
Finneran and Dr. Margaret A Smith
Keene State College, NH
NAADAC 2014
1
Today’s Objectives

Discuss the following:
 Prescription drug abuse on college
campuses
 Current prevention strategies used to
address prescription drug abuse
 The use of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) research
as an evidence-based prevention strategy
2
Objective One
Prescription drug abuse on
college campuses
Dr. John Finneran
3
Prescription Drug Use on College
Campuses
Approximately one in every five college students reported
nonmedical use of at least one prescription medication in their
lifetime.
 Past year prevalence of medical use, diversion and
nonmedical use of prescription stimulants increased
significantly between 2003 and 2013.
 Past year use was greater among males, Whites, members of
social fraternities and sororities, those with a lifetime history of
medical use of prescription medications, or past year history
of being approached to divert their prescription medications.
 Past year prevalence of medical use, diversion and
nonmedical use of prescription opioids decreased significantly
over the same period.


McCabe et al. (2014) Trends in medical use, diversion, and nonmedical use of
prescription medication among college students from 2003 to 2013: Connecting the
dots. Addictive Behaviors, 39, 1176-1183
4
Trends in past-year nonmedical use of prescription medications in college
students: 2003–2013 McCabe et al., 2014
5
6
Percent of Other drug use - *Excludes alcohol, cigarettes, tobacco from a
water pipe, and marijuana within the past 12 months – ACHA/NCHA 2013
All other
drugs
combined
(percent)
Male
Female
Total
Male
Actual use Actual use Actual use Perceived
use
Female
Perceived
use
Total
Perceived
use
Never
used
58.3
75.5
69.7
14.2
10.9
12.1
Used but
not in the
last 30
days
23.2
16.2
18.5
17.4
14.4
15.4
Used 1 – 9 13.3
days
6.4
8.7
41.8
42.3
41.9
Used 1029 days
2.5
1.2
1.7
17.4
20.3
19.2
Used 30
days
2.7Fe
0.7
1.4
9.2
12..2
11.4
8.3
11.9
68.4
74.8
72.5
Any use in 18.5
last 30
days
Percent of college students who reported using drugs that were not
prescribed to them within the last 12 months ACHA/NCHA 2013
Drug
Percent
Male
Female
Total
Antidepressants
2.2
3.1
2.8
Erectile
dysfunction
drugs
1.2
0.8
0.9
Pain killers
6.2
5.5
5.8
Sedatives
3.1
3.1
3.2
Stimulants
7.1
5.4
6.0
Used one or
more of the
above
12.3
11.4
11.8
8
Problems Associated with Prescription
Drug Abuse among College Students
Health risks (seizures, stroke, death)
 Most college students abusing Adderall
were also binge drinkers and half heavy
alcohol users(SAMSHA, 2009)
 Students who take prescription drugs
non-medically are 5x more likely to
develop a drug abuse problem
(McCabe, 2008)

9
Objective 2
Current techniques used to address
prescription drug abuse
Dr. Margaret Smith
10
What prevention strategies
are you using in your
community or campus?
11
Current Methods of Reducing
Drug Abuse on College
Campuses
Environmental approaches (ex: Social
Norms, campus wide policies)
 Orientation Programs (ex: Under the
Influence Program, New Student
Orientation)
 Late night and Weekend
Activities/Events/Programs

Current Methods of Reducing
Drug Abuse on College
Campuses
Education Groups (ex: Policy Violators
Group, Residential Education Programs)
 Individual Counseling
 Peer Education
 Special programs for Athletes,
Fraternities, Sororities

What isn’t working
Individual (for the most part)
 One-time only
 Non-environmental approaches

Objective 3
The use of Appreciative Inquiry (AI)
research as an evidence-based
prevention strategy
What is AI?
Dr. Marj Droppa
15
What is Appreciative Inquiry (AI)?
A framework for creating an imagined
future that builds on the most
positive and vital elements of a
community or organization
16
APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY
Values the best of what is
DISCOVER
Envisions what might be
DREAM
Engages in dialogue about what should be
DESIGN
Develops strategies to bring about what will be
DELIVER
17
“Appreciative Inquiry focuses us
on the positive aspects of our lives
and leverages them to correct the
negative. It’s the opposite of
‘problem-solving.”

White, T.H. Working in Interesting Times: Employee morale and business
success in the information age. Vital Speeches of the Day, May 15, 1996,
Vol XLII, No. 15.
18
PROBLEM SOLVING
APPRECIATIVE
INQUIRY
Analytical Process

Define the Problem

Fix what is broken


Creative Process

Search for strengths
that already exist

Amplify what is
working

Focus on life-giving
forces

“What is working
well around here?”
Focus on what is
wrong
“What are the root
causes of problems
or gaps in
services?”
19
Creative Process

Each 4D is guided by Positive
Questions
 High point experiences
 Values
 Core, life-giving factors
 Images of future success

Encourage visual design
20
Appreciative Assumptions

In every society, organization, or
group, something is working

What we focus on becomes our reality

The act of asking questions of a group
influences the group in some way

Looking for what works well and doing
more of it is motivating and effective
21
Outcomes of AI

Recognition and affirmation of the
group’s strengths, values and
resources

Deep understanding of the factors that
contribute to success

Strategies to build on success

Synergy within the group

Momentum moving forward
22
The Phases
Discov
er
Delive
r
Dream
Design
Discover
Inquiry into the group’s experience of what
works; look for themes.
Dream
Develop common images for the future;
envision “what could be”. Develop
provocative propositions.
Design
Align strengths, values, structure, and
mission with vision. Develop achievable
plans and steps to make vision a reality.
Deliver
Co-create a sustainable, envisioned future.
23
24
The BEST part of AI?
It is community-based
 It is a participatory event
 It empowers

“It focuses on what a community does well
rather than on eliminating what a
community does badly”
25
Objective 3 cont….
The use of Appreciative Inquiry (AI)
research as an evidence-based
prevention strategy
AI at Keene State College
Dr. Jeanelle Boyer
26
AI at Keene State College
40 participants: faculty, staff, students,
community members
 4 weekday evenings
 2 hour sessions

27
AI at Keene State: Discovery

Partner Interviews and small group discussion
uncovered the BEST about Health and
Wellness at KSC

Results- “Positive Core”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wellness facilities and student clubs
Non-judgmental attitudes by peers
Supportive environment
Safety and challenge
Volunteer opportunities
Close community
Student involvement outside the college
28
Discovery: Let’s try it!

Think of a time when a prevention
strategy worked really well. Talk about
that experience with your partner. Take
notes. (~3 min per person)
29
AI at KSC: Discovery
30
AI at KSC: Dream
KSC opens the communities eyes to a new drug-free horizon!
Supporters watched today as over half of KSC’s students
took a pledge to be H.I.P. (Healthy, Involved, Positive).
Stigma No More: Keene Community Unites to Provide
Support and Alternatives leading to national prescription
drug reform.
Going the extra mile, the KSC community leads
the way to prescription drug reform through
new ways of resource support and prevention
for communities across the nation
31
AI at KSC: Design







Increase the number of peer educators as well
as the number of educated RA’s and RD’s
Educate all new teachers/staff/faculty at KSC
Increase awareness about stress relievers (ex
yoga, meditation, music, dance)
Mobilizing the whole community
Community endorsement/more resources for
the cause/grants
Maintaining what we already have in place
Inspirational speakers for the public
32
Strengths of AI
Community driven prevention strategies
 Spring board for a grant and a larger AI
summit
 Empowering
 Engaged participants
 Great attendance

33
Reflections from the Research
Team

Best Part of AI as a Prevention
Strategy?
34
Where we are today
Applied for and received a federally funded
grant to use AI inquiry to evaluate
community needs and to eventually
implement prevention strategies
 Partnership with Franklin Pierce College
and Cheshire County
 AI summit in October at Keene State
College with participants from both the
college and the greater Keene community

35
36
Questions & Overview
How does prescription and other substance
misuse affect the members of a large,
closed community, a college campus?
 What is the biopsychosocial impact of a
person with moderate to severe substance
use disorder upon suite mates, dorm
mates, class mates, and others within the
college community?
 Are responses similar to a nuclear or
extended family with substance misuse at
its center?

37
Questions?
38
Thank You
39

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