KILSYTH ACADEMY PLANOMETRI VIEWS Click C to edit Master title style TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT INTERMEDIATE 2 GRAPHICS Knowledge + Interpretation KNOWLEDGE AND INTERPRATATION REVISON Click to editBOOKLET Master subtitle style 1 Building Drawings A building or construction project requires a complete set of specialised drawings, called a project set. These drawings are used by local planning departments builders, joiners, plumbers electricians and even water and gas boards. You need to understand these drawings and be prepared to answer question about them in your exam. Site Plan A site plan (also known as a block plan) shows the site boundary and the outline of the new building which are highlighted in the location plan. Paths, roads and neighbouring plots are also shown. This type of plan enables the builder to mark out the site, lay drainage pipes and build manholes. It is also submitted to the local government planning department for approval. Location Plan The location plan is the first drawing in the set. It identifies the location of the new building within its surroundings. This type of drawing helps the builder to plan the layout of a new building scheme and is required by the local government planning department. Neighbouring buildings and their boundaries are shown, as are roads, street names and fields. The new building and plot are often outlined with thick black lines and sometimes, but not always, cross-hatched. The scale of the drawing depends on the size of the overall building scheme but is normally 1:1250. The scale depends on the size of building. For houses and small buildings a 1:200 scale is used. Building control and planning departments Drawings for new buildings require approval from the building control department and the planning department before construction work can begin. The building control department checks that the quality of design and construction meet British standards. The planning department assesses whether or not the style and proportions of the proposed building are appropriate for the location. Building Drawings Floor Plan A floor plan is a plan view of the house with the roof and a few layers of brick removed. The floor plan shows a number of features such as: Arrangement of rooms Position of windows and doors Fixtures, appliances and symbols More detailed floor plans show the layout of kitchen and bathrooms, since these are rooms which have fixtures and appliances. BSI standard symbols are used to represent appliances and other features. The plan below shows some of these symbols. Look at the bottom of the page to find out what these symbols are. B A C D Types of walls internally and externally. Position of plumbing and electrics such as switches, sockets, bath tubs and wash basins. E F Floor plans are used by builders, plumbers, electricians and joiners to help plan the construction work and to cost the building materials. The scale used depends on the size of the building but a typical scale would be 1:50. A – Sockets B – Sink top C – Washbasin D – Bath E – Switch F – Shower tray Building Drawings Sectional Views A cross section showing a slice through the wall gives builders joiners and roofers a good idea of how the building should be constructed. Cross sectional views can show a number of things including Construction of eaves of the roof The type of materials used Windows Cavity walls Floorboards Elevations Elevations are orthographic projections of a building produced by its architect or designer. The show the style of the building, the external appearance, the style of the roof and the position of doors windows etc Building symbols The most common building symbols are shown below. Foundations The example on the right shows some patterns and symbols used the list below explains. A – Sawn wood B – Insulation C – Brickwork D - Foundations Lamp Insulation Switch Brickwork Socket Sawn wood Bath Concrete Washbasin Window Shower tray Door Sink top Radiator Sink Colour theory Colour and its different uses is an important part of graphic design. Colour can even be used to create moods or feelings. Primary colours Secondary colours Primary colours are the three colours that are mixed to create all other colours. Secondary colours are produced by mixing two primary colours in equal quantity. Yellow Green Blue When designers are choosing colour schemes for products or rooms or anything else colours can be put together in different ways to produce different effect. A colour scheme can be harmonious or contrasting. Colour schemes that are in harmony are easier on the eye and contrasting colours are often used to make something stand out more. Harmony is created by choosing colours that are close to each other on the colour wheel. Contrast is created by putting colours together that are on opposite sides of the colour wheel. Warm colours Cool colours Red Tertiary colours Tertiary colours are made by mixing a primary colour and a secondary colour. Colour wheel Orange Harmony and Contrast The colour wheel is designed to show how different colours are created. Violet Reds, yellows and oranges are warm colours i.e. they give a feeling of warmth. They are also known as advancing colours. For example if you were to paint a room in these colours it would appear smaller as the walls would appear closer. Blues, greens and violets are cool colours they give a feeling of being cold. They also appear further away and as such are known as receding colours. If you painted a room in these colours it would seem bigger and more spacious.