K.IInt2 - Kilsyth Academy

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KILSYTH ACADEMY
PLANOMETRI
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TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT
INTERMEDIATE 2 GRAPHICS
Knowledge +
Interpretation
KNOWLEDGE AND
INTERPRATATION REVISON
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1
Building Drawings
A building or construction project requires a complete
set of specialised drawings, called a project set. These
drawings are used by local planning departments
builders, joiners, plumbers electricians and even water
and gas boards. You need to understand these drawings
and be prepared to answer question about them in your
exam.
Site Plan
A site plan (also known as a block plan) shows the site
boundary and the outline of the new building which are
highlighted in the location plan. Paths, roads and
neighbouring plots are also shown. This type of plan enables
the builder to mark out the site, lay drainage pipes and build
manholes. It is also submitted to the local government
planning department for approval.
Location Plan
The location plan is the first drawing in the set. It
identifies the location of the new building within its
surroundings.
This type of
drawing helps the
builder to plan the
layout of a new
building scheme
and is required by
the local
government
planning
department.
Neighbouring buildings and their boundaries are shown,
as are roads, street names and fields. The new building
and plot are often outlined with thick black lines and
sometimes, but not always, cross-hatched.
The scale of the drawing depends on the size of the
overall building scheme but is normally 1:1250.
The scale depends
on the size of
building. For
houses and small
buildings a 1:200
scale is used.
Building control and planning departments
Drawings for new buildings require approval from the
building control department and the planning department
before construction work can begin. The building control
department checks that the quality of design and
construction meet British standards. The planning
department assesses whether or not the style and
proportions of the proposed building are appropriate for the
location.
Building Drawings
Floor Plan
A floor plan is a plan view of the house with the roof
and a few layers of brick removed. The floor plan shows
a number of features such as:
 Arrangement of rooms
 Position of windows and
doors
Fixtures, appliances and symbols
More detailed floor plans show the layout of kitchen and
bathrooms, since these are rooms which have fixtures and
appliances. BSI standard symbols are used to represent
appliances and other features. The plan below shows some of
these symbols. Look at the bottom of the page to find out
what these symbols are.
B
A
C
D
 Types of walls internally
and externally.
 Position of plumbing and
electrics such as switches,
sockets, bath tubs and
wash basins.
E
F
Floor plans are used by builders, plumbers, electricians
and joiners to help plan the construction work and to
cost the building materials.
The scale used depends on the size of the building but a
typical scale would be 1:50.
A – Sockets
B – Sink top
C – Washbasin
D – Bath
E – Switch
F – Shower tray
Building Drawings
Sectional Views
A cross section showing a slice through the wall gives
builders joiners and roofers a good idea of how the
building should be constructed. Cross sectional views
can show a number of things including
 Construction of eaves of the roof
 The type of materials used
 Windows
 Cavity walls
 Floorboards
Elevations
Elevations are
orthographic
projections of a
building produced
by its architect or
designer. The show
the style of the building, the external appearance,
the style of the roof and the position of doors
windows etc
Building symbols
The most common building symbols are shown below.
Foundations
The example on the right shows
some patterns and symbols used
the list below explains.
A – Sawn wood
B – Insulation
C – Brickwork
D - Foundations
Lamp
Insulation
Switch
Brickwork
Socket
Sawn wood
Bath
Concrete
Washbasin
Window
Shower tray
Door
Sink top
Radiator
Sink
Colour theory
Colour and its different uses is an important part of
graphic design. Colour can even be used to create
moods or feelings.
Primary colours
Secondary colours
Primary colours are the
three colours that are
mixed to create all other
colours.
Secondary colours are
produced by mixing two
primary colours in equal
quantity.
Yellow
Green
Blue
When designers are choosing colour schemes for products
or rooms or anything else colours can be put together in
different ways to produce different effect.
A colour scheme can be harmonious or contrasting. Colour
schemes that are in harmony are easier on the eye and
contrasting colours are often used to make something stand
out more.
Harmony is
created by
choosing
colours that
are close to
each other on
the colour
wheel.
Contrast is
created by
putting
colours
together that
are on
opposite
sides of the
colour wheel.
Warm colours
Cool colours
Red
Tertiary colours
Tertiary colours are made
by mixing a primary colour
and a secondary colour.
Colour wheel
Orange
Harmony and Contrast
The colour wheel is
designed to show how
different colours are
created.
Violet
Reds, yellows and
oranges are warm
colours i.e. they give a
feeling of warmth.
They are also known as
advancing colours. For
example if you were to
paint a room in these
colours it would appear
smaller as the walls
would appear closer.
Blues, greens and
violets are cool colours
they give a feeling of
being cold. They also
appear further away
and as such are known
as receding colours. If
you painted a room in
these colours it would
seem bigger and more
spacious.

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