Summary Slide Bibliographic Referencing An Introduction Bibliographic Referencing An Introduction By J. Papin-Ramcharan (Librarian) Engineering and Physical Sciences Division The Main Library, The University of the West Indies Contents What is citing Why cite? When to cite How to cite Samples What is citing To "cite" is to point to evidence, authority or proof. When we use the term cite we refer to the way that you note the source of your information. Why cite? Acknowledging ALL your sources is important: – to prove that your work has a substantial, factual basis – to show the research you've done to reach your conclusions – to allow your readers to identify and retrieve the references for their own use – to avoid charges of plagiarism When to cite Whenever you directly copy the words of another author (quoting) e.g. A popular textbook defines engineering ethics as: “the study of the moral issues and decisions confronting individuals and organizations involved in engineering” (Smith 1996). When to cite • Or put their ideas into your own words (paraphrasing) e.g. Yet in practice, many working engineers are engaged in activities that exceed the narrowly technical: engineers help negotiate contracts, manage organizations and report to regulators (Latour 1996). When to cite • Or use a figure or diagram that you did not create e.g. Figure 1: Sources and Pathways of Contaminants When to cite • Quoting directly • Paraphrasing • Using Data from other sources e.g. diagrams, graphs, maps, tables etc. • You must acknowledge your sources. Styles for Referencing There are different styles for doing your references . These include: – Chicago – Harvard – Vancouver – Styles recommended by journals and professional associations, e.g. o Modern Language Association (MLA), o American Psychological Association (APA) or o Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Categories of Sources Printed sources Electronic sources Some Printed Sources Books Journal articles Conference Papers Standards Patents Reports Government Publications Unpublished material Elements in Citing (Printed) You need to make note of the following information about every printed source you use. Not every detail will be applicable in every case: – author(s)'s or editor(s)'s full names; or the group/body/organization responsible – title of article or chapter – name of the journal, periodical or book – edition (if applicable) Elements in Citing (Printed) cont’d You need to make note of the following information about every printed source you use. Not every detail will be applicable in every case: — publisher's name (if applicable) — place of publication (for book) — year of publication — volume number (for journal) — issue number (for journal) — page numbers Elements in Citing (Electronic) name of the author or editor title of the page title of the site (go to the site's homepage) date the page was last updated, or the copyright date the full internet address (URL) of the page (i.e. http://etc.) the date that you accessed the page any other details that might help someone else find the part of the page that you used How to Cite A citation/reference is made by putting together all the details needed to find a piece of information, in a specified order and with a specific syntax or punctuation details. Different details are needed for different formats of information. Citing Book Sources (Chicago Style) Author's Surname , Author's first name or initial . Year of publication . Title of the Book (in italics or underlined) . Edition [if not first]. Place of Publication : Publisher's name. Citing Book Sources - Examples One author Maas, Stephen. 1998. The RF and microwave circuit design cookbook. Boston:Artech House. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Maas 1998) Citing Book Sources - Examples In the Body of Your Report: Diodes have wide bandwidths and sufficiently low internal noise to operate at low power levels. This input power must be small enough that the diodes are good square-law power detectors and are not envelope or multi-term detectors (Maas 1998). At the End of The Report: BIBLIOGRAPHY Bidanda, B., and R.Billo. 1995. On the Use of Students for Developing Engineering Laboratories. Journal of Engineering Education 84(2) : 205–213. Grayson, L.P. 1993. The Making of an Engineer. New York, N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons. Maas, Stephen. 1998. The RF and microwave circuit design cookbook. Boston:Artech House. Citing Book Sources - Examples Two authors Coleman,W.C., and W. G. Jones. 1998. Experimentation and uncertainty analysis for engineers. 2d. ed. New York : John Wiley. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Coleman and Jones 1998) Citing Book Sources - Examples THREE AUTHORS Popper , S. W. ; C. S. Wagner; and E. V. Larson. 1998. New forces at work:Industry views critical technologies. California : RAND CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Popper, Wagner, and Larson 1998) Citing Book Sources - Examples MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS Kimball, R., L. Reeves, M. Ross, and W. Thornthwaithe.1998. The data warehouse lifecycle toolkit . New York : John Wiley. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Kimball et al. 1998) Citing Book Sources - Examples CORPORATE AUTHORSHIP Norlight Telecommunications. 1999. External assessment. .Technical Report. Milwaukee: Norlight Telecommunications CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Norlight Telecommunications 1999) Citing Book Sources - Examples EDITOR ,COMPILER OR TRANSLATOR RATHER THAN AUTHOR: In the reference list, the abbreviation ed. or eds. comp. or comps. trans. Follows the name and is preceded by a comma. Clarke ,Andrew G., ed.1998. Industrial air pollution monitoring, London:Chapman and Hall (Clarke 1998) Citing Book Sources - Examples EDITOR, COMPILER OR TRANSLATOR WITH AN AUTHOR Luck Erich, and Martin Jager.1997.Antimicrobial food additives: Characteristics, uses, effects. 2d. ed. Translated by S. F. Laichena. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Luck and Jager 1997) Citing Journal Sources Title of the article Kayansayan, N. 1993. Thermal characteristics of fin-and-tube heat exchanger cooled by natural convection. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 7(3) : 177-188 Journal Name Issue Volume CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Kayansayan 1993) Page CONFERENCE PAPERS IN PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS Nebgen, Pamela J., and Richard C. Warner. 1985. Computer aided design of hydrologic and sediment control systems. In ASEE Annual Conference Proceedings: Computer Aided Engineering 16-20 June, 1985. Edited by Lawrence P. Grayson, 272-279. Atlanta: American Society for Engineering Education. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Nebgen and Warner 1985) Standards British Standards Institution (BSI) .1991. Specification for metal Cutting Bandsaw Blades. BS 3877. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (BSI 1991) Patents Sugisawa,K ,Y. Matsumura, and K. Taga.1986. Decompression oil-frying method for food products. U.S. Patent 4,585.660. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Sugisawa, Matsumura, and Taga 1986) Reports San Fernando/Princes Town highway improvements continuation of Solomon Hochoy Highway (St. Joseph village to New Cipero Road) : final report - design . A report prepared by Trinidad Engineering and Research (1978) Ltd. 1980. Port of Spain, Trinidad : Ministry of Transport and Works. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (San Fernando/Princes Town highway 1980) Government Publications Trinidad and Tobago. Ministry of Petroleum and Mines, Geological Section.1966. Analyses of Trinidad and Tobago rocks, minerals and ores. Compiled by K.M.W. Marshall. Port of Spain,Trinidad : Geological Section, Min. of Petroleum & Mines. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Min. Petrol. and Mines 1966) Unpublished Material Charles ,Raymond, F. 1989. The equilibrium strength of Trinidad clay subgrades. M.Phil. Thesis. Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine,Trinidad and Tobago. CORRESPONDING IN-TEXT CITATION: (Charles 1989) Electronic Sources Bide, Mark. 1998. In search of the unicorn: the Digital Object Identifier from a user perspective [online]. [cited 9 June 1998]. Available from: http://www.bic.org.uk/bic/unicorn2.pdf Oxford English Dictionary Computer File: On Compact Disc. 2nd ed. [CD-ROM]. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992. Electronic Sources Dunbar, Brian. 1996. The 16 Most Frequently Asked Questions about NASA. In The NASA Homepage [online]. [cited 14 August 1996]. Available from: http://www.nasa.gov/hqpao/Top10.html A Sample Reference List REFERENCES Meyer, M.D. 1992. Public transportation in the 21st century. In Public transportation. 2nd ed. Edited by G. E. Gray, and L. A. Hoel. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Rau, J.G. ,and D. C. Wooten. 1980. Environmental impact analysis handbook. New York :McGraw-Hill. Richardson, A. J. 1990. Traffic planning and modeling: a twenty year perspective. Australian Road Research 20(1): 9-21. Young, W. 1990. The interaction between data and a parking model hierarchy . Proc. 15th Aust. Road Research Board Conference. Australia: Road Research Board. Referencing within the text - Samples . Numerous studies on the utilization of plant proteins as a partial or complete replacement for fish meal in diets have been conducted using various freshwater and marine fishes (Lovell 1987;Tacon et al. 1983; Murai et al. 1989a ; Cowey et al. 1974). However, very little is known about the feasibility of using soybean meal as a dietary protein source in practical feeds for yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata (Takii et al. 1989). . The question we address here is how technological change occurs when it is the overall system that needs to be changed. In particular, how can we begin and sustain a technological transition away from hydrocarbon based technologies? (Street and Miles 1996) . Taking all these elements and their possible variations into account is often far too complex and tedious for determining efficient gas development patterns with simple back of the envelope calculations. In their survey of these elements, Julius and Mashayeki (1996) present a detailed analysis of these different interactions. Variations Some of the "preferred" methods of bibliographic referencing from the recommended Chicago Manual of Style (15th .Edition) have been illustrated above. Although referencing using the Chicago Style should be evident by just a glance at your document, it might be worthy to quote directly from the Chicago Manual of Style on the matter of allowed variations: So long as a documentary style is clear, effective and consistently followed, variations and combinations of the basic styles outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style may be considered acceptable alternatives.