Calcium

Report
Calcium
• Calcium is the most common mineral in
the human body.
• About 99% of the calcium in the body is
found in bones and teeth, while the
other 1% is found in the blood and soft
tissue.
鈣是人體最多的礦物質。
大約99% 鈣在身體的骨頭和牙裡,
另1% 在血液和軟的組織。
• Approximately 1,000 g of calcium in the
average 70 kg adult body,
• almost 98% is found in bone,
1% in teeth, and the rest is found in blood,
extracellular fluids, and within cells where it is
a co-factor for a number of enzymes.
一個70 公斤成人身體內大約有
1,000 克鈣。
98% 鈣在骨頭, 1%鈣在牙齒和血
液, 細胞外流體及細胞內----為多
种酵素的輔因子。
Calcium
• Calcium plays a role in mediating the
constriction and relaxation of blood vessels
(vasoconstriction and vasodilation), nerve
impulse transmission, muscle contraction,
and the secretion of hormones, such as
insulin.
鈣的功能包括:
血管的收縮和放鬆 ,
神經傳導、肌肉收縮,
和激素的分泌, 譬如胰島素。
Calcium
• promotes blood clotting by activating the
protein fibrin, and along with
magnesium helps to regulate the heart
beat, muscle tone, muscle contraction and
nerve conduction.
激活纖維蛋白 ,促進血液凝結。
和與鎂一起幫助調控心跳、
肌肉緊張、肌肉收縮和神經傳導。
Chronic calcium deficiency
• hypertension, 高血壓
• Prostate cancer 前列腺癌
• colorectal cancer 直腸癌
• kidney stones, 腎石
• miscarriage, birth (heart) defects,
• 流產, 出生(心臟) 缺陷
• menstrual and pre-menstrual
problems
• 月經和經前問題
Chronic calcium deficiency
• various bone, joint and
periodontal diseases,
• 各種各樣的骨頭, 關節和牙周病
• sleep disturbances, 睡眠困擾
• mental health / depressive
disorders,
• 精神健康/情緒抑鬱
• cardiovascular hemorrhagic
diseases,
• 心血管出血性的疾病,
D3 restores normal calcium levels
1.
the vitamin D-dependent
transport system in the small
intestine,
the absorption of dietary calcium,
2) by the mobilization of calcium
from bone into the circulation,
3)
the reabsorption of calcium by
the kidneys.
low blood calcium
• A low blood calcium level usually implies
abnormal parathyroid function, and is rarely
due to low dietary calcium intake since the
skeleton provides a large reserve of calcium
for maintaining normal blood levels.
血液鈣低水平通常表示副甲狀腺反
常功能,
絕少和飲食攝取不足鈣有關,
因為骨骼是維持正常血液鈣水平的
一個大儲備。
low blood calcium
Other causes of abnormally low
blood calcium levels include :
• chronic kidney failure,
• vitamin D deficiency,
• low blood magnesium levels
血液鈣低水平的其它因素:
慢性腎臟衰竭 , 缺乏維生素D,
血液鎂水平低
Calcium concentrations
Protein
• The RDA for protein is 46 grams/day for adult
women and 56 grams/day for adult men
• The average intake of protein in the U.S.
tends to be higher (women 65-70 grams/day
and men 90-110 grams/day).
蛋白質RDA份量—
婦女是每天46克,男仕每天56 克
美國平均蛋白質攝取量,
(婦女每 65-70 克,男仕 90-110 克
。
Protein
• Researcher have calculated that
each additional gram of protein
results in an additional loss of
1.75 mg of calcium / day
研究發現 ,
每攝取額外一克的蛋白質
會導致1.75 毫克鈣的損失
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Protein
• Because only 30% of dietary calcium is
generally absorbed, each one-gram
increase in protein intake/day would
require an additional 5.8 mg of calcium per
day to offset the calcium loss.
由於奶類食物只有 30% 鈣被吸收,
而每一克每天額外攝取的蛋白質,
會增加另外的 5.8 毫克鈣攝取
抵銷鈣損失。
Phosphorus
• Phosphorus, which is typically found
in protein-rich foods and soft drink,
tends to increase calcium loss .
磷, 是豐富蛋白質食物和汽水中,
一種常見礦物,
會導致鈣的流失。
Sodium
• Increased sodium intake results in
increased loss of calcium in the urine,
possibly due to competition between
sodium and calcium for reabsorption in
the kidney or by an effect of sodium on
parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion.
增加的鈉攝取時,
由於鈉和鈣競爭在腎臟的重新吸收
或由鈉在副甲狀腺分泌的作用,
導致增加鈣在尿液的流失。
Sodium
• Each 2.3-gram increment of sodium (6 grams
of salt; NaCl) excreted by the kidney has
been found to draw about 24-40 milligrams
(mg) of calcium into the urine.
每次腎臟排泄多 2.3 克的鈉
(即6 克的鹽 NaCl)
同時會有大約 24-40 毫克鈣
在尿液流失。
Sodium
• Because urinary losses account for about
half of the difference in calcium retention
among individuals, dietary sodium has a
large potential to influence bone loss.
由於鈣在泌尿時的損失,
佔體內儲存大約一半的鈣,
飲食中攝取的鈉,
對骨質流失影響極大。
Sodium
• In adult women, each extra gram of
sodium consumed per day is projected to
produce an additional rate of bone loss of
1% per year if all of the calcium loss
comes from the skeleton.
婦女額外攝取每克的鈉,
若然所有流失的鈣是來自骨骼,
會導致增加每年 1% 骨質流失。
Sodium
• A 2-year study of postmenopausal women
found increased urinary sodium excretion
(an indicator of increased sodium intake)
to be associated with decreased bone
mineral density (BMD) at the hip.
一項為期 2 年的研究 ,
發現更年期後婦女增加泌尿排泄鈉
(顯示增加攝取鈉)
同臀部骨質物密度減少的有關。
Exercise
• There is evidence to suggest that physical
activity early in life contributes to the
attainment of higher peak bone mass and
is benefit in the prevention of osteoporosis
and osteoporotic fracture
有證據顯示,
在年青時運動對達至更佳的骨質密度
及對預防骨質疏鬆和拆骨破裂有幫助。
The beneficial skeletal effect of
increased physical activity was
achievable only at calcium
intakes above 1,000 mg/day.
增加運動
對有利骨骼的益處,
只會在每天攝取
多過1,000 毫克的鈣,
才能達到。
The Recom Dietary Intake (RDI)
• Updated recommendations for calcium
intake based on the optimization of bone
health were released by the NHMRC in
2006.
2006年NHMRC對優化骨頭健康,
發布新的鈣攝取份量的最新建議。
RDI for Calcium
Males
(mg/day)
210
270
500
700
1000 -1,300
Females
(mg/day)
210
270
500
700
1000 - 1,300
14-18
1,300
1,300
Adults
19-50
1,000
1,000
Adults
51 and older
1000 - 1300
1000 - 1300
Pregnancy
18 and younger
-
1,300
Pregnancy
19 and older
-
1,000
Breastfeeding
18 and younger
-
1,300
Breastfeeding
19s and older
-
1,000
Life Stage
Age
Infants
Infants
Children
Children
Children
0-6 months
7-12 months
1-3
4-8
9-13
Adolescents
Average dietary intake
Percent Americans Consuming
100% of the RDA, Select Nutrients
120%
% Population
100%
80%
64%
60%
70%
74%
72%
69%
Vit. E
Vit. B6
Zn
Ca
46%
40%
20%
0%
Vit. A
Vit. C
Vitamin / Mineral
J Am Coll Nutr, 1994
ALL in ONE ?
• No multivitamin / multi-mineral tablet
contains 100% of the recommended daily
value (DV) for calcium because it is too
bulky, and the resulting pill would be too
large to swallow.
沒有任何多種維生素及礦物片劑,
能包含100%
鈣的每日建議攝取的份量,
因為鈣是龐大的,
所以會令片劑太大,以至不能吞下。
Calcium Supplement
• A complete bone health formula.
• Promote and improve bone health
• Contains Calcium, Magnesium, and
vitamin D.
•一個完全骨頭健康配方
•促進和改進骨頭健康
•含鈣、鎂、和維生素D
Calcium & Magnesium:
• Both elements share left / rightsided cell receptors and are
essential to human health
鈣和鎂:
兩個分享細胞受體左/右的礦物
對人類健康十分重要。
• While calcium affects muscle
contractions, magnesium balances
that effect and relaxes muscles.
• unlike calcium, most of magnesium
is inside the cell,
當鈣影響肌肉收縮,
鎂平衡收縮的影響,並且放鬆肌肉。
不同於鈣, 大多數鎂是在細胞裡面,
• Although the process of absorption for
magnesium is similar to that of calcium,
• some people absorb or retain much more
magnesium than calcium (or more calcium
than magnesium),
雖然吸收的過程為鎂與和鈣相似,
但有此人會吸收或貯存較多鎂
(又或會吸收或貯存較多鈣)
Supplement & Bone mass
Lyn Patrick, N.D. Comparative
Absorption of Calcium Sources
and Calcium Citrate Malate for
the Prevention of Osteoporosis
(Altern Med Rev 1999;4(2):74-85)
• To maximize absorption,
take no more than 500 mg
of elemental calcium at
one time.
要有效吸收鈣,
一次不能攝取多過500 毫克鈣
。
Kidney stone ?
• **Overall, increased
dietary calcium has
been associated with a
decreased risk of
kidney stones.
** 整體來說 飲食增加樑攝取鈣
和減少患上腎結石的風險有關係。
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
• The NHMRC set the tolerable upper
level (UL) of intake for calcium at
2,500 milligrams (mg) of calcium per
day.
NHMRC 設定鈣的每天最高安全攝取份
量(UL)為2,500 毫克。

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