Ess-Faigenbaum - Colby

Report
A Coaches Dozen:
12 FUNdamental Principles
for Building Young &
Healthy Athletes
Avery Faigenbaum, Ed.D., FACSM, FNSCA
Dept. of Health & Exercise Science
The College of New Jersey
Youth Sport Participation
What are we really trying
to do with these kids?
Win
Adult
games?
Health?
Childhood
Health?
Adult
Exercise?
Health Club Membership,
Under 18 yrs.
Millions
(IHRSA, 2006)
+58%
What does it take to be a
youth coach?
12 FUNdamental Principles
Build a Strong Foundation
Principle #1
Young athletes are not
miniature adults
• Chronological age
• Biological age
• Training age
• Emotional differences
• Social differences
• Reasons to be active
• Responses to training
Physiologic Development and
Performance in Boys and Girls
Boys
Girls
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
4
6
8
10
12
Age (years)
14
16
18
20
Possible Outcomes of
Exercise Training
(Rowland, 2001)
Untrained
Trained
12
???
10
Sensitive Period
8
6
4
2
0
4
6
8
10
12
Age (years)
14
16
18
20
12
How much is too much?
Sunday = 1 hour
Monday = 2.5 hours
Tuesday = 5.5 hours
Wednesday= 5 hours
Thursday = 2.5 hours
Friday =
5 hours
Saturday = 5.5 hours
27 hours
13
An Additional Outcome of
Excessive Exercise Training
(Adapted from Rowland, 2001)
Untrained
Trained
Overtrained
12
???
10
Sensitive Period
8
6
4
2
0
4
6
8
10
12
Age (years)
14
16
18
20
14
Principle #2
Value Preparatory Conditioning
Overuse Injuries in the
Young Athlete
(Dr. Lyle Micheli, Children’s Hospital Boston)
• Training errors
• Environment/equipment
• Anatomic malalignments
• Growth
• Muscle-tendon imbalance
• Underlying disease states
• Cultural deconditioning
Physical Activity for Youth
(Faigenbaum, SCJ, 2001)
Sport
Competition
Sport Training
FUNdamental
Fitness
General
Conditioning
Lifestyle Physical Activities
Participation in sports should
evolve out of preparatory
fitness conditioning
Plan for success
18
Potential Benefits of Youth
Strength and Conditioning
• Increase strength
• Increase power
• Improve body composition
• Enhance BMD
• Improve sports performance
• Reduce sports injuries
At what age can
children start
strength
training?
Principle #3
Avoid Sport Specialization
Before Adolescence
80-20 Rule
Developmental Symmorphosis
No single component should
develop faster than the rest of
the system as a whole
The Developing Brain
Paul Thompson, UCLA Laboratory of Neuroimaging
MRI scans of children and teens,
15 years of brain development
25
Principle #4
Enhance Physical Literacy
Childhood Obesity is Up
*Physical Literacy is Down *
Become Aware of Weaknesses
•Identify weaknesses
•Identify strengths
•ABC’S
•Agility
•Balance
•Coordination
•Strength
Awareness breeds success
Earn the Right
Principle #5
Better to Undertrain
than Overtrain
• Sports practice
• Sports conditioning
• “Private” conditioning
• Part-time job
• School, family….
1972
2010
More is Just More
Training + Restoration = Adaptation
Training + Training = Maladaptation
Red Zone
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Under-recovery > Under-performance
Value Less Intense Training
• Learning required
concentration & interest
• Focus on practicing skills
correctly
• Well-planned activities can
maximize recovery
Anyone can make an athlete tired
Principle #6
Focus on Positive Education
Play is the work of childhood
What is fun?
Principle #7
Maximize Recovery
Recovery Strategies for
Young Athletes
• 1. Cool-down
• 6. Vary workouts
• 2. Post-exercise food • 7. Music
• 3. Stay hydrated
• 8. Socialize
• 4. Contrast shower
• 9. Visualization
• 5. Massage
• 10. Adequate sleep
Sleep & High School Students
• AAP, adolescents require 9-10 hours/night
• Sleep survey to >3000 9th-12th graders
– Wolfson & Carskadon, Child Development, 1998
– Median amount of sleep was 7.5 hrs
– 25% reported sleeping 6.5 hrs or less
• Sleep survey to athletes & nonathletes
– Faigenbaum, et al, SCJ., 2002
– Average amount of sleep was 6.6 hrs
– No difference between athletes and nonathletes
– 94% of the athletes noted they need more sleep
• Alcohol Intoxication •
– Inability to focus
– Decrease alertness
– Lack of motivation
– Poor decision making
– Decrease reaction time
– Decreased strength
Sleep deprivation
– Inability to focus
– Decrease alertness
– Lack of motivation
– Poor decision making
– Decrease reaction time
– Decreased strength
Poor Performance
Principle #8:
It’s Not What You Take
It’s What You Do
Principle #9
Get Connected: Don’t be a Sub
•
•
•
•
•
•
“Feeling connected”
Listen & show interest
Catch kids being good
Be enthusiastic
Show & tell
Be a positive role model
Principle #10
Make a Long-Term Commitment
www.softball.bc.ca
LTAD: General to Specific
Fundamental stage ~6-9
Learning to train ~9-12
Training to train, ~12-16
Training to compete, ~16-18
Training to win
Principle #11
There Are No Secrets
Need qualified coaching, well
designed practice sessions and a
long-term commitment
Principle #12
Never Stop Learning
• Own experiences & share ideas
• Peer-reviewed journals
• Professional conferences
• Talk with colleagues
What are we really trying to
do with these kids?
Thank you!
• Dr. Lyle Micheli
• Dr. Wayne Westcott
• Dr. Tom Rowland
• Pat Mediate
• Jim McFarland
• Tracy Radler

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