Cards

Report
The Atlantic World 1492-1800
World History: Patterns
of Interaction
Chapter 20
ATB #16
What happened
on this day (Oct. 4)
in 1918?
Day 17 – Essential Questions
 Why were the Spanish able to easily defeat the
Aztec and Incan civilizations?
 How were the French and English colonies in
the Americas different in regards to land,
economy, and relations with natives?
 What was the main consequence of the French
and Indian War?
Spain Builds an American Empire
 Motivation – fierce competition for wealth in Europe
[GOLD]
 Christopher Columbus – Genoese captain hired by
Ferdinand and Isabella to find a route to the Spice Islands
by sailing west
 Landed in the Caribbean Oct. 12, 1492
 Called people “los indios” thinking he was in the Indies
 Islands now called the West Indies
 Miscalculated size of the earth
 Claimed San Salvador for Spain
 Returned to Spain 1493  monarchs financed 3 more trips
 Intended to turn Caribbean lands into colonies – lands
controlled by another nation
Other Explorers Sail West
 1500 – Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal
 1501 – Amerigo Vespucci realizes land not part of Asia
 1507 – German mapmaker names new continent “America”
 1519 – Ferdinand Magellan sailed down coast of South
America; tracks Strait of Magellan through southern tip
 Sailed into Pacific Ocean – months without seeing land
 Ran out of food
 Eventually reached Philippines, where Magellan was killed by
natives [CLAIMED for Spain 1521]
 Crew, reduced by disease and starvation, continued west to
home
 18 of original 250 men reached Spain in 1522 – first persons to
circumnavigate the world
Spanish Conquests in Mexico
 1519 – Hernán Cortés landed in Mexico
 Conquistadors – Spanish conquerers brought guns, horses,
and disease
 Claimed lands for Spain
 Sought gold and silver in Mexico, South America, and presentUS
 Encountered native Aztecs
 Reached capital of Tenochtitlan
 Montezuma II – Is Cortés a god?
 Agreed to give gold
 Killed many Aztecs starting spring 1520
 Conquered Aztecs in 1521
 Spanish weapons superior
 Other native groups helped Cortés
 Disease – measles, mumps, smallpox, typhus – no natural
immunity
Spanish Conquests in Peru
 1532 – Francisco Pizarro – Spanish conquerer
reached Peru and conquered the Incan Empire
 Met ruler Atahualpa near city Cajamarca
 Spanish: 200 man army; Incan: 30,000 man army
 Spanish ambushed, kidnapped Atahualpa
 Received ransom of gold and silver
 But, strangled Atahualpa anyway
 Incans retreated
 Captured capital Cuzco without a struggle in 1533
 Other regions
 Maya in the Yucatan & Guatemala
Spain’s Empire by
mid-16th Century
 4 Viceroyalties
 New Spain [Mexico]
 New Granada [Ecuador]
 Peru [Peru]
 Rio de la Plata [Chile,
Argentina]
Spanish Patterns of Conquest
 Techniques used during the reconquista of Spain
[conquering Muslims]
 Live among them, imposing culture on them
 Relations between Spanish and natives common  creation of
mestizo population
 Oppressed natives
 Encomienda system – forced labor of natives in farms, ranches, or
mines
 Spoken against by Bartolome de las Casas – new laws
forbade enslavement in 1542.. Too far away to enforce…
 Imposed culture
 Close control on trade – esp. silver & gold
 Sugar cane profitable  NEED WORKERS
 Slaves from Africa by 1530s
 # descendents from Africans outnumbered Europeans
within a few generations
 Laws prohibited trade with other nations
 Spread authority of Catholic Church
Spanish Colonial Society
 Blended Spanish, African, and Native American cultures
 Native styles of buildings, food, use of canoes
 Christanity and horses present
 African cooking, farming, dance, song
 Social Classes






Spanish-born Europeans
Creoles
Mestizos
Mulattos
Natives
Africans
 Valued education – fulflilled by the Church
Pushing North
 1540 – Empire stretched from
Mexico to Peru
 1540-41 – Francisco Vásquez
de Coronado led expedition
through Arizona, New
Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma,
Kansas
 Little gold
 Mostly priests settled to
explore & colonize present-US
 MANY Christian
missionaries in Spanish
Empire seeking converts
 Evident today??
Effects of Spanish Conquistadors
 Conquered millions of natives with guns
and disease
 Seized valuable goods esp. gold and
silver
 Send abroad to Philippines for trade
 Made Spain very wealthy and powerful
 Natives – split
 Stop resisting, convert to Christianity
 Still fight and protect culture
 Changed patterns of global
encounters
 Map connected by sea routes for trade
(not just land routes)
REMEMBER:
 Conquered the Aztecs, Incas, and other natives easily
with guns and disease
 Empire spread from California to Chile in the Americas
 Social hierarchy ranged from Africans (slaves) at the
bottom to Spanish-born whites at the top
 Placement of mixed people on the scale indicates the
commonality of interbreeding that was still seen as lessacceptable
 Economy focused on treasures (gold, silver) and later
plantations (sugar, tobacco)
Portuguese in Brazil
 Cabrel claimed land in 1500
 Conquered Tupian Indians (disease)
 Land grants began in 1530s – King would give land to nobles
if they shared profits
 Economy: not instant wealth from gold & silver, rather from
plantation agriculture & cattle
 Highest number slaves in the Americas
 Some instant $ from sale of brazilwood
 Blended culture similar to that of Spanish Empire
Europeans Settle North America
 Must compete with Spain
 Ignored Treaty of Torsedillas 1494
 Find Northwest Passage – profitable trade route through
North America instead of around it
 Doesn’t exist… oops!
New France
 New France – France’s colonial empire in
North America based in present-day Quebec
 Jacques Cartier reached coast of eastern
Canada c.1534
 Named St. Lawrence River
 Named Montreal
 1608 – Samuel de Champlain founded
Quebec
 1673 – Jesuit priest Marquette and trader Joliet
explored Great Lakes & upper Mississippi River
 C.1673 – Sieur de La Salle explored lower
Mississippi – claimed entire river valley for
France – named Louisiana for Louis XIV
New France’s Trading Empire
 Sparsely populated
lands
 Only 65,000 by 1760
 No desire to build
towns or raise families
 No Protestants
allowed in NF – Louis
XIV was Catholic
 Some settlements and
forts along rivers 1700s
 Economy based on
trade – furs, fishing
 Climate not suited to
agriculture
 Dependent on
natives to trade with;
learn how to acquire
goods themselves
REMEMBER:
 Small population
 Located in Canada, Ohio & Mississippi River Valleys
 Fur traders
 Worked with natives to survive
English Settlements
 Reached Jamestown in 1607, chartered by King James
 Settlers more interested in gold than crops – BIG fail
 Mostly single men looking for $$
 7/10 died in early years of hunger or disease
 Initially dependent on natives of survival
 Eventually good with tobacco cash crop farming
 1620 – Pilgrims founded Plymouth, Massachusetts
 Persecuted in England
 Branch of Protestantism
 C.1630 – Puritans sought religious freedom from Anglican
Church and founded large colony at Massachusetts Bay
 Numerous families enabled success
Varying English Colonies
 Founded on:
 Commercial Profit – New York, Virginia
 Religious Havens – MA, PA, MD
 Gifts from the King – Georgia, South Carolina
 All spent early years working with natives, trying to survive
 Learned to create wealth with resources & agriculture
 Fishing, shipbuilding, timber
 Rice, grains, tobacco
 Slaves later outnumber Europeans in south
Government of British Colonies
 Controlled by English monarch
 Saw themselves as English – wanted same rights
 Parliament passed laws affecting colonists
 High degree of self-government for local issues
What problems could arise from
this system of government? Think
about distance between places,
representation, $$, alliegances,
etc.
REMEMBER:
 13 original colonies along east coast
 Colonies established for different reasons
 Each colony was unique – shipbuilding in New England;
agriculture in the South; industry & trade in MidAtlantic
 Economies varied
 Initially relied on natives to survive
 Large, increasing population compared to other colonial
possessions
Dutch Found New Netherland
 1609 – Henry Hudson sailed west for the
Netherlands [was English]
 Hudson Bay, Hudson River, Hudson Strait
named for him
 Dutch claimed regions along waterways
 Built trading posts at Fort Orange
(Albany) and on Manhattan Island
 Dutch West India Company founded
 1621 – colonize and expand fur trade
 Lands called New Netherland
 Struggled to gain settlers – allowed in
more Dutch, Germans, French,
Scandinavians
Colonizing the Caribbean
 Also
colonized in
1600s
 Huge cotton
& sugar
plantations
 Demanded
large supply
of labor 
enslaved
Africans
Struggle for North America
 English ousted the Dutch without firing a
shot in 1664
 1.2M colonists by 1750 in 13 colonies
 Wanted more land  French problem
 1754 – dispute over lands in Ohio Valley led
to French and Indian War
 French & Algonquian VS English & Iroquois
 Natives aligned to their advantage
 Colonists, British, & Natives defeated French
in 1763
 Proclamation Line – set at boundary of the
Appalachians to halt colonists from
expanding westward
Colonists VS Natives
 King Philip’s War 1675
 Metacom, a native ruler, led an attack on colonial villages in
MA
 Following initial attacks, both sides massacred victims
 Colonists defeated natives after a year of fierce fighting
 Skirmishes, esp. along frontier, through 17th century
 Disease more destructive than weapons
 Nearly whole tribes fell to smallpox, measles, etc.
 Severe shortage of labor in colonies
 Bring in African slaves
Journal Entry
Imagine you are a European during
the 1600s. Rank the order in which
you would move to the Spanish
Empire, New France, or the British
Colonies [rank 1-3] and write a
short paragraph for each saying
why they ranked as such.
Big Ideas
 The voyages of Columbus prompted the Spanish to
establish colonies in the Americas to create wealth
 The Spanish were able to easily conquer peoples of the
Americas with guns, horses, and disease
 New France had a small population of fur traders and
eventually was evicted by the British
 The British retained political control over numerous
colonies based on different economies
ATB #17
Besides Africans and Natives
in the Americas, what other
groups have been enslaved
throughout history?
Day 18 – Essential Questions
 How did the spread of Islam affect the slave
trade?
 How did African slaves contribute to the
development of the Americas?
 How did capitalism and mercantilism impact the
economies of Europe and the Americas?
 How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe,
Africa, and the Americas?
Causes of African Slavery
 Natives difficult
 Offered resistance
 Knew land better
 Died from disease, warfare, treatment
 Spread of Islam in 7th century – increase in slavery & slave
trade
 Muslim rulers justified enslavement with Muslim belief that
POWs could be sold as slaves
 17M between 650-1600 to North Africa and SW Asia
 Slaves usually had some legal rights & opportunity for social
mobility
 Could escape bondage in African societies, incl. marriage
to family they served
Demand for Africans
 Colonization & plantation farming
 Advantages




Already exposed to European diseases
Experience in farming suitable to plantation work
Less likely to escape
Skin color – easier to catch them if they escape
 Atlantic Slave Trade – buying and selling of Africans for
work in the Americas
 Spanish took early lead – plantations, silver mines
 More than 40% slaves brought to Brazil in time –
plantations
Spread of Slavery
 England dominated slave trade from 1609 –
1807 when it abolished slave trade
 Transported nearly 1.7M to West Indies
 400,000 sold to North American colonies
 Steadily grew once there
 2M by 1830
 African Cooperation
 Rulers & merchants willingly sold captives for
profit along coastal port cities
 Gold, guns, other goods
 African Resistance
 Some voiced opposition
 King Affonso I
Forced Journey
 Triangular Trade – transatlantic
trading network between Europe,
Africa, and the Americas
 Manufactured goods from Europe to
Africa
 Slaves from Africa to the Americas
 Crops & goods from Americas to
Europe
 Middle Passage – voyage that brought
captured Africans to the West Indies
 Bad conditions for both slaves and
sailors
 Disease, physical abuse
 ~20% perished on each trip
Slavery in the Americas
 Sold at auction
 Work fields
 Work in house
 Developed new cultural heritage
 Kept music, stories
 Combined religions with Christianity –
santaria
 Thousands ran away
 Laws to return to owner
 Punishment upon return
Consequences of the Slave Trade
 Africa
 Cultures lost generations of fittest members
 Families torn apart
 Introduced guns to the continent
 Americas
 Labor contribution
 Culture brought to Americas
 Substantial African-American populations today
The Columbian Exchange
 Columbian Exchange – global transfer of foods, plants,
animals, diseases, and goods during colonization of the
Americas
 Most important – CORN & POTATOES from Americas
 Inexpensive to grow
 Nutritious
 Steady part of diets worldwide
 Boosted populations
 Disease tragic on Native Americans
Economic Revolution in Europe
 New wealth + growth in overseas trade = New business &
trade practices in Europe
 Dramatically changed economic atmosphere of Europe
 Capitalism – economic system based on private
ownership and investment of resources for profit
 Gov’t no longer sole owner of great wealth
 Merchants wealthy from overseas trade with colonies
 Profits enabled reinvesting even more
 Inflation – increase in money supply
 More money, more demand
 Goods become scarce and valuable
 Costs of goods rise
Economic Rev. Continued
 Joint-stock Companies – investors buy shares of stock in a
company




Need much $$ to start a colony or overseas venture
Great profits, great risks
Numerous investors – individuals paid smaller amounts
Founded Jamestown
 Mercantilism – economic policy holding that a country’s power
depended on its wealth
 Get as wealthy as possible!
 Obtain gold and silver
 Establish favorable balance of trade – sell more than you buy
 Goal to be self sufficient
 Colonies provided silver, gold, food sources and served as a market for
goods produced in Europe
Impact of Economic Revolution
 Growth of towns
 Rise of merchant class that controlled its own wealth
 Population continued to live in rural areas
 Majority of Europeans remained poor
 Increased wealth of European nations
 Mercantilism contributed to creation of national identity
Acrostic Poems / Alphabet Books / Songs
 For the Columbian Exchange or Atlantic Slave Trade, choose
ONE:
 Write an acrostic poem with illustrations along the border
 Create an illustrated alphabet book
 Write a 2-3 minute song to the tune of a popular song
 Be creative!!!
 If you aren’t sure – ASK 
 You may brainstorm with friends, but everyone turns in their
OWN assignment
Big Ideas
 Europeans enslaved millions of Africans in their American
colonies to meet growing labor needs
 The colonization of America introduced new items into
the Eastern and Western hemispheres
 New global trade patterns gave rise to an economic
revolution in Europe
ATB #18
 Copy & react to this quote:
“There are two things that have
always haunted me: the brutality
of the European traders and the
stories I’ve heard about Africans
selling other Africans into slavery.”
Henry Louis Gates
Day 18 – Essential Questions
 How did African slaves contribute to the development of
the Americas?
ATB #18
 Study Chapter 20 key terms for quiz!!!
Day 19 – Essential Questions

Why were explorers drawn to the Americas?

Why were the Spanish able to easily defeat the Aztec and Incan civilizations?

How were the French and English colonies in the Americas different in regards to land, economy, and
relations with natives?

What was the main consequence of the French and Indian War?

How did the spread of Islam affect the slave trade?

How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?

How did capitalism and mercantilism impact the economies of Europe and the Americas?

How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe, Africa, and the Americas?
Big Ideas
 The voyages of Columbus prompted the Spanish to establish colonies in the
Americas to create wealth
 The Spanish were able to easily conquer peoples of the Americas with guns,
horses, and disease
 New France had a small population of fur traders and eventually was
evicted by the British
 The British retained political control over numerous colonies based on
different economies
 Europeans enslaved millions of Africans in their American colonies to meet
growing labor needs
 The colonization of America introduced new items into the Eastern and
Western hemispheres
 New global trade patterns gave rise to an economic revolution in Europe

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