Powerpoint - The British Cartoon Archive

Report
Record code: MC0092
This cartoon seems in the spirit of the policy announced
in July 1943 by the Colonial Secretary, Oliver Stanley, to
the House of Commons that the aim of British colonial
policy was to guide the colonies toward eventual selfgovernment within the Empire. It implies that the 1955
colonial subject is ready to embark on the same path as
his 1855 Victorian predessor.
MartinMaguire
"Good luck, boy! Go out and seek your fortune"
Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: PC3544
A witty reference to the sci-fi cliche 'take me to your
leader' and the anti-immigrant cliche 'they are only here
to take our benefits'.
Illegal aliens
Michael Heath : The Mail on Sunday(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 13290
1968, The Manchester Guardian.
Enoch Powell's "River of blood' speech ignites the immigration issue. Here
Powell is Satan offering the apples of bigotry.
No caption
William Papas : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 67583
By the 1990s illegal immigration and people smuggling
had replaced former concerns about liberal government
policies. The use of international freight transport
networks to evade immigration controls was a
widespread European problem in the context of the
collapse of states and economies from the Balkans to
Afghanisation. The figure 'welcoming' the illegal
immigrants is clearly a former immigrant. The
implication is that the human trafficing is directed by
'non-white' British. Published in the Daily Star, March
1992. The Daily Star tabloid featured topless models,
sport, celebraties and aggressive headlines.
martin maguire
"Hi there! Great to see you.... Hi there! Great to see you...."
Bill Caldwell : Daily Star(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: PC1951
This cartoon depicts two immigration officials debating the scrapping of the primary
purpose rule, which required foreign nationals married to British citizens to prove that the
primary purpose of their marriage was not to obtain British residency.
Brian, 07/10/12
No caption
David Austin : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 45409
"You mean to tell me you've All written to your MPs?"
This was a time when border controls were in crisis in
Britain because of the number of people immigrating to
the country. There were staff shortages in this sector
with untrained recruits at immigration control
desks. Fustration began, and there were queues at peak
times up to two hours for incoming tourists at ports and
airports. The problem was the greatest at Heathrow
Airport as the cartoon depicts this. In 1985 there was a
total of 55 million people living in the United Kingdom
with over 1 million Asians and 1 million from West Indies
origin. Certainly there were racial problems and is
evident that the legislation of the 1960's, 1970's, and
1980's was designed to limit and then stop the
movement into Britain people of colour from Africa, the
Caribbean and the Indian sub-continent. The cartoon
depicts all ethnicities mentioned arriving at Heathrow
and immigration control is predominantly
emphasised. The cartoon suggests that the British
Government sought to limit entry of immigrants for
settlement to Britain on grounds of colour.
Fergus Maguire
Peter Maddocks : Sunday Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 23031
By the 1970s, the British government had restricted
immigration but this had not completely stopped
it. 1972 was the most significant year as it was the year
when the Ugandan dictator, Idi Amin, expelled 80,000
African Asians, families who had settled during the age
of the Empire. The British government had excepted
28,000 of these people in the first two months.
This cartoon shows the influx of Africans coming to
Britain, forced to flee from their homelands after being
expelled by Amin.
Rachel McMahon, 25/10/2012
"Announcing the arrival of East African Airlines - all change
here for Bradford, Wolverhampton, Brix...
Paul Rigby : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: cu2206
The beginning of the 1980s saw the introduction of the
British Nationality Act 1981. This made new provisions
about citizenship and nationality and also amended the
Immigration Act 1971. It solved the problem of
citizenship, putting it into 3 different categories: British
Citizenship, British Dependent Territories' Citizenship and
British Overseas Citizenship. People who fell into the first
two categories could register as full British citizens after
they have been living in the UK for at least 5 years.
This cartoon shows how, despite the growing
immigration problems in England during the 80s, the
Conservative government under Margaret Thatcher did
little to solve the burdening immigration issue in Britain.
She decided to ignore Powell's arguments over the crisis
which he foresaw and instead choose to sweep it under
the carpet, allowing 10,000 Vietnamese refugees, who
were fleeing the communist regime, entry into the UK.
No caption
Rachel McMahon 25/10/2012
Michael Cummings : Sunday Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: SBD0630
With the fall of the Iron Curtain in the 1990s, a new
movement of people from Eastern to Western Europe
began. Thousands of asylum seekers fled to Britain to
escape the conflict in the Balkans. The Asylum and
Immigration Act 1996 created a new offence to anyone
employing asylum seekers unless they had permission
to live and work in the UK. The Immigration and Asylum
Act 1999 removed entitlements to benefits for all asylum
seekers and established the National Asylum Support
Service.
This cartoon illustrates how the British government
under Tony Blair had proposed to give asylum seekers
food stamps instead of money while awaiting residency.
This was a counter measure in case they decided to
return to their home country. At this time Macedonia
had announced that it was willing to offer shelter to
more than 173,000 Kosovo refugees. The British
government were unsure if anyone was going to take the
Macedonian government up on this offer and proposed
the food stamps to try to encourage them move to
there.
No caption
Steve Bell : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive
Rachel McMahon 25/10/2012
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: PC5162
Cartoon shows a group of Romanians entering Britain.
This was printed after the government announced that
its would fund English language lessons in the hope that
it would help settle the immigrants. As most Romanians
were illegal immigrants this caused outrage in the media.
This cartoon was printed in the Sun, which has always
led the way in matters relating to race and immigration.
The cartoon also features Agusto Pinochet, the former
Chilean dictator and former Thatcher ally. Pinochet had
been granted asylum in Britain but was eventually forced
to stand trial for war crimes.
Brian, 08/10/12
No caption
Dave Gaskill : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: MW2417
"Off-colour supplements"Published captions: "Well you can't
say he's not a loyal British subject!"...
Emmwood [John Musgrave-Wood] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive
British PM Harold Wilson was always anti-racialist, but
he did not try to repeal the 1962 Commonwealth and
Immigrants Act, with its controversial quota system and
in 1965, he tightened it, cutting down the dependants
allowed in, and giving the Government the power to
deport illegal immigrants, offering the first Race
Relations Act as a sweetner. In 1967 immigrants were
coming in very large numbers to make Britain their
refuge. This caused major concern, with Enoch Powell
calling for an end to work permits and complete ban on
dependants coming into Britain. Duncan Sandys the
Conservative politican who had made the promise
originally, was now leading calls to cancel it.
This cartoon in 1968 makes reference to the restrictions
on immigration, cutting down the dependants allowed
in, Irish entry, the governments position on immigration.
Powell and Sandys are seen speaking about Wilson.
Fiona 13/10/12
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 96285
This cartoon refers to the health service and the fact that it is unusual to get a doctor
who speaks fluent English. The man complaining to his wife implies that the doctor is
normally an immigrant. The doctor tells him to stop drinking is it that other doctors
have said the same and he did not understand them because of the language barrier.
Mary Dowdall
'Cut down on my drinking! That's the last time I'm seeing a
doctor that speaks English'
Jonathan Pugh : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 14693
This cartoon depicts Enoch Powell and Edward Heath, Powell is introducing him as his spoke person
on immigration. Enoch Powel was a member of the shadow cabinet; he was very out spoken on
immigration as is evident in his speech, rivers of blood made in 1968 after this speech he was
dismissed from the cabinet. Edward Heath will be PM as the conservatives win the general
election in1970. This cartoon gives the impression they are friends but Powell resigns from the
conservative party in 1974 over disagreements with Heath.
Mary Dowdall
"And now a few words from my shadow spokesman on
immigration."
Kenneth Mahood : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: CA0471
The British Nationality Act 1981 and came into force on Jan 1 1983. This act was to
amend the Immigration Act of 1971 as regards the right to abode in the United
Kingdom.
This cartoon is showing how relieved Santa is with the news!!!
Fiona 13/10/12
No caption
Mel Calman : The Times(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: MW2908
The cartoon portrays the three wise monkeys. It refers to
the lack of response to the crises which developed by
the Ugandan leader Idi Amin decision to evict 70,000
Asians form Uganda. The Labour government of
1968 had promised to allow them in to Britain and
nowas they were not in goverment seamed not to be
prepared to make any statement on what was happening
in Uganda
Mary Dowdall
" - - - and avoid being compromised later!"
Emmwood [John Musgrave-Wood] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: SBD0317
This cartoon refers to an incident in 1979 when a
number of asylum seekers and refugees staged a hunger
strike in Rochester Prison in Kent. The protest was
against their detention i.e. being treated like criminals,
and also against the conditions under which they were
being held. The refugee council was of the opinion that
the reason for detention was to act as a deterent to
those who may wish to seek asylum, especially those
who enter the country for economic reasons. Pictured in
the cartoon is Anne Widecome, a conservative MP, who
at the time was Minister for Prisons. Widecome was a
supporter of the detention policy.
Brian 14/10/12
No caption
Steve Bell : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 13209
This cartoon depicts the character Alf Garnett from the
popular British sitcom Till Death Do Us Part, being
arrested after the passing of the Race Relations Act
1968. The act made it illegal to ‘refuse housing,
employment, or public services to a person on the
grounds of colour, race, ethnic or national origins.’
The desk sergeant is non-white and the caption reads
‘Morning Alf, I’ve been expecting you…’ signifying that
the character Garnett, who was portrayed as a bigot and
overtly racist in his political views is finally being
chastised for his behaviour.
'Morning, Alf, I've been expecting you ..'
The cartoon appeared in the widely read tabloid
newspaper The Daily Mirror. The fact that such an
extreme character was depicted on television and was so
popular reflected the racist views held by an
overwhelmingly amount of British people. The paper in
making light of the issue which was having such serious
implications at the time suggests that it held the same
populist views.
Stanley Franklin : Daily Mirror(c) The British Cartoon Archive
Lisa 16/10/12.
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 13149
When Kenya became dependant in 1963, people of nonAfrican origin living in Kenya were given two years to
apply for citizenship. However the majority of Asian
Kenyans chose to retain citizenship of the United
Kingdom and colonies status. This meant that under the
Immigration Act of 1962, only holders of British
passports were free to enter the United Kingdom. Asian
Kenyans were among them, therefore many decided to
settle in Britain whom they never experienced
before. The cartoon is a reflection of the exodus of
Kenyans whom thousands entered before the date of
the 1st of March 1968. This was the date when the
Commonwealth Act was introduced. The cartoon known
as 'The Wave' accentuates the-beat -the-ban rush to get
to the United Kingdom before legislation is
enforced. The 'mother country' now has even more
complications and issues relating to immigration.
Fergus Maguire
Hokusai's print "The Wave" was auctioned at
Sotheby'sduring the week.
John Jensen : Sunday Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 19777
This cartoon appeared in The Guardian a broadsheet newspaper centre left and socialliberal in its politics, in 1971. It gives ‘A concise history of British immigration’ beginning in
1880 with the bringing in of black slaves from the colonies while simultaneously expelling
white British convicts.
It then refers to the impending Immigration Act brought in by the Conservative
government which was to tighten immigration. One of the restrictions was to disallow
Commonwealth citizens to automatically immigrate to Britain unless they had a parent or
grandparent born there. This was seen as a way of excluding blacks and other coloureds
while still allowing in white citizens from the Commonwealth countries such as Canada,
New Zealand and South Africa.
The second image predicts that 1972 would see a complete reversal from 1800 with
Edward Heath literary kicking out non-white Commonwealth citizens as they are no longer
of value while whites enter.
Lisa, 17/10/12.
A concise history of British immigration
Leslie Gibbard : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 13289
"Why don't you immigrants stay in your own country?"
Nicholas Garland : Daily Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 00214
This cartoon depicts a number of black immigrants, possibily
from Africa or Jamacia, at the door of Britain but with a "NO
ENTRY" sign hanging from the door. This cartoon is in
response to the upcoming Commonwealth Immigrants Act
1962 which allowed members of the British Commonwealth
to travel freely to the United Kingdom. However members of
the Conservative Party called on tighter restrictions due to
the huge influx of immigrants into Britain, which led to
members of the Labour Party calling it "cruel and brutal anti
colour legislation". Which explains why there is no white
people not allowed into Britain, the cartoon only depicts
them as black.
Conor Murphy, October 17th 2012
"The Commonwealth can be an example to other nations." Mr. Macmillan, adressing the Commonwealth P...
Vicky [Victor Weisz] : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 12991
This cartoon depicts an Irishman and two Indians at what looks like a customs office at an airport.
The two indians looks though they are excluded in some form as the Irishman says "Sure, an how
could Oi be an immigrant, me not possessing a british passport". This is in reference to the
immigration act of 1968 which said members of the commonwealth who didn't have a british
grandparent or parent could travel freely to Britain. The Irishman looks old enough to have a parent
or grandparent from British rule in Ireland, which is relevant because under the British Nationality
Act of 1948 irish people who had parents or grandparents from British rule in Ireland could travel
freely to Britain. The act of 1968 didn't really make a difference to Irish people at all which might
explain why he's at the top of the queue.
Conor Murphy, October 17th 2012
"Sure, an' how could Oi be an immigrant, me not possessing
a British passport?"
Osbert Lancaster : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: VY1927
This cartoon shows a gentlemen with a customs officer
going into the Central African Federation. This was also
known as the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland,
which was a semi independent state in Southern Africa,
a federal realm of the British Crown. This cartoon is out
around the same time the 1962 immigration bill comes
into effect, which states that there would be tighter
immigration into Britain. There was also a minority white
population within the Central African Federation. The
Customs Officer is telling him sarcastically does he have
a job to go BACK to in reference to the fact that there are
plentiful jobs in Britain and he won't let him into the
Central African Federation just like Britain is now not
letting in as many immigrants prior to the 1962
immigration bill.
Conor Murphy, October 17th 2012
"You got a job to go back to?"
Vicky [Victor Weisz] : New Statesman(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: ILW3430
This cartoon shows white immigrants being allowed in
to the British Commonwealth Hotel while a black
immigrant family is refused entry. The white men and
the black man's suitcases being identical suggests that
they are all immigrants. The woman's hand on the back
of the white immigrant shows that she is eager to hurry
the white immigrants inside, perhaps in the hope that
the black family will not notice others being allowed in.
The woman's old fashioned, almost Victorian attire and
hair style suggest that she is an old-fashioned sort, which
may reflect on her decsion to not allow the black family
entry.
[Illingworth cartoon ILW 3430]
Illingworth, Leslie Gilbert, 1902-1979 : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon
Archive
This cartoon was published in the Daily Mail, a
conservative daily tabloid newspaper, on the 3/11/61. It
comments on the issue of the opposition of black
immigrants while white immigrants were viewed more
favourably. In 1960 Rab Butler, Home Secretary, began to
call for tighter controls of the strong influx
of immigration into Britain. Consequently an immigration
bill was introduced. This bill was supposedly not meant
to be discriminative or racist but ultimately would be as
it would "operate on coloured people almost
exclusively".
Holly Gunapala 17/10/2012
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 18876
This cartoon was published in the Daily Sketch, a paper
which was later absorbed by the Daily mail, a right-wing
conservative paper. Published in 1970, it depicts a
number of Middle Eastern men on a lifeboat reading a
paper being picked up by a police boat. This incident
actually occured (minus the paper) at this time which
brought up the question as to what should happen to
such immigrants. However the caption, along with the
newspaper headline saying 'Government Cuts', implies
that the new tax legislation (the Income and Corporation
Taxes Act 1970) is too harsh and makes the country not
worth moving to.
Jamie Staudt 17/10/12
"We're not trying to get in, sahib, we're trying to get out."
Mac [McMurtry; Stan] : Daily Sketch(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: CU1260
Published in March 1971 by the Daily Express, a
conservative newspaper, Cummings work shows British
PM Edward Heath and Home Secretary Reginald
Maudling looking at the changing relationship between
Ireland and Britain. At this stage Irish immigration to the
UK had almost doubled in the last ten years; with over
950,000 Irish immgrants making up the largest miniority
group in England. Later that year the Immigration Act of
1971 was introduced and despite this apparent
'problem' with the Irish they were still legally to be
allowed entry to Britain as if they were actual citizens.
Jamie Staudt 17/10/12
"What terrifies me, Prime Minister, is that if the troubles
don't stop the REST of the Irish will...
Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: LSE8807
Before 1962, the United Kingdom had an open door policy regarding
immigration- all Commonwealth citizens were recognized as British
subjects. However, the constant flow of immigrants coming into the
country and many race riots that ensued caused much debate
regarding this open door policy. The threat of possible new
legislation- The Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962- led to a great
influx of migrants coming into Britain before the law was actually
passed. There was 125,400 immigrants to Britain in 1961, which was
a huge number.
This cartoon by David Low depicts the anti- immigration feelings
people had that led to this new legislation. It shows middle class or
"snobbish" people rejecting the immigrants wanting to get in, and
they are left on the outside. This cartoon was published in The
Guardian, which is quite a middle class paper, and its readers are
generally known for being on left of Britsih political opinion.
Ciara McEntegart 17 Oct 12
Family entrance
David Low (1891-1963) : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: PC4405
This cartoon was printed in The Sun newspaper in 1998
and refers to what were seen as lax immigration and
asylum controls allowing an influx of Eastern European
immigrants into Britain.
The signs welcoming them to ‘rape and pillage’ housing
and the Department of Social Services refers to the
government encouraging this migration by making ‘hand
outs’ available as incentives. This in turn sees a rise in
support for the British National Front represented by the
skin heads.
Lisa, 17/10/12.
No caption
Dave Gaskill : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 23190
In 1972, nearly 80,000 Asian Ugandans were expelled from the
country by President Idi Amin. Amin wanted Britain to assume all
responsiblity for Ugandan Asians holding British passports, and as a
result of the mass exodus, huge numbers of these Asians flooded in
to Britain. Around 27,000 Asians came to Britain, and Britains first
reaction to this was quite negative. Such huge numbers came in
such a short period of time.
This cartoon depicts these huge numbers of people that were
coming into the country, and it shows Britain didn't really know how
to deal with it. The cartoon was published by The Daily Mirrorwhich is a tabloid newspaper.
Ciara McEntegart 18 Oct 12
"We hear you've a vacant suite at the Carlton Tower."
Keith Waite : Daily Mirror(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 45407
The 1980's brought increasing numbers of asylum
seekers to Britain.
This is a very interesting cartoon, showing Britains
general fears that they are being made fools of by
asylum seekers. It shows how unhappy they were about
these asylum seekers coming into the country and
straight away getting some of the taxpayers money. The
general feel of this cartoon is that these people coming
into Britain are laughing at the British behind their backs,
as they are getting things very easily. Most likely as a
response to this fear, the following year, in 1987, Britain
introduced the Immigration Carriers Liability Act which
stated that a fine of £1,000 would be issued to any ship
or airline company for each passenger brough to Britain
without the proper travel documentation. Within weeks
of this new legislation, the number of asylum seekers
coming into the country fell by half.
No caption
Mac [McMurtry; Stan] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This cartoon was published in the Daily Mail, which is
conservative tabloid newspaper.
Ciara McEntegart 18 Oct 12
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 67616
The Sun published this cartoon in 1992 as a commentary
on the huge influx of immigrants to the country. A
conservative paper aimed at the working class, the
representation of immigrants taking over the carboard
boxes of the homeless served to enforce the viewpoint
held by many that this was out of control, that it
detracted from the homes and lifestyle of the ordinary
working man. The Sangette Protocol was introduced this
year which allowed for the setting up of control points at
either end of the Channel Tunnel in order to cut down on
the amount of illegal immigrants who entered the
country this way.
Jamie Staudt 18/10/12
No caption
Stanley Franklin : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: VY3287
See next slide for accompanying annotation.
"Sorry, er - this is hurting me more than it hurts you..."
Vicky [Victor Weisz] : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: VY3287 - annotation
Before the Commonwealth Immigration Act came to pass in 1962, citizens of any British Commonwealth were eligable to go and live in the
UK. This act was brought into law due to the large amounts of people that were coming into the country. It detailed that only people with
government issued permits could enter the country and many of these permits were issued to skilled workers only. This act led to a lot of
opposition from many other parties in the country who suggested that it was quite racist, but there were also the parties that supported
it's inclusion to law.
The cartoon depicts a white man closing a door on a black man and telling him "Sorry, er - this is hurting me more than it hurts you..". It
suggests that the white man does not want to refuse access to this man but I think that this statement could be the cartoonist Weisz' way
of being sarcastic. The cartoonist himself was an immigrant from Germany, so he may sympathise with the people that are being
rejected. The cartoon shows the early stages of this act since it was published in 1962, so it is all a new occurance for the people.
It was published in the Evening Standard which was a free evening newspaper for the people. It was widely available and read covering all
home and foreign affairs.
Caoilionn Moran, 18/10/2012
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 45405
This cartoon was published on the 4/3/87 in the
London Daily News, a short-lived daily paper that only
ran for five months.
In 1985 Tamil immigrants began to seek asylum in
Britain. As the number of asylum seekers arriving in
Britain steadily rose the government responded by
introducing restrictive policies and legislative measures.
On the 17th February 1987 fifty-eight Tamil asylum
seekers protested this at Heathrow Airport. The High
Court ruled that the deportation of the Tamils be put on
hold. A week later the protesters were granted the right
to judicial review. The Home Office initially planned to
contest the ruling but later backed down.
No caption
Trog [Wally Fawkes] : London Daily News(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This cartoon shows Sir Geoffrey Howe, Secretary for
Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 1983-1989, being
forced by a member of the 'UK Immigration Advisory
Service' to let the Tamil protesters stay in Britain. It is
obvious that Howe does not want to let the protesters
stay as his hand that holds a sign saying 'Go Away' is
being held down. The cartoon displays how the
government were strongly advised or pressured to let
the Tamil asylum seekers stay in Britain even if they
really did not want to.
Holly Gunapala 18/10/2012
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 17098
See next slide for accompanying annotation.
Enoch's coloured spectacles ...
Trog [Wally Fawkes] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 17098 - annotation
Enoch Powell was a member of the conservative party, and he was well known for his controversial ideas which included the government's
policy on immigration. In 1968, he hit out at the government for what he believed to be an enormous influx of immigrants into Britain. He
believed that if this was not stopped soon then in future, people with an immigrant background will outnumber the British people. He
wanted the immigration policy to be changed, and for remaining immigrants to be sent back to their homes abroad.
This cartoon follows a speech that he made in 1970 which was condemned by the newly elected Prime Minister Ted Heath. Heath
described the latest speech on immigration as being "an example of man's inhumanity in a Christian civilised society". The cartoon shows
how Enoch felt towards immigrants that were settled in Britain, it shows how he had them all stereotyped as being from one ethnical
group. It depicts how Enoch felt towards these people, and how he generalised them. The cartoon shows that he saw almost everyone as
being an immigrant in Britain now.
The cartoon was published in the Daily Mail, which is a conservative daily newspaper in Britain.
Caoilionn Moran, 18/10/2012
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: PC2774
See next slide for accompanying annotation.
The open door
Bill McArthur : The Glasgow Herald(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: PC2774 - annotation
In November 1997, a large group of people from the Czech Republic and Slovakia arrived in Dover, Britain seeking asylum after they heard
that Britain were very generous with welfare benefits. It is suggested that they gathered this information through a television show about
the topic. This year saw a huge amount of applications for asylum into Britain, and also the deportation of several illegal immigrants. This
wave of asylum seekers led to discussions in both Britain and Ireland on the issue of restricting access and dealing with the upsurge in
applications for citizenship.
This cartoon states that the 'New Britain' does not have any more room for 'Czech Gypsies' and that they now have new internment
centres, etc. I think that it aims to show that the laws for immigration and asylum seekers is changing in Britain and it is depicted as being
on the cliffs when you enter Britain in order to give a clear message to those arriving. It mentions Enoch Powell who had strong views on
immigration in the 1960's and then Norman Tebbit who was a member of the House of Lords at the time. It seems to have an 'out with the
old, and in with the new' feel to it.
The Glasgow Herald is a broadsheet newspaper that is available throughout Scotland.
Caoilionn Moran, 18/10/2012
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 19867
The Immigration Act of 1971 fixed many of the gaps left in the wake of the
previous Commonwealth Immigrant Acts of 1962 and 1968. The Act was
introduced in order to prevent a debacle occurring similar to the one which had
ensured following the immigration of Kenyan Asians to Britain. The concept of
partriality and the right of abode which had been introduced by the previous
Act of 1968 was strengthened with membership being extended exclusively to
the white Commonwealth of New Zealand, Canada and Australia. The Act also
replaced the work voucher scheme of 1962 with a work permit scheme. The
above cartoon refers to the concept of partriality in which full British citizen is
only available to those who had a parent or grandparent, born in, or a citizen of
the UK.
Sean Connolly
"And stop callling me 'Grandad', young man!"
Tony Holland : Daily Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 12959
No caption
Edward McLachlan : Sunday Mirror(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This cartoon represents the conundrum which Kenyan
Asians faced following the introduction of the
Commonwealth Immigrants Act of 1968. In 1967 a
process of “Africanisation” in Kenya left prosperous
Asian Africans who lived there exposed and in fear of
discrimination by their national government they began
to immigrate to Britain having retained their British
citizenship following Kenya’s independence. With over
one thousand arriving every week into Britain in the
autumn of 1967 the Labour Home Secretary James
Callaghan moved to create new legislation which would
exclude Asian Kenyans from arriving into Britain. With
the introduction of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act
of 1968 Full citizenship was only available to those who
had a parent or grandparent, born in, or a citizen of the
UK. This cartoon illustrates the then British Prime
Minister Harold Wilson on the left while the president of
Kenya Jomo Kenyatta is depicted on the right. In
between both is portrayed a Kenya Asian unsure of
which direction to take as both Wilson and Kenyatta
refuse them.
Sean Connolly
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: ILW3531
See next slide for accompanying annotation.
Published caption: Net result
Illingworth, Leslie Gilbert, 1902-1979 : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon
Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: ILW3531 - annotation
The British Nationality Act of 1948 created an “open door” policy for those who were designated as citizens of the Commonwealth. By
1958 over 210,000 citizens of the Commonwealth were either living or working In Britain with the migrant population consisting of
115,000 West Indians, 55,000 Indian or Pakistani, 25,000 West Africans and 10,000 Cypriots. By the late 1950’s the British economy was
beginning to slowdown from its post-war boom with a rise of unemployment to over half a million. With the rise in unemployment came a
corresponding rise in tensions between the newcomer migrants and the native white Britain’s. By 1959 racist agitation against immigration
from the Commonwealth had reached new highs following the Notting Hill Riots during the summer of 1958 and the murder of Kelso
Cohcrane in 1959 at the hands of racist vigilantes. It was within this context that increasingly the influx of immigrant workers was
perceived to be the root of social and economic problems which needed a solution. The British government, alarmed at the arrival of
300,000 coloured immigrants in just a decade and with the added prospect of an even greater influx of migrants arriving from the
Caribbean colonies arriving in the future decided that the only “solution” to the “problem” created by these immigrants was to introduce
anti-immigration legislation. The Commonwealth Immigrant Act of 1962 was introduced by the Home Secretary Richard Butler who
suggested that such discriminatory legislation was a sad necessity yet also one which due to popular demand was inevitable. The Act
basically led to a new arrangement for migrant workers which took the form of a work voucher scheme. The Act divided migrants into
three groups; those with job offers, skilled and qualified workers, and those with neither of these attributes while the Act also authorised
the deportation of Commonwealth citizens convicted of crime. The above cartoon of Home Secretary Richard Butler depicts the
Commonwealth Immigration Act of 1962 acting as a barrier to immigrants from the Caribbean colonies.
Sean Connolly
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: NG3956
Normal
0
false
false
false
EN-IE
X-NONE
X-NONE
No caption
Nicholas Garland : The Independent(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 17462
Normal
0
false
false
false
EN-IE
X-NONE
X-NONE
"As far as I can make out, we Irish are two-and-a-half per
cent more sexy than the rest of you!"
Jak [Raymond Jackson] : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 53347
Normal
0
false
false
false
EN-IE
X-NONE
X-NONE
No caption
Peter Brookes : The Times(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 53954
Published in the Independent newspaper of April
2000. This cartoon refers to the policy of the Shadow
Home Secretary Ann Widdicombe that called for secure
reception centres for immigrants seeking asylum in
Britain. She recorded that the reference to entrance to
the Auschwitz concentration camp deeply offensive and
that this was the only cartoon that hurt her. The
Independent was a left of centre newspaper. The quasiprison conditions under which asylum seekers were kept
proved very controversial
No caption
Dave Brown : The Independent(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 76028
In July 2005, train stations in London on July 5th amd
two weeks later on July 21st; four more attacks were
attempted. Johnson's cartoon depicts seven Muslims
entering Britain from the airport. At the immigration
check desk are what appear to be two lazy officers not
doing their jobs. The message behind this cartoon is that
anyone can enter Britain because National Security is too
relaxed and security are not doing their jobs. Johnson's
cartoon also has xenophobic element to it. From looking
at this cartoon there is a suggestion that all Muslims are
terrorists.
Niall Mc Keogh
"How dare they say we're useless at spotting terrorists!"
Tom Johnston : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 13482
The people depicted in this cartoon are Prime Minister
Harold Wilson, the Minister for Technology Tony Benn
and Aviation Minister Roy Jenkins. The man who is
shown to be a robot is conservative politician Enoch
Powell. The cartoon is refering to the 'Rivers of Blood'
speech made by Powell on April 20th 1968. His speech
was critical towards the immigration into Britain from
Commonwealth countries. The reform papers that are in
Powell's hands suggest reforms that he would want on
immigration. I think they also reference the
Commonwealth Immigration Act of 1962. Modifications
were made to this act in 68 which restricted immigration
rights to obtaining British Citizenship through either
being British born or havin at least one grandparent
already in Britain.
I think that Powell is shown to be robotic because his
message theme is repeated over and over suggesting the
feeling towards immigration in Britain at the time.
No caption
Nicholas Garland : Daily Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive
Niall Mc Keogh
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: SC0163
No caption
Peter Schrank : The Independent(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 19772
The three people in the cartoon are Prime Minister Edward Heath, the
Home Secretary Reginald Maulding and conservative politician Enoch
Powell. The cartoon shows Maulding to be a detergent that will wash Britain
free of immigration by Edward Heath. Powell is sown in the background as a
small daughter also holding the same product with the word 'Tiber' on it
refering to his 'Rivers of Blood Speech'. This cartoon is a refernece to the
news that Commonwealth immigrants could no longer settle under the
Immigration bill. After working five years in Britain, Immigrants could obtain
the rightn to settle and would be taken off of police registration.
Gibbards cartoon suggest that under this government, immigrants will be
driven out of Britain.
Niall Mc Keogh
No caption
Leslie Gibbard : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 17244
This cartoon was published on the 9/2/70 in the Daily
Mail, a conservative daily tabloid, middle-market
newspaper.
This cartoon shows Enoch Powell shouting "foreigner!"
at a man. We can assume that the man is Irish as the tag
on his suitcase says 'Dublin to London'. The captain
refers to the black and tans, the Irish man is saying that
Powell must be thinking of the black and Tans if he is
shouting "foreigner!". Perhaps this is because in the Irish
man's homeland the Black and Tans were foreign not the
Irish.There are two black men in the background looking
on as Powell shouts at the Irish man. They both look
quite shocked, probably because they are not used
seeing such things shouted at white people but could
have been more used to such remarks being aimed in
their direction.
'Man, he's GOT to be thinking about the Black and Tan ...'
Trog [Wally Fawkes] : Daily Mail(c) The British Cartoon Archive
The cartoon comes shortly after Powell in no un-certain
terms, told a group of protesters at Enniskillen that Irish
immigrants should not be treated any differently than
any other foreign immigrant wishing to enter Britain.
Powell stressed the point that Irish immigrants were
trying to gain citizenship in a country in which they had
been fighting to gain independence from.
Holly Gunapala 21/10/12
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: AH0319
See next slide for accompanying annotation.
Homecoming : sour note from an ungrateful patrial Arthur Horner : New Statesman(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: AH0319 - annotation
This image depicts the new immigration act of 1971 in Britain. This act was enforced to control immigration, although the act had clearly
favoured white commonwealth immigrants. This can be seen in the introduction to the “right of abode”. This introduction had lifted all
restriction on white immigrants through ancestral or direct link with Britain. The act had caused many reefs among immigrant
communities. In the picture it shows to politicians, one being Enoch Powell (in the window) and Reginald Maudling (as the officer). Enoch
Powell was a member of the conservative party. In 1968 he had made a controversial speech on immigration, slating the immigration
policy at the time. In his speech he had wanted the government to stop immigration and send the people that were already being living
there back to their countries. He had also believed that the Race relation act would be like “throwing a match to a gunpowder”. Reginald
Maudling was home secretary who had announced the Immigration Bill. In a BBC interview, when asked if this was an undercover colour
bar, he had replied "Certainly not. Of course they are more likely to be white because we have on the whole more whites than coloureds in
this country, but there is no colour bar involved." This picture clearly shows these issues of this time. The image was published in the New
Statesman, which was a left-wing newspaper.
Shauna Lennon 21/10/12
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: MC1027
No caption
Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 17450
The image shows Enoch Powell, who was a politician and a member of the conservative
party. Powell had predicted that immigration would rise in England. In 1970, the
immigration birth rate had reached 47,000. This had asserted Powell prediction. The
following year a new immigration act had being enforced which tried to control
immigrant coming into the country. In the image we can see that Powell is looking at
the man in disgust. Powell, in 1968, had made a speech on immigration posting his view
on how immigration should be dealt with. This speech was very controversial because
Powell wanted to rid all immigrants from the country and deny them access.
Shauna Lennon 21/10/12
"Just thought you'd like to know, Bwana - it's forty-seven
thousand and three now!"
Bernard Cookson : Evening News(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: PC5100
This picture shows a doctor asking a patient who seems
to be very sick (as you can see with all the medical
equipment around him) to leave the hospital because his
room will be given to a refugee.
The newspaper next to the bed relates the fact that
three disused wards were re-opened to house illegal
Romanian immigrants who have been fed, clothed and
kept warm. This event provoked strong reactions.
The cartoon exaggerates the situation because no
patient were excluded to leave the rooms to the
refugees. The cartoonist wants to denounce the fact that
these refugees take advantage of Britain, he wants to
show that British people shouldn't accept this.
Alexis Vin, 21/10/2012
No caption
Dave Gaskill : The Sun(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 23450
See next slide for accompanying annotation.
"My father was a Congolese head-hunter who married an
Indo-Austrlian missionary domiciled in Uganda,...
Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 23450 - annotation
In 1972, the government had restricted access to England due to the massive increase of immigrants. There was a sum of 83,000
immigrants that settled in the UK from 1968 to 1975 from the Commonwealth. In 1972, it had showed the most significant increase in
immigration to date. This was due to General Idi Amin expelling 80,000 African Asians from the country. These exiles had all acquired
British passport through the commonwealth giving them access to the country. This image shows the issue that the English government
had on defining an English citizen. With immigration increasing in England, the government had to determine what an English citizen was
and who fitted under this title. Since the commonwealth counties fell under British rules, they had the concern of who will be entitled to
live in Britain. It was a sensitive issue because if the allowed one country and not another there would be conflict among them. This
picture displays the issue of multi-ethnic groups that don’t fall into any particular race or country. On each gate is written certain groups in
which people can go into, but the policeman is confused on which this man belongs to. The Daily Express is considered a conservative
newspaper.
Shauna Lennon 21/10/12
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: PC5222
Thousands of Albanians were smuggled into Britain
in this particular period. There was an upsurge in
assylum applicants. Most Albanians were travelling for
the UK and traffickers were hiding them in trucks
departing for the UK from Belgian ports. The UK wanted
to speed up and change its assylum system due to
this. If the applications were rejected they were
removed from the country within seven days. The
cartoon is trying to cleverly portray the UK's stringent
policies when that year Jack Straw emphasised through
the media and issued a warning to future illegal
immigrants, 'Do you think you will get through.' He was
also looking for a European solution and was preparing
to sign up to the European Task Force on imigration and
assylum which was the first step to common law in the
EU. This is a witty cartoon elucidating that the state will
find illegal immigrants no matter were they are hiding,
even in outer space as the cartoon intelligently conveys.
Fergus Maguire
"Oh no, Albanian asylum seekers!"
Patrick Blower : Evening Standard(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: VY2814
This add was published in 1965 by the magazine the
New Statemen. This magazine has always been
associated with the Left in British politics and was
founded by members of the Fabian Society. In this
cartoon we see how both the conservatives and Labour
by 1965 had begun to put in place stricter rules on
immigration. We see a Jamaican family attempting to
enter Britain but are stopped by the new immigrants
controls that both major political parties now supported.
This cartoon was published in a response to the Labour
Prime Minister suggestion that immigration control
would be implemented. In 1968 the Labour Government
put through the Commonwealth immigration act.
Matthew O’Reilly 21/10/2012
No caption
Vicky [Victor Weisz] : New Statesman(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 63775
This cartoon appeared in the Daily Telegraph, which is a strong right wing and
conservative newspaper. Following the events of September 11th 2001 in the USA
the public in many countries were put on high alert concerning the possibility of
further attacks from Islamic Terrorists. At this point the War in Afghanistan was
already taken place and the Iraq invasion would begin three months after this
cartoon. In this cartoon we see immigrant from Algeria and Iraq sneaking into
Britain. We see many of them armed with explosives and guns which suggest that
they are sneaking into the country in the hope of committing a terrorist attack on
Britain. It is critical of the Labour governments not putting in place stricter rules on
people seeking asylum in Britain.
Matthew O’Reilly 21/10/2012
No caption
Steve Fricker : Daily Telegraph(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: CU0992
This Cartoon ws published in the Daily Express and drawn by Michael
Cummings March 1965. The Daily express at this time was a strong supporter
of the Tory party and this is evident from this cartoon. We see the American
president, Lyndon B Johnson, having serious trouble in appeasing the black
community in America, with the black activist, Malcolm X, having a strangle
hold on the President. In Britain we see an MP who supports immigration
into Britain, watering a small plant representing the black populaution. The
cartoon is suggesting that this small population of black people, with the
continued support of some MP’s, will evantually grow to strangle the white
population like it is doing in America. The Labour government had only taken
over power the previous March, and had began to agree with the
conservitives on the issue of immigration. Later in 1965 the Government
passed the Race Relation Act, which was the first type of legislation that
addressed the issue of discrimination.
Matthew O’Reilly 21/10/2012
No caption
Michael Cummings : Daily Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: 96727
Blood sports ...
Ben Jennings : The Guardian(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk
Record code: MC1019
Britain had been closing its doors to immigration for
quite some time. With the withdrawal of naturalisation
for most of its former colonies and the reduction on the
amount of work permits available for foreign labour. It
was a sign of the times. Yet immigration from Ireland
steadily increased. The massive public works projects
that were being undertaken at the time brought in a
huge number of people seeking work from Ireland.
This cartoon I think reflects a certain level of
British bemusement over the mass waves of Irish
immigrants. On the one hand they had assertions of
Irish independence and their differences from
the Britain but at the same time they have waves of
Irish economic migrants. The British were a little
confused by this and this is shown within the cartoon.
"Begorrah - can't have you fearful English living with us...
and mind you do nothing to prevent us f...
Michael Cummings : Sunday Express(c) The British Cartoon Archive
This document was created at The British Cartoon Archive - http://www.cartoons.ac.uk

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