60 EOC Sample Questions and Answers

Sample EOC Questions
Sample Biochemistry questions
• 1. An iodine solution is placed on the cut side of a
potato. Within seconds, a blue-black color appears.
What is most likely occurring?
• A a positive test for proteins
• B a positive test for starches
• C a negative test for proteins
• D a negative test for starches
Sample Biochemistry questions
• 2. A sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen
base form the building blocks of which organic
• A carbohydrates
• B lipids
• C nucleic acids
• D proteins
Sample Biochemistry questions
• 3. Enzymes are classified as which of the
following biological organic compounds?
• A carbohydrates
• B lipids
• C nucleic acids
• D proteins
Sample Biochemistry questions
• 4. Individuals who lack lactase are unable to
break down the sugar lactose. Which term
best describes lactase?
• A enzyme
• B fatty acid
• C lipid
• D starch
Sample Biochemistry questions
• 5. What will most likely happen if an
appropriate enzyme is added to a chemical
• A The reaction rate will increase.
• B The equilibrium of the reaction will be
• C The reaction rate will decrease.
• D The reaction will stop.
Sample Biochemistry questions
• 6. This diagram shows an enzyme-substrate
Which is represented by Structure X?
• A substrate
• B product
• C enzyme
• D complex
Sample Biochemistry questions
7. Enzymes are proteins that help increase the rate of
chemical reactions inside cells. These proteins are
composed of many simpler molecules called amino
acids. Which of the following suggests that the
shape of an enzyme determines the enzyme’s
• F Enzymes are specific to a substrate.
• G Enzymes can operate in a wide range of
• H Enzymes are activated by neighboring molecules.
• J Enzymes can be found in all life-forms.
Sample Biochemistry questions
8. Proteins and polysaccharides are polymers. These
polymers are formed by dehydration synthesis. Which
statement correctly identifies a difference in the
structure of proteins and polysaccharides?
• F Only polysaccharides are comprised of repeating
units of cytosine, adenine, guanine, and thymine.
• G Only proteins are formed from amino acids joined by
peptide bonds.
• H Only polysaccharides can be folded and twisted to
very specific shapes.
• J Only proteins can be large molecules with thousands
of subunits.
Sample Biochemistry questions
9. Which of these best represents a fatty-acid
Sample Cell questions
• 1. Which of the cells characterized in the
chart below is a prokaryotic cell?
• A Cell A
• B Cell B
• C Cell C
• D Cell D
Sample Cell questions
• 2. A type of cell that can exist in a broad
range of environmental conditions, can
rapidly multiply, and lacks a nucleus is known
as what type of cell?
• A animal
• B eukaryotic
• C plant
• D prokaryotic
Sample Cell questions
• 3. A scientist treats a cell with a chemical
that destroys the ribosomes. As a result,
which cell process will be stopped?
• a. osmosis
• b. photosynthesis
• c. protein synthesis
• d. respiration
Sample Cell questions
4. Which is the most likely function of a
group of cells that contains a high
number of chloroplasts?
• A respiration
• B transpiration
• C fermentation
• D photosynthesis
Sample Cell questions
• 5. Which cell structure is correctly
paired with its primary function?
• (1) ribosome–protein synthesis
• (2) mitochondrion–movement
• (3) vacuole–cell division
• (4) nucleus–storage of nutrients
Sample Cell questions
• 6. Protein synthesis occurs at which of
the structures shown to the right?
• AI
• B II
• D IV
Sample Cell questions
• 7. This diagram represents a cell.
• Which organelle is the site where amino
acids are synthesized into proteins?
• A. 1
• B. 2
• C. 3
• D. 4
Sample Cell questions
8. The diagram below represents a cell of
a green plant. Solar energy is used to
produce energy-rich compounds in
• (1) A
• (2) B
• (3) C
• (4) D
Sample Cell questions
9. Both euglena and cyanobacteria are
photosynthetic unicellular organisms found
in pond water. The feature that distinguishes
euglena from cyanobacteria is the —
• A ability to maintain homeostasis
• B presence of ribosomes
• C ability to reproduce
• D presence of a nuclear membrane
Sample Cell questions
10. Which cellular process takes place in
the ribosomes that are bound to the
endoplasmic reticulum?
• A The breakdown of waste material
• B The conversion of radiant energy to
• C The synthesis of new proteins
• D The replication of nucleic acids
Sample Cell questions
11. Cell differentiation is critical during
embryonic development. The process of cell
differentiation results in the production of
many types of cells, including germ, somatic,
and stem cells. Cell differentiation is most
directly regulated by —
• C lipids
• D sugars
Question #1
• 1. The major source of the oxygen that
is released into the atmosphere is
• A cellular respiration
• B photosynthesis
• C automobile exhaust
• D the weathering of rocks
Question #2
• 2. Which most accurately describes the
difference in ATP production between aerobic
respiration and anaerobic respiration?
• A Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than
anaerobic respiration.
• B Anaerobic respiration produces more ATP than
aerobic respiration.
• C Only anaerobic respiration produces
measurable amounts of ATP.
• D Anaerobic and aerobic respiration produce the
same amount of ATP.
Question #3
• 3. Which statement best distinguishes
aerobic from anaerobic respiration?
• A Only aerobic respiration involves
• B Only anaerobic respiration occurs in the
• C Only aerobic respiration requires oxygen.
• D Only anaerobic respiration produces
carbon dioxide.
Question #4
• 4. In which way are photosynthesis and
cellular respiration different?
• A Cellular respiration stores ATP, while
photosynthesis releases ATP.
• B Cellular respiration produces oxygen, while
photosynthesis uses oxygen.
• C Photosynthesis releases energy, while
cellular respiration stores energy.
• D Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide, while
cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide.
Question #5
• 5. A biological process that occurs in
plants is represented below.
Which row in the chart below identifies the lettered
substances in this process?
Question #6
• 6. Muscle fatigue occurs during this activity
• (1) carbon dioxide is used up in the muscle
• (2) simple sugar is converted to starch in the
muscle cells
• (3) proteins accumulate in mitochondria in the
muscle cells
• (4) certain waste products collect in the
muscle cells
Question #7
• 7. A biological process that occurs in both
plants and animals is shown below.
Which row in the chart below identifies the
lettered substances in this process?
Question #8
• 8. During photosynthesis hydrogen
combines with carbon dioxide to make —
• A cholesterol
• B protein
• C glucose
• D cellulose
Question #9
6CO2 + 6H2O
C6H12O6 + 6O2
• 9. Examine the chemical equation above. Which
molecule stores the greatest potential energy
(energy stored in the bonds that can be turned
into ATP)?
• a. 6CO2
• b. 6H2O
• c. C6H12O6
• d. 6O2
Question #10
• 10. The green aquatic plant represented in
the diagram below was exposed to light for
several hours. Which gas would most likely be
found in the greatest amount in the bubbles?
• a. oxygen
• b. carbon dioxide
• c. ozone
• d. nitrogen
Question #11
11. Which of these statements best explains the
process of energy conversion that takes place in
the mitochondria?
• F Energy is required for carbon dioxide molecules
to form six-carbon sugar molecules.
• G Water molecules and radiant energy are
necessary for anaerobic respiration to take place.
• H Oxygen molecules release energy in the form of
heat during combustion reactions.
• J The energy in the bonds of glucose molecules is
transferred to the phosphate bonds in ATP.
Question #12
12. Which of the following correctly describes how
a diagram of cellular respiration would differ from
a diagram of photosynthesis?
• F The cellular-respiration diagram would show
electromagnetic waves as the final product.
• G The cellular-respiration diagram would show
glucose as the main source of energy.
• H The cellular-respiration diagram would show
energy stored in large protein molecules.
• J The cellular-respiration diagram would show
water as the main source of chemical energy.
Question #13
• 13. The arrows in the diagram below
represent the movement of materials. This
movement of materials indicated by the
arrows is most directly involved in the
processes of
• (1) respiration and replication
• (2) photosynthesis and excretion
• (3) digestion and recycling
• (4) circulation and coordination
Question #14
• 14. Which structure regulates gas exchange
during the process of photosynthesis and
• Q
• R
• S
• T
Question #15
• 15. If the xylem in a young tree is
damaged, which process is first affected?
• A performing photosynthesis
• B transporting sugar to the roots
• C transporting water to the leaves
• D absorbing water from the soil
Question #16
• 16
Question #17
• 17
Question #1
• 1. Which of the following correctly lists the
phases of the cell cycle starting with the
• A 4, 1, 2, 3, 6, 5
B 4, 6, 1, 5, 2, 3
• C 4, 1, 6, 3, 5, 2
D 4, 1, 5, 6, 3, 2
Question #2
• 2. Why is it important for the cells of
multicellular organisms to undergo mitosis?
• A Mitosis allows for reproduction with male
and female gametes.
• B Mitosis increases variation within an
• C Mitosis produces cells that are different
from the original dividing cell.
• D Mitosis produces identical cells to the
original dividing cell.
Question #3
• 3. Which term best describes the type of cell
division in which parent cells produce
daughter cells with the same number of
chromosomes as the parent cells?
• A mitosis
• B meiosis
• C spermatogenesis
• D oogenesis
Question #4
• 4. If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each
of its body cells, how many
chromosomes will be in each daughter
cell after mitosis?
• A 11
• B 19
• C 38
• D 76
Question #5
• 5. If a chemical that interrupts cell
division is added to a culture of human
liver tissue, which process would stop?
• (1) meiosis
• (2) mitosis
• (3) breakdown of glucose
• (4) diffusion of nutrients
Question #6
• 6. The diagram below represents division of a cell
that produces two daughter cells. Which
statement most likely describes the daughter cells
• (1) The daughter cells will pass on only half of the
genetic information they received from the
original cell.
• (2) The daughter cells will each produce offspring
that will have the same genetic information as
the original cell.
• (3) The daughter cells will each undergo the same
mutations as the original cell after reproduction
has occurred.
• (4) The daughter cells will not pass on any of the
genes that they received from the original cell.
Question #7
• 7. The number in each circle below represents
the chromosome number of the cell. Which
diagram represents the production of offspring
by an asexually reproducing organism?
Question #8
• 8. A photomicrograph of
onion root tip cells during
mitosis is shown below.
Which phase of mitosis is
occurring in the cell
indicated by the arrow?
• A) Prophase
• B) Metaphase
• C) Anaphase
• D) Telophase
Question #9
9. Which of these must occur during S phase of
the cell cycle so that two daughter cells can be
produced during M phase?
• A) The DNA must be replicated.
• B) The chromosomes must be joined.
• C) The cytoplasm must be separated.
• D) The cell membrane must be expanded
Question #10
10. The diagram below represents the cell
• When cells leave the cell cycle, they exit
during G1 phase and then enter G0 phase,
a resting period. Most normal cells can
leave G0 phase and reenter the cell cycle
at G1 phase before entering S phase.
Cancer cells are different because they
cannot enter G0 phase and are likely to
do which of the following?
A) Fail to complete S phase
B) Mutate during G phase
C) Repeat the cell cycle continuously
D) Die after completing mitosis
• 1. How many chromosomes are
contained in a human male
gamete cell?
• A 11
• B 23
• C 34
• D 46
• 2. Which row in the chart below
indicates the correct process for
each event indicated?
• 3. Which mutation in a fruit fly could be
passed on to its offspring?
• (1) a mutation in a cell of an eye that
changes the color of the eye
• (2) a mutation in a leg cell that causes the
leg to be shorter
• (3) a mutation in a sperm cell that changes
the shape of the wing
• (4) a mutation in a cell of the digestive tract
that produces a different enzyme
• 4. In sexually reproducing
organisms, mutations can be
inherited if they occur in
• (1) the egg, only
• (2) the sperm, only
• (3) any body cell of either the
mother or the father
• (4) either the egg or the sperm
• 5. A chemical known as 5-bromouracil causes
a mutation that results in the mismatching of
molecular bases in DNA. The offspring of
organisms exposed to 5-bromouracil can have
mismatched DNA if the mutation occurs in
• (1) the skin cells of the mother
• (2) the gametes of either parent
• (3) all the body cells of both parents
• (4) only the nerve cells of the father
• 6. Which statement concerning the reproductive cells in the
diagram below is correct?
• (1) The cells are produced by mitosis and contain all the genetic
information of the father.
• (2) If one of these cells fertilizes an egg, the offspring will be
identical to the father.
• (3) Each of these cells contains only half the genetic information
necessary for the formation of an offspring.
• (4) An egg fertilized by one of these cells will develop into a
female with the same characteristics as the mother.
• 7. The diagram below shows a process that affects
chromosomes during meiosis.
• This process can be used to explain
• (1) why some offspring are genetically identical to their
• (2) the process of differentiation in offspring
• (3) why some offspring physically resemble their
• (4) the origin of new combinations of traits in offspring
• 8. The diagram below represents
structures found in a human female.
Which process results in the formation
of structure X?
• (1) mitosis
• (2) meiosis
• (3) recombination
• (4) cloning
• 9. The diagram below represents a process that occurs
during human reproduction.
• The process represented by the arrow will ensure that
• (1) zygote contains a complete set of genetic
• (2) gametes contain a complete set of genetic
• (3) zygote contains half of the genetic information
• (4) gametes contain half of the genetic information
• 10. Sexual reproduction
provides for what to occur?
• A cloning
• B budding
• C genetic stability
• D genetic variation
11. A mutation that occurs in the
gametes of an organism will most
likely be transferred to which of the
• A) The siblings of the organism
• B) The offspring of the organism
• C) The other organisms living nearby
• D) The mating partner of the organism
12. Crossing-over between non sister
chromatids during meiosis is
significant in heredity. This process
most likely leads to an increase in
which of the following?
• A) The expression of dominant traits
• B) Number of gametes
• C) The occurrence of polyploidy
• D) Genetic variation

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