immune with stress

Report
Neutrophil engulfing
anthrax bacterium
Vertebrate Immune System
INNATE
humoral
complement
antitoxins
bacteriolysins
cellular
1.
2.
3.
4.
Inflammation
Kill and clear
any non-self
Natural Killer Cells
Basophils
Eosinophils
Phagocytes
a) Macrophges
b) Neutrophils
c) Dendritic cells
Fast acting, non specific
Does not confer long lasting
protection
ADAPTIVE
cellular
humoral
T-cell
B-cell
1. Helper T cell
Th0
Th1
Th2
2. Cytotoxic
T cell
Inflammation
Kill specific
pathogens
B-cell
Producing antibodies
Mark pathogens
for destruction
and clearance
Slower response, but highly specific
Leaves memory cells
Macrophage
cytotoxins
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
T Tcell
Tcell
Tcell
Tcell
Tcell
cell
CD8+
CD8+
CD8+
CD8+
CD8+
CD8+
T cell
CD8+
Perforin
granulysin
Presenting
antigen
Interleukin 2
Macrophage
T cell
Helper T
CD4+
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
cell
IFN γ
Helper
Th1
Th1
memory
Interleukin 2
Interleukin 4
Interferon γ
Il4
Helper
Th2
Il4
Il5
Il6
Il10
Il13
B cell
memory
IFN γ
Tumor Necrosis Factor
Activate more
macrophages
Macrophage
B cell
unactivated
B cell
ACTIVATED
STRESS
• Sympathetic Nervous System (Epinephrine
and Norepinephrine):
– Increases inflammation—increases adhesion
molecules from macrophages—allowing all cells
to stick into tissues better
– Increase inflammation—Th1 cells have
receptors for Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
• Glucocorticoids: Acute
• Glucocorticoids: Chronic
Effect of stress on T cell response
ACUTE
STRESS
• Sympathetic Nervous System (Epinephrine
and Norepinephrine):
– Increases inflammation—increases adhesion
molecules from macrophages—allowing all cells
to stick into tissues better
– Increase inflammation—Th1 cells have
receptors for Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
• Glucocorticoids: Acute
– Enhances IFNγ action on Th1
• Glucocorticoids: Chronic
Effect of stress on T cell response
ACUTE
CHRONIC
STRESS
• Sympathetic Nervous System (Epinephrine
and Norepinephrine):
– Increases inflammation—increases adhesion
molecules from macrophages—allowing all cells
to stick into tissues better
– Increase inflammation—Th1 cells have
receptors for Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
• Glucocorticoids: Acute
– Enhances IFNγ action on Th1
• Glucocorticoids: Chronic
– Reduce numbers of lymphocytes (T>B),
basophils, eosinophils, macrophages
Fig. 1. Juxtaposition of typical stressors for wild animals and known effects of stressors on immune function in
domesticated rodents
Immune function
Habitat modification
Invasive species
Pollution
Immune
enhancement
basal immune function
Inclement weather
Social status change
Scope of baseline shift (or GC
insensitivity) contingent
on experience (#, timing
or intensity of prior stressors)
Infection
Injury
Aggressive interaction
Parasite detection
Predation
Minutes-hours
Immune
suppression
Food
restriction
Hours-days
Days-weeks
Weeks-months
Duration of stressor
Protective up-regulation
Protective down-regulation
Allostatic overload
Vertebrate Immune System
INNATE
humoral
complement
antitoxins
bacteriolysins
acute
cellular
1.
2.
3.
4.
Inflammation
Kill and clear
any non-self
Natural Killer Cells
Basophils
Eosinophils
Phagocytes
a) Macrophges
b) Neutrophils
c) Dendritic cells
Fast acting, non specific
Does not confer long lasting
protection
chronic
ADAPTIVE
cellular
humoral
T-cell
B-cell
1. Helper T cell
Th0
Th1
Th2
2. Cytotoxic
T cell
Inflammation
Kill specific
pathogens
B-cell
Producing antibodies
Mark pathogens
for destruction
and clearance
Slower response, but highly specific
Leaves memory cells
Definitions
• Adaptive arm—humoral: responsible for extracellular
pathogen control through generation of antibodies (B cells)
specific to particular components of pathogens (antigens)
• Adaptive arm—cell mediated: responsible for intracellular
pathogen control (cytotoxic T cells), and upregulating both
cell mediated (Th1) and humoral (Th2) adaptive immune
• Innate arm—cell mediated: cells that destroy non-self
• Innate arm—humoral—proteins, acellular components
identify and destroy non-self
• Leukocytes—all white blood cells
• Lymphocytes—specific leukocytes, two sizes
– Large, granular: natural killer cells
– Small: T and B cells
• MHC—recognition of self
Macrophage
cytotoxins
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
Cytotoxic
T Tcell
Tcell
Tcell
Tcell
Tcell
cell
CD8+
CD8+
CD8+
CD8+
CD8+
CD8+
T cell
CD8+
Perforin
granulysin
Presenting
antigen
Interleukin 2
Macrophage
T cell
Helper T
CD4+
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
Helper T
cell
cell
IFN γ
Helper
Th1
Th1
memory
Interleukin 2
Interleukin 4
Interferon γ
Il4
Helper
Th2
Il4
Il5
Il6
Il10
Il13
B cell
memory
IFN γ
Tumor Necrosis Factor
Activate more
macrophages
Macrophage
B cell
unactivated
B cell
ACTIVATED

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