Robotics Safety Quiz Questions Guohua Cui, Dan Zhang and Marc A. Rosen Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science University of Ontario Institute of Technology Oshawa, Ontario, Canada July 2014 Section 1---Quiz 1. Nowadays, industrial robots have been widely introduced to many production lines, and can be used for elaborate work; however, they may cause hazards if sufficient precautions are not been provided. A. True B. False 2. Which of the following statements describes a dangerous situation involving robot safety? A. Robots are increasingly being used in the industry to perform various types of dangerous tasks. B. A material handling robot is operating in its automatic mode and a worker overrides safety devices to enter the robot work cell. C. A maintenance person climbs over a safety fence after turning off the power to a robot in the fenced in area. 3. Most accidents with robots occur during programming, maintenance, repair, setup and testing, and are associated with lack of training for employees and improper use of safeguards. A. True B. False Section 1---Quiz 4. If we can recognize and address hazards in the workplace, we can reduce worker fatalities, damage to equipment, production loss and damage to a company’s reputation. A. True B. False 5. The first robot-induced fatal accident occurred in 1978 in which country? A. United States B. Canada C. China D. Japan 6. Robotics safety operates under a set of principles, primarily related to how to protect humans from robot motions. A. True B. False Section 2---Quiz 1. The definition of an industrial robot is: A. A mechanical device that can perform tasks without guidance by remote control. B. A mechanical device as an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. C. A mechanical device, which cannot be programmed, for automatically performing tasks. D. None of the above 2. Nowadays, the main types of robot include which of the following: A. Nano robots and service robots B. Mobile robots and medical robots C. Industrial robots and military robots D. All of the above 3. Industrial robots have many functions, such as material handling, assembly, arc welding, resistance welding, machine tool loading and unloading, painting and spraying. A. True B. False Section 2---Quiz 4. Industrial robots are designed and fabricated with different design configurations and a different number of axes or degrees of freedom. A. True B. False 5. A cylindrical robot has ______ linear axis (axes) and one rotary axis around its origin. A. one B. two C. three D. none 6. A spherical or polar robot has _______ linear axis (axes) and two rotary axes. A. one B. two C. three D. none Section 2---Quiz 7. Robots are controlled through the use of sensors that continually monitor the robot's axes and associated components for position and velocity. A. True B. False 8. ________ are the most versatile robots available. They closely mimic the natural form of the human arm. A. Snake arm robots B. Articulated/Jointed-arm robots C. Picker/Delta robots D. Spherical robots 9. An industrial robot system includes not only industrial robots but also some devices and/or sensors required for the robot to perform its tasks. A. True B. False Section 2---Quiz 10. Which of the following paths is not a classification of industrial robots according to generated paths? A. Continuous Path B. Point-to-Point Path C. Line to Line path D. Controlled Path 11. Which of the following are major components of an industrial robot? A. control system and mechanical unit B. mechanical unit and power source C. mechanical unit, power source and tooling D. control system, mechanical unit, power source and tooling 12. The robot's manipulative arm is a _________. A. a type of tooling B. control system C. power source D. mechanical unit Section 2---Quiz 13. Which of the following is a possible power source of the energy required by robots? A. Electrical power B. Hydraulic power C. Pneumatic power D. All of the above 14. A robot's drives are usually mechanical combinations powered by pneumatic, hydraulic or electrical power, and the power selection is usually based on application requirements. A. True B. False Section 3---Quiz 1. Which of the following may result in a hazard? A. The overlap of a robot arm with other machines and equipment, especially during high-speed movements. B. The release of energy caused by flying parts. C. Human factors. D. All of the above. 2. Designers and operators need to provide and implement technical safety measures for robot to reduce hazards. A. True B. False 3. Which of the following may cause a collision accident? A. Failure of gripper mechanism B. Component malfunctions or unpredicted program changes related to the robot's arm. C. Equipment and power cables lay on the floor. D. All of the above. Section 3---Quiz 4. Mechanical part accidents involve a breakdown of the robot's drive components. Which of the following is not a mechanical part accident? A. Breakdown of the robot's drive components B. failure of end-effector power tools C. failure of gripper mechanism D. Component malfunctions 5. Entry into a robot’s safeguarded area is hazardous because the person involved may not be familiar with the safeguards in place or their activation status. A. True B. False 6. Compared with pneumatic power robots, which type of robot can be stopped easily and more safely quickly. A. Industrial robot B. Electrically powered robots C. Hydraulic power robot D. None of the above Section 3---Quiz 7. Most robot-related accidents are caused by a robot in conjunction with people during programming, maintenance, repairing, setup and testing of the robot. A. True B. False 8. Which of the following is a robotic incident? A. The power supplies to the robot are uncontrolled B. A robotic arm or controlled tool causes an accident C. An individual is placed in a risk circumstance involving a robot D. All of the above 9. A hazard is a source of potential harm, and an unwanted event is a potential situation where the hazard can take place. A. True B. False Section 3---Quiz 10. Which of the following can be categorized as an environmental hazard? A. Electromagnetic or radio-frequency interference B. Pneumatic power transmission C. Errors in software D. Faulty or unexpected robot operation 11. The best way to deal with hazards is to eliminate them. If that is not possible, then controls are needed to reduce the potential for harm from the risk. A. True B. False 12. Which of the following hazards is caused by human error? A. Intrinsic faults within the control system of the robot B. Entry into a robot's safeguarded area C. Cumulative mechanical part failure D. All of the above Section 3---Quiz 13. Equipment and power cables which lay on the floor may result in tripping hazards. A. True B. False 14. When an immediate robot control-related threat has been resolved, regular reviews and auditing are required to ensure that the controls are effective and that they do not create a new hazard. A. True B. False 15. Which of the following phenomena may result in hazards from a robot? A. The robot’s high-speed movements B. A release of energy caused by flying parts C. Susceptibility to influence by external errors such as electromagnetic compatibility D. All of the above Section 3---Quiz 16. Which of the following should be considered comprehensively in order to avoid the inherent hazards when a robot or robot system is installed? A. Design and requirements B. Utilities and facilities C. Layout of equipment D. All of the above Section 4---Quiz 1. When working with industrial robots and installations, there is an emphasis on special operation modes, such as commissioning, setting up, programming, testing, checking, troubleshooting and maintenance. In these operating modes, persons are usually in a danger zone. A. True B. False 2. Which of the following contribute to a potential hazard for a robot or robot system? A. Prevent manual or physical access into danger zones by means of mechanical barriers B. Permit manual or physical access only when the entire system is in a safe state C. Use interlocking devices with closure mechanisms on the access doors D. Enter the robot’s workspace when the robot is working 3. Which of the following is necessary to enable the safety control system to automatically recognize the presence of personnel around a robot? A. Door interlocking devices B. Light barriers C. Safety mats D. All of the above Section 4---Quiz 4. There is no danger in the process of robotic repair due to the fact that the robot has been stopped. A. True B. False 5. With the application of robot technology, we should attach great importance to the maximum demand in the following aspects. A. Risk assessment B. Hazard analysis C. Safety concepts D. All of above 6. Mechanical protection such as mechanical barriers can avoid any danger. A. True B. False 7. Mechanical protections such as light barriers, safety mats and interlocking devices can prevent unwanted or unexpected accident, but not absolutely. A. True B. False Section 4---Quiz 8. Which of the following is not a suggested approach to safety to achieve the goal that no person should be injured as a result of a release of energy? A. Ensure designs prevent any release of energy. B. Prevent the release of energy from the danger zone. C. Use a correspondingly dimensioned safety hood. D. None of above. 9. When an industrial robot is in a dangerous mode of operation, a safety control system should make instantaneous adjustments and direct the robot from a hazardous state to a safe state. A. True B. False 10. A relevant safety goal is that no robot movements should endanger persons involved in working with or near the robot. To support this goal, robot movements should be ________ A. Only of the scheduled style and speed. B. Prolonged only as long as instructed. C. performed only if it can be ensured that no parts of the human body are in the danger zone. D. All of the above Section 4---Quiz 11. Open-loop controllers execute robot movements with feedback. A. True B. False 12. Closed-loop controllers execute robot movements with feedback devices and judge movement progress with sensors. Thus they can compensate for errors and improve control accuracy. A. True B. False Section 5---Quiz 1. With respect to robot safeguards, one should consider not only the design process and planning stage, but also the installation and subsequent operation. A. True B. False 2. In order to ensure that a company has a safe robot system, one needs to consider almost every factor affecting safety. Some examples of such factors are: A. What is the overall reliability and safety of the system? B. What are the potential hazards of the robotic cell? C. What safeguarding technologies are available? D. All of the above 3. Good planning, proper installation and ongoing support are paramount for a company to possess a reliable and safe robot system. A. True B. False Section 5---Quiz 4. When you design a safe robot system, you must first understand the fact that the hazards exist in the system. A. True B. False 5. Once a hazard related to a robot and robot system has been identified, a risk assessment must be performed. A. True B. False 6. Which of the following should a robot system design concept include at the minimum? A. Limits of the robot system B. Task identification of the robot system C. User considerations for the robot system D. All of the above Section 5---Quiz 7. Robot system designers should understand current safeguarding technology and how this technology can also save them time and money and improve the reputation of a company, now and in the future. A. True B. False 8. Two safeguarding methods include hard-guarding and optical perimeter guards. These can prevent personnel from entering a danger area, making perimeter guarding capable of avoiding accidents. A. True B. False 9. What is a risk assessment? A. Identification of hazards B. Analysis or evaluation of the risks associated with hazards C. Determination of appropriate ways to eliminate or control hazards D. The combination of the above three Section 5---Quiz 10. Which of the following protection measures is usually used in the restricted or operating space (on the inside)? A. Mechanical limiting devices B. Interlocking devices C. Light curtains and safety scanners D. Hard-guards 11. Safeguarding devices such as safety scanners and light curtains must be located at a distance that provides adequate stopping time. A. True B. False 12. To keep unnecessary personnel out of the restricted space of a robot cell, you may use perimeter guarding. A. True B. False Section 5---Quiz 13. Which of the following is not an awareness device? A. Chain barriers with supporting stanchions B. Rope barriers with supporting stanchions C. Flashing lights and signs D. Interlocked barriers 14. Which of the following are not safeguarding devices? A. Mechanical limiting devices B. Presence-sensing safeguarding devices C. Flashing lights, signs, whistles, and horns D. Fixed barriers 15. For the planning stage, installation, and subsequent operation of a robot or robot system, one should consider the following: A. Safeguarding the teacher and attended continuous operation. B. Awareness devices, safeguarding devices and safety training. C. Maintenance, repair and operator safeguards. D. All of the above Section 5---Quiz 16. Which of the following statements does not have to do with perimeter guarding? A. Hard-guarding is a fencing-type solution. B. Optical perimeter guards (e.g. light curtains) are a more flexible approach for safeguarding. C. Area safety scanners are often used in the restricted or operating space. D. Optical perimeter guards are often used in combination with hard-guards. E. None of the above. 17. While employers are responsible for the safe condition of tools and equipment in the workplace, workers are not responsible for maintaining tools. A. True B. False 18. Training is essential for employee protection. An employer should train operators in the safe operation of mechanical presses and supervise operators. A. True B. False Section 5---Quiz 19. Providing health and safety information and training helps you: A. Ensure that people who work for you know how to work safely and without risks to health B. Develop a positive health and safety culture C. Perform your legal duty to protect the health and safety of your employees D. All of the above 20. The measures taken to safeguard a robot do not depend on the circumstances of its operation and surrounding environment. A. True B. False 21. Fences are used to prevent workers from entering into a robot’s working space. A. True B. False Section 5---Quiz 22. What is the robot safeguard measure that can be observed in the following picture? A. Interlocking devices B. Presence sensing devices C. Perimeter-barrier-fencing D. Light curtains 23. Which of the following is not an interlocking device? A. A key-operated interlocking device B. A guard-operated interlocking device C. A solenoid lock D. None of the above Section 5---Quiz 24. When an interlocking device is opened or removed, the tripping mechanism and/or power automatically shut off, and the machine cannot cycle or be started until the guard is back in place. A. True B. False 25. Nowadays, presence sensing devices are widely used in robotic safety , Which of the following is not an presence sensing devices? A. Light curtains B. A fixed barrier C. Laser scanning devices D. Pressure-sensitive mats 26. Pressure-sensitive mats can trigger an output/action if ________ is applied to the surface of a robot system. A. Pressure B. Force C. Strain D. Stress Section 5---Quiz 27. Mechanical limits are used to reduce the working area for the robot. A. True B. False 28. Two-hand control devices require concurrent and continued use of both hands, preventing them from entering into the danger area. A. True B. False 29. If a moving part comes in contact with an object, the _________ pressure sensitive edge is depressed and an output is triggered. A. rigid B. flexible 30. __________ is for immediate stoppage of a machine in case of a hazard. A. A positive stop B. An emergency stop C. A general stop D. A brake Section 5---Quiz 31. A safe robot system normally has connections to external safety devices like door locks, light barriers and safety scanners, to ensure that the robot can be stopped in a safe way. A. True B. False 32. In order to improve robot safety, the following steps are normally carried out: A. Use boundary warning devices, barriers, and interlocks around robot systems. B. Provide robot safety training to those employees working on the floor with robots. C. Provide operators with training relating to the particular robot(s) with which they work. D. All of the above 33. Light curtains can shield against projectile hazards. A. True B. False Section 5---Quiz 34. The training of employees about robots should cover the following points. A. All hazards in the work area B. Machine operating procedures, lockout procedures and safe work practices C. The purpose of machine safeguards D. All procedures for responding to safeguarding problems E. All of the above 35. ABB SafeMove, as a new generation of robot safety systems, has many advantages. Which of the following is an example? A. open a new era of man-machine collaboration B. save the space robot work space C. reduce purchasing cost for safety devices D. all of the above 36. SafeMove is an electronics- and software-based safety approach that ensures safe and predictable robot motion for the robot. A. True B. False Section 5---Quiz 37. SafeMove provides savings on floor space by restricting robot motion to precisely what is needed. A. True B. False 38. Nowadays, robots and operators can collaborate much more closely. SafeMove enables operators and robots to work together without compromising on safety. A. True B. False 39. The next generation of the robot safety is expected to provide additional advantages, such as A. Enabling collaborative applications B. Savings on safety equipment C. Savings on floor space D. All of the above Section 6---Quiz 1. Some standards may provide performance requirements for the design, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of the safeguarding when applied to machine tools. A. True B. False 2. What is the normal color of the mushroom-type push button that forms part of an emergency stop switch? A. Yellow B. Red C. Black D. White 3. The new ISO standards for industrial robot safety are leading documents enabling the safe use of new technologies and the capabilities of new industrial robots. A. True B. False Section 6---Quiz 4. Which of the following types of safety regulations apply to robot systems in Europe? A. Z434-03 B. ANSI RIA C. ISO 10218 D. EN 77 5. Which of the following types of safety regulations apply to robot systems in the US? A. Z434-03 B. ANSI RIA C. ISO 10218 D. EN 77 6. Which of the following types of safety regulations apply to robot systems in Canada? A. Z434-03 B. ANSI RIA C. ISO 10218 D. EN 77 Section 6---Quiz 7. The ISO 10218-1 standard for the robot, and the ISO 10218-2 standard for robot systems and integration, were both published effective 1 July 2011. A. True B. False 8. Which of the following lists are new features in ISO 10218? A. Cable-less pendants and control of simultaneous motion. B. Robot safety rated soft limits to define: restricted space, safety zones within the cell. C. Collaborative robots and synchronous robots. D. All of the above. 9. In Canada, CAN/CSA-Z434-2003 (R2008) applies to the manufacture, remanufacture, rebuild, installation, safeguarding, maintenance, repair, testing and start-up, as well as personnel training requirements for industrial robots and robot systems. A. True B. False Section 6---Quiz 10. Which of the following lists are highlights of CAN/CSA-Z434-2003: A. Includes safeguarding methods to enhance the safety of personnel B. Includes robot system integration/installation C. Provides guidance on personnel training requirements D. All of the above.