Part 1 FBA Workshop Powerpoint

Report
Assessing, Addressing and
Supporting Students at TIER 3
Part 1: Functional Behavior Assessment
and Data Collection Tools
EILEEN M. BAKER, ED.D.
CENTER FOR DISABILITIES STUDIES
UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PROJECT
Select role and take corresponding role card

Specific roles for today:
 Facilitator - Guides the meeting process; remains
objective
 Timekeeper
- Keeps track of time spent on issue;
prompts group when allotted time is up
 Recorder/Note
decisions made
 Reporter
taker - Takes notes; keeps track of
- Uses recorder’s notes to share with the
group as needed
Our Agenda
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Looking at TIER 2 to TIER 3 system processes
Overview of Functional Behavior Assessment
Step by Step Process Guide of conducting FBAs
Defining the behavior
Conducting the Initial Line of Inquiry
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Slow Triggers, Fast Triggers
Function
Consequences
 Data collection
Tool sharing
 Baseline data
 Role Play Facilitation of FBA Process
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System Development is Key!
Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008
•
To scale up interventions we must first scale up
implementation capacity
•
Building implementation capacity is essential to
maximizing the use of Positive Behavior Support and other
innovations
Adapted from the Illinois PBIS Network
SCHOOL-WIDE
POSITIVE
BEHAVIOR
SUPPORT
~5%
~15%
Primary Prevention:
School-/ClassroomWide Systems for
All Students,
Staff, & Settings
~80% of Students
Tertiary Prevention:
Specialized
Individualized
Systems for Students with
High-Risk Behavior
Secondary Prevention:
Specialized Group
Systems for Students
with At-Risk Behavior
Positive Behavior Supports
 Application and extension of basic elements of applied
behavior analysis
 Three-Tiered Prevention Model:
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Universal (all students in the environment)
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Targeted (for students for which tier one was not adequate to address
their behavior needs)
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3-5 positively stated rules that are actively taught – applies to all
students in non-classroom areas
Group based supports, e.g., social skills instruction, check-in/checkout
Goal to prevent student’s behavior from becoming disruptive to the
learning environment
Intensive (students whose behavior is chronic)
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Functional behavior assessment maybe conducted
Implement a function-based intervention
May provide wrap around services
Tier 2 Overview
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Interventions are efficient
 Continuously available so students can receive support
quickly (optimally-within 2-3 days)
Minimal time commitment required from classroom
teachers
Required skill sets needed by teachers easily learned
Aligned with school-wide expectations
Emphasis on intervention designed to support multiple
students simultaneously (e.g. Check-In/Check-Out, Social
Skills Groups, etc.)
 Consistently implemented with most students, some
flexibility
Intervention selected matched to function of student
behavior
Adapted from Rose Iovannone, Brief PTR
Tier 3 Overview
 Team formed which include those who have knowledge of the
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student
Systematic problem solving process is foundation
Target behaviors identified and defined
Antecedents (predictors) of problem behavior occurrence
Consequences/responses of others following problem behavior
Hypothesis generated by data
Multi-component intervention plan built and linked with hypothesis
Progress monitoring plan established
Fidelity measurement of intervention implementation developed and
scheduled
Follow-up meeting to make data-based decisions
Reflecting on your school tiers
Data and Support Staff
Tiered Supports / Practices
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
1-5%
1-5%
Tier 3/Tertiary Interventions
•_____________________
•_____________________
•_____________________
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
•___________________________
•___________________________
•___________________________
5-15%
5-15%
Tier 2/Secondary Interventions
•____________________________
•____________________________
•____________________________
•____________________________
•____________________________
•____________________________
•___________________________
•___________________________
•___________________________
•___________________________
•___________________________
•___________________________
Tier 1/Universal Interventions 80-90%
•________________________
•________________________
•________________________
•________________________
Adapted from Illinois PBIS Network, Revised
May 15, 2008. Adapted from “What is schoolwide PBS?” OSEP Technical Assistance Center
on Positive Behavioral Interventions and
Supports. Accessed at
http://pbis.org/school-wide.htm
80-90%
Tier 1/Universal Interventions
•____________________________
•____________________________
•____________________________
•____________________________
•____________________________
3-Tiered System of Support
Necessary Conversations (Teams)
School-wide
Team
Tier 2 Systems
Team
Problem Solving
Team
Tier 3 Systems
Team
Plans SW &
Class-wide
supports
Uses Process data;
determines overall
intervention
effectiveness
Standing team; uses
FBA/BIP process for
one youth at a time
Uses Process data;
determines overall
intervention
effectiveness
Universal
Support
through
SW
Program
CICO
Group
intervention
s
Brief
FBA/
BIP
FBA/BSP
WRAP
Group w.
individual
feature
Adapted from the Illinois PBIS Network
Data-Based Decision-Making
Outcome verses Process Data
Student outcome data is used to:
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Identify youth in need of support and to identify appropriate
interventions
Progress-monitor youth response to intervention
Exit or transition youth off of interventions
Intervention process data is used to:
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Assess intervention fidelity
Monitor the effectiveness of the intervention itself
Make decisions regarding the continuum/menu of
interventions/supports
Adapted from the Illinois PBIS Network
Tier 2/Tier 3 Tracking Tool
Process Data
 Structured to follow all levels/types of interventions from
Secondary through Tertiary
 Increases accountability
 Teams have to count # of students in interventions
 Data-based decision-rules are necessary (Identify,
Progress-monitor, Exit)
 Must define “response” to each intervention type/level
 Shows % of students who responded to each intervention
 Assesses the success rate, or effectiveness, of the
interventions themselves
 Connects each level of intervention to the next level
Adapted from the Illinois PBIS Network
Teaming at Tier 2
• Secondary Systems Planning “conversation”
Monitors effectiveness of CICO, S/AIG, Mentoring,
and Brief FBA/BIP supports
 Review data to make decisions on improvements to the
interventions
 Individual students are NOT discussed
• Problem Solving Team “conversation”
 Develops plans for one student at a time
 Every school has this type of meeting
 Teachers and family are typically invited

Adapted from the Illinois PBIS Network
Tier 2 Systems Planning Team
Meeting Agenda
 Number of students in tier 2 intervention (record on
Tracking Tool)
 Number of students responding (record on Tracking
Tool)
* Send Reverse Request for Assistance to teachers of all
youth not responding
 Number of new students potentially entering the
intervention (share # of Requests for Assistance or # of
students who met the data-based decision-rule)?
 Repeat for additional interventions or groups,
 If less than 70% of students are responding to any of the
interventions, the Tier 2 Systems team should review the
fidelity of the intervention and make adjustments as
needed.
Adapted from the Illinois PBIS Network
Evaluation of FBA and BSP as part of Tier
2/3 System
What does your tier 3 system currently look like?
 What is your continuum of services beginning at tier 2?
 How do students move from TIER 2 to TIER 3?
 How do you progress monitor?
 How do you know the interventions are being
implemented with fidelity?
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Tier 2/Tier 3 Intervention Tracking Tool
Data
Tracking ToolTotal
Activity
School Name: _____________________________ __
School Population as of October 1:________
Group Interventions
Relationship Building
Interventions (e.g.-Check-in Check-out)
# Students # Students
Participating Responding
FBA/BSP
Group Interventions
Skill Building
(e.g.-Social Skills)
# Students # Students
Participating Responding
(Functional Behavior
Assessment/Behavior
Support Planning)
# Students # Students
Participating Responding
July
August
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
April
May
June
Data-based Decision-rules for defining “response to intervention”: Please list below your data-based decision-rule/s to determine youth ‘response’
for each of the six levels of intervention. Ex. Students received 80% or better on Daily Progress Report for 4 consecutive weeks.
Responding to Check-in Check-out (CICO):
Responding to Social Skills Group:
Responding to FBA/BSP:
Tier 2/Tier 3 Tracking Tool
Adapted from the Illinois PBIS Network
Adapted from IL PBIS Network
Behavioral Rule Reminders
 Behavior is related to the context within which it
occurs (Bambara & Knoster)
 Behavior is learned and serves a specific purpose
(Bandura)
 All behavior has function and falls into two
categories: To gain access to or to Escape from
(Alberto & Troutman)
www.behaviordoctor.org
Traditional Discipline Strategies
 Focus on eliminating/decreasing problem behavior
 Reactive in nature (occurs after the problem behavior)
 Focus on topography or form of behavior (rather than
“why” the behavior occurred)
 Separation between instruction and behavioral issues
 No attention or support to the development of
appropriate behaviors
 Oriented toward short-term changes (fix the
immediate problem only)
Limitations of Punitive Strategies
 They do not teach replacement behaviors such as prosocial
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alternatives
Their effects are short-term
Inappropriate behavior is often unintentionally reinforced
They do little to change the cognitions or feelings that
underlie the student’s misbehavior
They often harm the student-teacher relationship
Secondary Common Pitfalls
 Respond to serious behavior problems through a
“get tough” response:
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Repeating and restating consequences
Increasing adversiveness of consequences
Creating a bottom line (zero tolerance) level
Excluding students from privledges
OSS and Explusion
Offering alternative ways of completing high school (i.e.
alternative placement)
Where do these strategies teach new behaviors?
Borgmeier & Flannery, 2007; Sugai and Horner, 2002
How Do Behavioral Referrals, OSS, ISS
Teach New Behaviors?
 You will need to teach replacement behaviors:

This child has learned that certain behaviors have a pay off
 The child will have to be taught ways to release anger
and frustration in socially appropriate ways.
 We cannot just tell them to “be good.” We have to
actually give them techniques that will help them do
something different.
 We need to make the replacement behavior have the
same function as the problem behavior! (EASY,
RIGHT?)
Riffel, L.A. (2009) © - Permission to copy with no changes
“If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.”
“If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.”
“If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.”
“If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.”
“If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we… teach?
... punish?”
“Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically
as we do the others?”
Tom Herner (NASDE President ) Counterpoint 1998, p.2
Behavioral Rule Reminders
 For every year a behavior has been in place, we
need to expect one month of consistent and
appropriate intervention to see a change
(Atchison)
 We can improve behavior by 80% just by pointing
out what one person is doing correctly (Shores,
Gunter, Jack)
www.behaviordoctor.org
Typical Classroom Make-up
 You do know what you will get in your classroom, unlike
Forrest Gump’s Box of chocolates:
 Sensory Integration 16% ADHD 10% Other Health
Impaired 2.2% Speech and Language Impaired 20.5%
Specific Learning Disabilities 20% Hard of Hearing 1.3%
Intellectual Disabilities 11.6% Emotional Behavior
Disorders 8.6%
 90.2% of your classroom
 This is based on a classroom of 25 students and data from
the most current sources: Center for Disease Control, LD
online etc.
www.behaviordoctor.org
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
 FBA is a process for gathering information to
understand the function (purpose) of behavior
in order to develop an effective intervention
plan.
www.behaviordoctor.org
Special Education Requirements
Please work with your IEP teams and Special
Education Supervisor to insure implementation of DE
Special Education Regulations:
http://regulations.delaware.gov/AdminCode/title14/900/
index.shtml
14 DE Admin Code § 925.24.2.1 – Consideration of
special factors related to behavior
14 DE Admin Code § 926.30 - Discipline Procedures
Change of mindset
 Behavior targeted for change
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Reflection of
 Current terminology “problem behavior”
 How are we teaching new behaviors
 Look at targeted behaviors to increase and decrease
 We are all responsible
Challenge current systems of belief
To Implement Secondary Interventions, High School
Staff must understand:
a)Social skill fluency and generalized use should not be
assumed
Peer social culture must be considered in any
b)
implementation effort
Not all students enter high school with the capacity to take
c)
responsibility for their learning success or failure
Not all adolescents “know better” and natural
d)
consequences are not sufficient to change behavior
e)Students are not always self-motivated by academic and
social success
Borgmeier & Flannery, 2007
Challenge Current Systems of Belief
 Create a school climate where EVERYONE feels welcome, wanted,
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and important
Commitment to serve ALL students, even the most
challenging students
Increase consistency across staff & student in understanding behavioral
expectations
Increase ratio of positive to negative interactions throughout the school
Decrease use of punitive & exclusionary discipline; focus on
alternatives to suspension & expulsion
Focus on the fact that we are just as responsible for teaching
academics as we are for teaching behaviors !!!
Borgmeier & Flannery, 2007
Behavioral Rule Reminders
 We use positive behavior specific praise about
6.25% of the time (Haydon, et al.)
 Your reaction determines whether a behavior will
occur again. We have to change our behavior
(Alberto & Troutman).
www.behaviordoctor.org
Evaluation of TIER 3 Supports:
Common FBA Faults
 Behaviors not operationalized
 Eg.-Student is defiant/oppositional/disruptive
 Strange functions (e.g., revenge/payback, anxiety,
control)
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Eg.- Function is to gain control over the environment
 Antecedents, consequences not identified
 Hypothesis not linked with FBA information
Elfner-Childs & Kincaid , 2013
Evaluation of TIER 3 Supports:
Common BSP Faults
 Interventions/strategies not linked with FBA
 Most often include menu list of many strategies/
recommendations
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Eg.- Give the child a choice
Eg.- Child will be given a break when frustrated
 Many do not identify a replacement skill
 Functional equivalence missing
 Limited descriptions of follow-up
Supporting teacher
 Data plan
 Fidelity measures
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Elfner-Childs & Kincaid , 2013
Core Components of Technically Adequate
FBAs/BSPs
 FBA
 Input sought from multiple sources
 Problem behavior that is focus of FBA identified and
clearly defined
 Baseline data indicate target behavior is a problem
 Antecedents that predict problem behavior clearly
identified/described
 Setting events considered and (if applicable) clearly
identified/described
 Antecedents that predict absence of problem behavior
clearly identified/described
Slide adapted from Rose Iovannone presentation in Delaware 11/2011 and 4/2012
Core Components of Technically Adequate
FBAs/BSPs
 FBA
 Consequences (responses of others) immediately after problem
behavior identified and described
 Hypothesis developed from FBA data and includes
antecedents, setting events (if applicable), behavior, and
function
 Function is one recognized and identified by “leaders” in the
field
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Social reinforcement—e.g., obtain/get attention, tangibles,
activities, sensory
Negative reinforcement—e.g., escape/avoid/delay/terminate
attention, tangibles, activities, sensory
Slide adapted from Rose Iovannone presentation in Delaware 11/2011 and 4/2012
Core Components of Technically Adequate
FBAs/BSPs
 BSP
 Developed relatively soon after FBA (e.g. within 30 days)
 FBA hypothesis is included or referenced on BSP
 Minimum of one antecedent strategy:
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Included
Linked to FBA hypothesis (when)
Described in enough detail to pass “stranger test”
Minimum of one teaching strategy:
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Included
Linked to FBA hypothesis (functional equivalence or incompatible
behavior)
Described in enough detail to pass “stranger test”
Slide adapted from Rose Iovannone presentation in Delaware 11/2011 and 4/2012
Core Components of Technically Adequate
FBAs/BSPs
 BSP
 Minimum of one reinforcing strategy:
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Included
Linked to FBA hypothesis (functional equivalence provided)
Described in enough detail to pass “stranger test”
Strategy included to no longer reinforce problem behavior
(change maintaining responses)
Need for crisis plan considered and described in detail (if
applicable) and linked to hypothesis
Evaluation plan described in detail
Fidelity plan described in detail
Slide adapted from Rose Iovannone presentation in Delaware 11/2011 and 4/2012
Avoid FBA/BSP Faults &
Stick to the team process
 Utilize a TEAM to conduct FBA and BSP
 Common team members:
 Student
 Family
 Student’s teachers
 Student’s mentor
 Guidance Counselor
 Administration
 School Psychologist
Let the FORMS be your guide.
 Team Facilitator Step by
Step FBS/BSP Process
 Today’s forms (A-E) cover
through Meeting 1
Step 1 – Facilitator meets with teacher
 Review behavioral referral (Form A-
p. 1)
 Review increase and decrease
targeted behaviors (Form B-p. 2)
 Give out PTR assessment forms
(Form C-p. 3-7)
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Teachers
Family
 Create with teacher data sheet for
teacher to keep preliminary data
* Conduct student interview form/reinforcement inventory
Step 2 – Facilitator summarizes preliminary
information and prepares for meeting
 Facilitator summarizes PTR assessment forms
 Facilitator drafts Initial Line of Inquiry
(Form D-p. 8-10)
 Facilitator drafts hypothesis
Step 3: Meeting #1 with team
 Family
 Student
 General Ed Teacher
 Special Ed Teacher
 Administrator
 Facilitator (school psych/school
counselor/interventionist)
Step 3: Meeting #1 with team
Agenda overview  Review student strengths
 Agree upon behaviors to increase and behaviors to
decrease
 Summarize PTR assessment information
 Agree upon slow triggers, fast triggers, consequences
and possible functions of behaviors
 Agree upon hypothesis
 Draft a data collection sheet (p.11)
Let’s put it into practice!
 Throughout the day we will reinforce our learning of
process steps by discussing Robbie and practicing on
your student case.
 Expectations –
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Be on Task
Be Respectful of team and staff supports
 There’s a method to our madness! 
Robbie - STRENGTHS
 Describe Robbie’s strengths.
• Give examples of when the child does not show the
targeted behavior.
• Try to reframe challenges (i.e. energetic in place of
hyperactive; assertive in place of defiant)
Student Case – STRENGTHS
 Describe your student’s
strengths.
• Give examples of when
the child does not show
the targeted behavior.
• Try to reframe challenges
(i.e. energetic in place of
hyperactive; assertive in
place of defiant)
Define the Target Behaviors
 Define the target behavior
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What behaviors do you want to increase/decrease? (Form BPage 2)
Operational terms
Defiance (what does that look like?)
 Non compliant (what does that look like?)
 Aggressive
 Argumentative
 Disruptive

Define the Target Behavior - Activity
See Target Behavior definition
handout
 Individually, define each
behavior.
 Come back to your team to
compare and discuss:
 Review your individual
definitions
 How much do your
definitions differ?
 What is needed to
operationalize the definition?
Tools to Define Target Behaviors
 PTR assessment forms (Form C - p. 3-7)
 Give out to teachers after you discuss behaviors to increase and
decrease
 Interview with staff
 What is most interfering with learning?
 Observations
Robbie - TARGETED BEHAVIORS
 DEFINE the Targeted Behaviors
 Prioritize behaviors to DECREASE
 Prioritize behaviors to INCREASE
Student Case - TARGETED BEHAVIORS
 DEFINE the Targeted Behaviors
 Prioritize behaviors to DECREASE
 Prioritize behaviors to INCREASE
Functional Assessment Pathway
Maintaining
Consequence
Setting Event
Triggering
Event or
Antecedent
Problem
Behavior
The function:
“Get something”
“Get away from
something”
Initial Line of Inquiry -- FBA
 Slow triggers
 Fast triggers
 Problem behaviors
 Perceived function
 Actual consequences
 Hypothesis (When this happens… Student does
this…. In order to…)
(Form D-Pages 8-10 of FBA forms packet)
Slow Triggers
(Global Information)
 Background information about the child
 History
 Strengths, abilities, & skills
 Important relationships
 Skill needs (communication, social skills or academic
areas)
 Daily routines and activities
 Medical issues or home concerns
Fast Triggers
(What Happens Right Before)
 What’s happening before the behavior occurs?
 What sets the behavior off?
 What is happening in the environment? (People, activities,
materials)
 When is the behavior less likely to occur?
Antecedents to Inappropriate Behavior
A. Frustration due to:
 Response ignorance
 Complex materials, lacking in appropriate adaptations
 Lack of functional vocabulary to communicate
 Goal of performance interruption
B. Understimulation: Boredom
 Being ignored
 Meaningless repetition beyond criterion
 Nonfunctional activity
 Pacing too slowly
C. Overstimulation
 Environment - for example, number of students, noise
 Rate of physical prompting or verbalizations
 Pace of activity
D. Environmental expectation or models
Robbie – SLOW TRIGGERS
 What background information do we know about the
student? (think globally)
Robbie – FAST TRIGGERS
 What’s happening before the behavior occurs?
 What sets the behavior off?
Student Case – SLOW & FAST TRIGGERS
SLOW
FAST
 What background
 What’s happening
information do we know
about the student? (think
globally)
before the behavior
occurs?
 What sets the
behavior off?
Understanding the “Why?” of Behavior
 There are two main functions of behavioral problems in
schools:
 To get something
 To get away from something (escape)
To get/Obtain
 Attention
Adults
Peers
 Access to:
Materials
Sensory
To escape/Avoid
 Work
 Adults
 Peers
 Sensory Overload
 Pain
Emotional
Physical
Adapted from T. Scott, 1988
Functions Served by Behavior
A. Gain Attention
 Social from adult (parent, teacher, paraeducator, etc.)
 Social from peer
B. Gain Tangible
 Object
 Activity
 Event
C. Gain Sensory Stimulation
 Visual, Auditory, Olfactory, Gustatory, Kinesthetic,
Proprioceptive
Functions Served by Behavior
D. Escape Attention/Interactions
 Social from adult
 Social from peer
E. Escape Task
 Demanding or boring task
 Setting, activity, or event
F. Escape Internal Stimulation
 Painful or discomfort (e.g., ear ache, etc.)
Perceived Function
(Possible Motivations of Behavior)
 Obtain adult attention
 Avoid tasks/activities
 Obtain peer attention
 Avoid work
 Obtain objects/items
 Avoid peers
 Obtain sensory
 Avoid adults
stimulation
 Obtain control
 Avoid pain or
discomfort
 Avoid punishment
Examples of Function in Schools
 Obtain
 I shout out because it takes the attention off the task and onto me.
 I disagree with the teacher to get control.
 I wander because I am bored and I can stimulate myself somewhere
else.
 Escape
 I will take a walk around the room because someone will tell me to get
to work and help me.
 I ask to go the nurse because I can get a break out of the class.
Motivational Assessment Scale
 Tool to provide possible motivation behind the
behavior.
Robbie – FUNCTION
 What could be the function of the student’s behavior?
(Gain/Escape?)
 What “needs” are the behavior(s) meeting?
Student Case – FUNCTION
 What could be the function of the student’s behavior?
(Gain/Escape?)
 What “needs” are the behavior(s) meeting?
Actual Consequences
 What happens immediately after the problem occurs?
 What are the schoolwide consequences for the behavior?
 What do you do when the behavior occurs?
 What is the response from others?
Peers
 Adults

Robbie – CONSEQUENCES
 What are the consequences for your student?
 What happens immediately after the problem occurs?
Student Case – CONSEQUENCES
 What are the consequences for your student?
 What happens immediately after the problem occurs?
Hypothesis Development
 When ____________ (antecedent/triggers), the student
will _____________ (problem behavior), as a result
_________________ (consequence).
 You need to have a hypothesis for both the inappropriate
and appropriate behaviors (replacement behavior).
Example Hypothesis Statements
A. When the teacher’s attention is withdrawn or focused on
another child,
B. Zoe makes noises;
C. this results in the teacher scolding and moving closer to Zoe.
**
A. When all the student attention is on the teacher,
B. Terry interrupts the class with comments;
C. the students laugh at Terry’s comments.
**
A. When Kim finishes work before the rest of the class,
B. Kim scribbles on the desk;
C. this results in the teacher giving Kim some work to do.
Example:
Joey goes to the bathroom for up to 15 minutes during writing
time. When he comes back to his desk, he talks to his
neighbors until someone comes over to him and gets him
started with his writing assignment.
Slow Trigger
Fast Trigger
Behavior
Function
Consequences
Fine motor
issues
Writing task
Disruption
Escape
1:1 help
Robbie – HYPOTHESIS
When… (A)
Inappropriate
Appropriate
Student will
(B)
As a result (C)
Student Case – HYPOTHESIS
When… (A)
Inappropriate
Appropriate
Student will
(B)
As a result (C)
Creating a “friendly” and valid data tool
 Collect data on the target behavior
 Collecting baseline data
 ABC
Antecedent
 Behavior
 Consequence

DATA: What to use when?
 Event Recording – recording the number of times a




behavior occurs
Interval Recording – recording of whether a behavior
occurs during intervals of specified time period
Time Sampling – recording of whether a behavior occurs at
the end of an interval during a specified time period
Duration Recording – recording the length of time a
behavior occurs
Latency Recording – recording the amount of time it takes
for a student to begin the targeted behavior.
Activity
 Review list of sample behaviors and as a group
determine what the best data recording technique
would be:





Event/Frequency
Duration
Behavior rating scale
ABC chart
Interval/Time sampling
Whole
 Partial
 Momentary

We want to know the following:
What
wasusgoing
rightto
before
the
This lets
knowonwhen
put the
behavior began?
New interventions
in place
This ensures
Exactly what
that we
wasare
theallbehavior
measuring
in the
measurable and observable terms?
same thing when collecting data.
This
How
is did
the the
realchild
key to
react
whytothe
thebehavior
usual is
consequences
maintaining.
that occurred?
Behavioral Intervention Program
Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence Form
Student: ____Scout______
Circle One: Mon Tue Wed Thurs Fri
Full day Absent Partial day: In _____ Out ______
Page _____1____
Date: ____5/1/03_
Time
Context/Activity
Antecedent/ Setting
Events
Identified Target
Behaviors
Consequence/Outc
ome
Student Reaction
Begin &
End
The student’s environmental
surroundings (people, places,
events)
Describe exactly what
occurred in the
environment just before
targeted behavior was
exhibited.
List types of behaviors
displayed during incident
What happened in the
environment immediately
after behavior was
exhibited?
How did the student react
immediately following the
initial consequence being
delivered
A
E
H
A
B
C
A
B
B
I
C
B
B
A
A
B
Key:A. Transition
B. Choice Given
C. Redirection
D. Instruction/Directive
E. New Task
F. Routine Task
G. Physical Prompts
H. Teacher attention to
Key:A. Throwing objects
B. Disruptive outburst
C. Physical Aggression
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Key:A. Choice given
B. Redirection
C. Discussion of Beh.
D. Personal space given
E. Changed Activity
F. Peer Attention
G. Verbal reprimand
H. Physical Prompt
8:308:39
9:009:22
12:1512:27
3:153:30
A
C
I
A
Key:A.Group Time
B. Individual Time
C. Reading
D. Math
E. Spelling
F. Social Studies
G. Science
H. Free Choice
Key:A. Stopped
B. Continued
C. Intensified
D. Slept
E. Yelled
F. Cried
G. Other behavior
H. Moved away
Staff
Initials
LR
TP
LR
TP
Baseline Data Collection
(Adapted from Laura Riffel)
Date: ______IMPORTANT____________
Team Members: _____IMPORTANT________
Days of Data: __________10______________
For this example we have 10 days of data. You might have more or less.
Total Number of Incidents: ________32___________
Count the number of incidents for all the days of data collection.
Average Number of Incidents Daily: _____3.2______
Take total incidents divided by number of days you collected data
Average length of time engaged in target behavior____12 min.____.
Take total number of minutes of target behavior and divide by number of
incidents. 379/32=
% of day engaged in behavior:_____9%_________
Add up the total minutes of target behavior and divide by total number of
available minutes for the data recording time.
379/4200 minutes *100=
Behavior Analysis by Time of Day
(Adapted from Laura Riffel)
TIME OF
DAY
8:00-8:29
8:30-8:59
9:00-9:29
9:30-9:59
10:00-10:29
10:30-10:59
11:00-11:29
11:30-11:59
12:00-12:29
12:30-12:59
1:00-1:29
1:30-1:59
2:00-2:29
2:30-2:59
3:00-3:30
Tally
111111
111111
1
11111
1
1111
1
11111111
Ratio
% INVOLVED
0/32
6/32
6/32
0/32
1/32
0/32
0/32
0/32
5/32
1/32
4/32
0/32
1/32
0/32
8/32
0%
19%
19%
0%
3%
0%
0%
0%
16%
3%
13%
0%
3%
0%
25%
Behavior Analysis by Antecedent
(Adapted from Laura Riffel)
ANTECEDENTS
Letter
Transition
A
Choice Given
Redirection
Instruction/Directive
New Task
Routine Task
Physical Prompts
Teacher Attention to
others
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Told “NO”
I
Close Proximity
Interaction
J
K
Throwing
Objects
Disruptive
Outbursts
Physical
Aggression
111111111111
11
(14)
1 (1)
11 (2)
11111 (5)
111(3)
1111111 (7)
None
Hitting
Others
9:30-10:00 is
Music
10:30-11:00
is PE
1-5
Date
8:008:30
8:319:00
9:019:30
9:3110:00
10:01
10:30
10:31
11:00
11:01
11:30
Frequent behaviors
Mo
n
Tue We
s
d
Th
urs
Fri
Mo
n
5+
Tue We
s
d
Th
urs
Fri
Behavior Analysis by Consequence
and Student Reaction
CONSEQUENCE Letter
Tally
STUDENT REACTION
% Effective
Stopped Continued
Choice Given
Redirection
A
B
Discussion
Personal Space
Given
Changed
Activity
Peer Attention
Verbal
Reprimand
Physical Prompt
Time Out
C
D
111111 (6)
11111111
(8)
1111 (4)
11111 (5)
111 (3)
1 (1)
11111 (5)
83%
38%
11 (2)
11 (2)
50%
E
11 (2)
11 (2)
0%
F
G
11 (2)
11 (2)
0%
11111 (5)
50%
H
I
1111111111 11111 (5)
(10)
Self-Injurious behavior- pulling hair
Time
Setting
What did the staff or
students do in
relation to the
behaviour?
What did the
student do as
a result of
what the adult
or peers did in
relation to the
behaviour?
9:15-9:45
Work time
Blocked with hand Kept pulling
hair
Staff put hand on
shoulder and used other
hand to block hair
pulling
9:4510:15
Free choice Time
Ignored
Staff ignored behaviors
and student stopped
Stopped
pulling hair
Notes about what
happened
Behavior Rating Scale
 Behavior Rating Scale (cf., Kohler & Strain, 1992)
 Direct Behavior Rating (DBR)—Hybrid assessment combining
features of systematic direct observations and rating scales
 Efficient and feasible for teacher use
 Provides data for decisions
 Prioritized and defined behaviors measured
 Requires minimum of 1 appropriate and 1 inappropriate
behavior
Slide adapted from Rose Iovannone presentation in Delaware 11/2011 and 4/2012
Example: Behavior Rating Scale
Behavior
Putting head
down on desk
50 or more per day
40-49 per day
30-39 times per day
20-29 times
Less than 20
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
Completing
items on
checklist
5 items
4 items
3 items
2 items
1 item
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
2/27
2/28
2/29
3/1
3/2
3/5
3/6
3/7
3/8
3/9
3/12
3/13
3/15
3/16
3/17
3/18
3/19
OFF
2/24
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
15 positive
10 positive
7 positives
5 positive
Less 5 pos
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
Off Task (climbing
on furniture, taking
shoes off, roaming
around room)
Date
5
4
3
2
1
Less than 5
2 4
2 minutes 3
5 minutes 2
7 minutes 1
10 minutes
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
10 minutes
7 minutes
5 minutes
2 minutes
Less than
2 minutes
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
5
4
3
2
1
Saying positive
words(such as
come sit with
me, can you
play with me,
etc.)
Cursing
curses
curses
curses
curses
or less
On task and
engaged
Problem Behavior
60
50
40
30
20
1
A-B-C Data: Analysis Questions
 Is the behavior occurring within the context of the same




activity, materials, instructor, or group of peers?
Does the behavior consistently occur following particular
antecedents? What percent of each antecedent appears in
the data?
Following instances of the behavior, is there consistent
consequence used by the teacher, peers, or other adults?
What percent of each consequence appears in the data?
Does the student terminate the behavior following a
particular consequence? In what percent of occurrence does
the consequence result in the student’s terminating the
behavior?
When a consequence is repeatedly followed by the
termination of the behavior, is there an implied function?
Robbie – DATA Collection & Analysis
Data that is needed to measure the TARGETED BEHAVIOR
Angry Outbursts – any behavior defined as yelling, talking back, angry words directed at teacher – measured in times of
occurrence per day
Going to the nurse – times that Robbie requests to go to the nurse per day
Stating feelings – anytime that Robbie expresses how he feels (i.e. nervous, scared, worried, anxious, angry, mad) either using
picture cues or words. This is also measured in times per day.
Requesting a break – the number of times Robbie requests a break either by words or picture
Antecedent Behavior Consequence Form
 Form is completed on multiple days to collect data (a
new form is used daily)
 Data is then compiled and analyzed
Analyzing the Data – Questions to keep in mind
 When is the behavior more likely to occur?
 Consider time of day, day of week
 Where is the target behavior more likely to occur?
 Consider location, subject, activity
 What is happening before the behavior occurs?
(Antecedents)
 How often is the behavior occurring? (Behavior)
 What is happening after the behavior occurs?
(Consequence)
Examining Time of Day
TIME OF DAY
Tally
Ratio
% INVOLVED
8:15-8:24
8:25-9:14
1111
111111111
11111
4/39
13/39
10%
33%
9:15-9:19
9:20-9:24
9:25-10:19
111
10:20-10:24
10:25-11:14
11:15-11:19
11:20-11:59 111111111
12:00-12:04
12:05-1:24
111
1:25-1:59
2:00-2:29
111111
2:30-2:33
1
2:34-2:30
3/39
8%
9/39
23%
3/39
8%
6/39
1/39
15%
3%
Is there a
pattern
based on
the time of
day?
Examining Time of Day
TIME OF DAY
Tally
Ratio
% INVOLVED
8:15-8:24
8:25-9:14
1111
111111111
11111
4/39
13/39
10%
33%
9:15-9:19
9:20-9:24
9:25-10:19
111
10:20-10:24
10:25-11:14
11:15-11:19
11:20-11:59 111111111
12:00-12:04
12:05-1:24
111
1:25-1:59
2:00-2:29
111111
2:30-2:33
1
2:34-2:30
3/39
8%
9/39
23%
3/39
8%
6/39
1/39
15%
3%
Is there a
pattern
based on
the time of
day?
Examining the Day
DAY OF WEEK
Tally
MONDAY
7+9
AVERAGE INCIDENTS
PER DAY
8
TUESDAY
4+5
4.5
WEDNESDAY
3+3
3
THURSDAY
6+2
4
FRIDAY
10+7
8.5
Tally total
incidents per day
and divide by the
number of that day
For example: we
have data for two
Mondays. On these
two Mondays, 16
total incidents
occurred. Divide 16
by 2.
Examining the Day
DAY OF WEEK
Tally
AVERAGE
INCIDENTS
PER DAY
8
MONDAY
7+9
TUESDAY
4+5
4.5
WEDNESDAY
3+3
3
THURSDAY
6+2
4
FRIDAY
10+7
8.5
Is there a pattern
based on day of
the week?
Examining the Context
CONTEXT
Lunchroom
Playground
Hallway
Homeroom
Bus
Art
English
Letter
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Math
History
Science
h
i
j
Tally
111111111
111111
1
1111
Ratio
9/39
6/39
1/39
4/39
% Involved
23%
15%
11%
11%
111
111111111111
1
111
3/39
13/39
8%
33%
3/39
8%
Is there a pattern based on the context?
Examining the Context
CONTEXT
Lunchroom
Playground
Hallway
Homeroom
Bus
Art
English
Letter
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Math
History
Science
h
i
j
Tally
111111111
111111
1
1111
Ratio
9/39
6/39
1/39
4/39
% Involved
23%
15%
11%
11%
111
111111111111
1
111
3/39
13/39
8%
33%
3/39
8%
Is there a pattern based on the context?
Examining the Antecedents
ANTECEDENTS
Down time
Test
Fine motor task
Non-preferred task
Told “no”
Waiting
Instruction/Directive
Social interaction with
peer
Teasing from peer
Large group work
Letter
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Tally
11
11111
1111111111111
Ratio
2/39
5/39
13/39
% INVOLVED
5%
13%
33%
11
111
2/39
3/39
5%
8%
11111111
8/39
21%
I
J
111111
6/39
15%
Is there a pattern?
Examining the Antecedents
ANTECEDENTS
Down time
Test
Fine motor task
Non-preferred task
Told “no”
Waiting
Instruction/Directive
Social interaction with
peer
Teasing from peer
Large group work
Letter
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Tally
11
11111
1111111111111
Ratio
2/39
5/39
13/39
% INVOLVED
5%
13%
33%
11
111
2/39
3/39
5%
8%
11111111
8/39
21%
I
J
111111
6/39
15%
Is there a pattern?
Examining the Antecedents
For each behavior, tally the number of
corresponding antecedents.
Let’s look at behavior A (angry outburst):
ANTECEDENTS
Down time
Test
Fine motor task
Non-preferred task
Told “no”
Waiting
Instruction/Directive
Social interaction with peer
Teasing from peer
Large group work
Letter
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
Angry Outburst
111
1
1
Examining the Antecedents
ANTECEDENTS
Letter
Down time
Test
Fine motor task
Non-preferred task
Told “no”
Waiting
Instruction/Directive
Social interaction
with peer
Teasing from peer
Large group work
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
Angry
Outburst
11
1
111
Go to Nurse
1111
1111111111
1
111
1
1111111
1
111111
Are antecedents related to particular behaviors?
Examining the Behavior
BEHAVIORS
Tally
Ratio
Angry outburst
Go to nurse
11111
1111
24/39
15/39
%
INVOLVED
62%
38%
Do we have enough information about each
behavior?
Examining the Consequences
For each behavior, tally the number of
corresponding consequences.
Let’s look at behavior A (angry outburst):
Consequences
Peer Attention
Delayed/stopped
activity
Ignored
Removal of materials
Choice given
Time-out
Sent to office
Verbal reprimand
Redirection
Personal Space Given
Letter
A
B
Angry Outburst
1
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
11
1
1
Examining the Consequences
Consequences
Peer Attention
Delayed/stopped activity
Ignored
Removal of materials
Choice given
Time-out
Sent to office
Verbal reprimand
Redirection
Personal Space Given
Letter
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
Angry Outburst
111111111111111
Go to Nurse
1111111111111111
111
111
11
Are behaviors paired with certain consequences?
Examining the Consequences
CONSEQUENCE
Letter
Tally
Peer Attention
A
15
Delayed/stopped
activity
Ignored
Removal of materials
B
16
C
D
3
Choice given
E
Time-out
Sent to office
F
G
Verbal reprimand
H
Redirection
I
Personal Space Given
J
3
2
STUDENT REACTION
Stopped
2
2
% Effective
Continued
13
13%
16
0%
1
66%
3
2
0%
0%
Examining the Consequences
CONSEQUENCE
Letter
Tally
Peer Attention
A
15
Delayed/stopped
activity
Ignored
Removal of materials
B
16
C
D
3
Choice given
E
Time-out
Sent to office
F
G
Verbal reprimand
H
Redirection
I
Personal Space Given
J
3
2
STUDENT REACTION
Stopped
2
2
% Effective
Continued
13
13%
16
0%
1
66%
3
2
0%
0%
Are some consequences more effective than others?
Robbie - Summary of analysis
 What we learned from the data to help examine our
hypothesis:








Ignoring was the most meaningful consequence
Peer attention maintains the angry outburst behavior
When an activity is stopped, Robbie is most likely going to ask
to go to the nurse
Fine motor tasks are triggers for the behavior
Tests are triggers for the behavior
Morning and lunchtimes are the times that most likely will
demonstrate targeted behaviors
Lunchroom and English are problematic areas
Mondays and Fridays are most problematic days
Robbie – Summary of Analysis
 Robbie can cope when told no
 Robbie does not engage in targeted behavior when
doing an unpreferred task
 Robbie is successful during large group time
 Before lunch Robbie does not engage in targeted
behaviors
Student Case – DATA COLLECTION
 Revisit your student’s target behavior.
 What type of data collection will best measure that
behavior?
 Could the ABC Form or BRS Form work for your
student?
 Make a collection plan
Who will collect the data?
 Who will summarize the data?
 What is the deadline for collection?

The FBA Team Process:
With an understanding of FBA
components, how do we
FACILITATE the process??
General Facilitator Roles
 Guide team to understand common goals
 Support goal achievement through collaboration,
commitment, and consensus.
 Help people interact productively to make decisions
& ensure everyone is heard
 Focus on subjects or topics of discussion to drive the
meeting
Facilitator Preparation and Planning
 Consider techniques/tools, how decisions will be




made, how all will have a voice
Identify overall goal; review background information
Determine essential participants, make certain of
their attendance
Determine appropriate time and place
Consider group dynamics; potential problems
Establish Meeting Norms/Ground Rules
 A set of guidelines that a team establishes to shape
the interaction of team members with each other
and with staff outside the team.
 Team norms can encompass as many topics as the
team deems necessary for successful functioning.
 Post norms and mission at meetings for review &
reference
Involving the Student
 Prep the student for the meeting individually
 Have the student complete a student reinforcement
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inventory ahead of time
Work with the student to come up with 3 strengths
and 3 areas of need (and ideas to address needs)
Highlight the student’s strengths
If the student has difficulty participating, provide
fixed choice questions
If the student is apprehensive, have the student
participate in parts of the meeting
Clear Agenda & Goals
 Have a reasonable agenda for the FBA meeting
 Provide a broad idea of the process
 Include introduction of all participants
 Establish goals of meeting
 Set positive tone
 Plan for a follow up meeting
Robbie - FBA Meeting Role Play
 Meet Robbie’s team.
FBA Time is Time Well Spent
 Handbook of interventions – useful?
 Match function to the interventions
 Without a good, valid hypothesis, your interventions
may not serve the same function as the problem
behavior!
 How can the replacement behavior serve the same
function?
Where are we going next?
 Required: Developing Behavior Support Plans
informed by strong FBAs.
 Tuesday, January 28, 2014
 9:00 – 3:30
 Invitation: IEP Behavioral Goal Development & Data
Collection
 Wednesday, March 5, 2014
 ½ day morning session
HOMEWORK for 1.28.14
 For your student case,
Complete PTR interview forms from teacher(s), parent(s)
 Consider Reinforcement Inventory & Motivation
Assessment Scale
 Conduct FBA meeting with team
 Follow through on data collection plan
 Bring materials back on 1/28/14

Action Planning Guide

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