FBA and BIP for Middle School

Report
Addressing Challenging
Student Behavior:
Functional Behavioral Assessment
&
Behavior Interventions & Supports
Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
 The process of gathering information about
how and when specific behaviors occur for a
child to help determine the reasons for the
behavior and subsequently provides
information that leads to interventions and
supports
 The assumption is that by understanding the
relationships we can develop behavior support
plans that (a) will be more effective, (b) will be
more efficient, and (c) will produce broader
change in the individual with problem
behaviors.
Rationale for
Functional Behavioral Assessment
 The majority of student behavior is purposeful.
 Behavior (appropriate and inappropriate) is related to the
context(s) in which it occurs.
 Behavior is influenced by past-to-present events.
 It serves a predictive function.
 When do we do this….Best PRACTICES!
Advantages of FBA
 Increases understanding of the causes of behavior;
 Facilitates hypothesis-driven treatment;
 Emphasizes skill building--not punishment
 Increases chance of positive student outcomes
Factors to Consider Before
Initiating an FBA
1. Amount of time teacher is engaged in direct instruction.
2. Amount of time student of concern is actively engaged
in instruction.
3. The number of student opportunities and percentage of
correct responses to instruction.
4. The quantity and quality of positive feedback given to
the student.
ERASE
Principles That Guide FBA
 We can’t fix it until we know why it’s broken.
 One size does not fit all.
 No one gives up something for nothing.
So What Test
If your feeling about the
behavior is “so what,” then
it may not warrant an FBA;
other behavior may take
priority.
ABC’s of Understanding Chronic
Behavior Patterns
 What happens before (A or antecedent) the
behavior occurs?
 What is the behavior (B)?
 What happens after (C or consequence) the
behavior occurs?
ABC
FBA Terminology
Antecedents
Behavior
Consequences
(Outcome/Function)
B
A
Setting
Events
Immediate
Environmental
factors that
influence
behavior, not
immediate
Appropriate
Behavior
or
or
Slow
Triggers
Problem
Behavior
C
Fast Triggers
Occur
immediately
before a
behavior
Goal:
Goal:
Access
Power/control
Attention
Acceptance
Decrease
Acquire skill
& Increase
Affiliation
Gratification
Justice/revenge
Protection
Etc.
Reinforcement
Punishment
Avoid/Escape
Tasks
Consequences
Individuals
Stress/anxiety
Activities
Symptoms
Etc.
Learning & ABC
A
In reading class,
student is asked to
read the word aloud
on the board
B
student tries, but
reads slowly,
struggles, and gets
the word wrong
C
peers laugh at the
student and one
students says,
“That word is so
easy”
NEXT DAY….What did the student learn?
Student is asked to
read the word aloud
on the board
What happens
today???
Reinforcing Consequence
A B C
Rewarding or
Desired
Consequence
If the consequence is rewarding/desired, the student
learns the behavior is functional for getting what they
want
Behavior Increases in the Future
Learning & ABC
A
When ‘unlucky girl’
comes to table with
‘cool’ peers and
student wants
attention
B
C
student makes fun of peers will laugh and
student gets desired
‘unlucky girl’
attention
NEXT DAY….What did the student learn?
When ‘unlucky girl’
comes to table with
‘cool’ peers and
student wants
attention
What happens
today???
Behavior was
rewarded – more
likely to occur in
future
Learning & ABC
A
When sitting at the
lunch table with
group of ‘cool’
peers
B
Student tries to get
their attention
appropriately by
offering to share
C
peers ignore student
and don’t respond –
student does not get
desired attention
NEXT DAY….What did the student learn?
When sitting at the
lunch table with
group of ‘cool’
peers
What happens
today???
Behavior is punished
– less likely to occur
in future
Focus on what we can Change
 We cannot prescribe medication
 We cannot change the students previous experiences
 We often cannot change the parenting practices in the home
 We cannot always just “add an assistant”
 We cannot just change placement
 Some venting is good, but too often it takes over leading to less
productive meetings, instruction & supports for students
There is a LOT we can do in the classroom to change
student problem behavior
This starts with student learning and
structuring the environment……
ERASE Prompt
 ERASE is an acronym for Explain, Reason,
Appropriate, Support, and Evaluate
 Develop a prompt sheet to be duplicated and
distributed to every teacher
 Provides generic set of questions to be considered by
referring staff or by others on the FBA team prior to
attending IEP meeting
E…EXPLAIN
What is the problem?
 Create an operational definition of behavior
 Describe why is it a problem
 Determine whether he/she engage can in appropriate
behavior
 List what have you already tried?
R...REASON
What is he/she getting out of or
getting away from?
 Determine what times, locations, contexts, conditions, etc.
tend to predict or precede:
 problem behavior
 appropriate behavior
 Determine what types of events tend to follow behavior?
 peers, instruction, consequences, etc.
 after problem behavior
 after appropriate behavior
 Make a guess at the function – why do you think he/she is
doing this?
 access to . . . (persons, objects, attention, etc.)
 escape or avoid . . . (persons, activities, attention, etc.)
A…APPROPRIATE
What do you want him/her
to do instead?
 Determine what times, locations, contexts,
conditions, etc. tend to predict or precede:
 fair pair – incompatible with problem (can’t do at same
time)
 functional – meets the same function as problem behavior
S…SUPPORT
How can you help this happen more often?
 Determine how the replacement behavior and intervention plan will be
taught
 Rules (what it is and -- when, where, how, and why to use behavior)
 Examples (modeling and use of naturally occurring examples)
 Practice (opportunities to practice with teacher feedback)
 Consider realistic routines and physical arrangements that could be
implemented to facilitate student success (avoid predictable failure
and create success opportunities)
 prompts and reminders
 supervise
 avoid spoilers
 Determine appropriate consequences for replacement and problem
behaviors – and consider what is realistic for you to do
 reinforcement (matches function)
 correction (how might this happen?)
 negative consequences (matches function)
 natural (try to keep it as realistic as possible)
E…EVALUATE
How will you know if it works?
 Consider realistic strategies for measuring
behavior
 keep it simple
 consider times and conditions where measurement would
be particularly meaningful and realistic
 Consider what your measure will look like when the
behavior is no longer a problem
 measurable behavior
 by what time should this happen?
Behavior Form – Create
Online
http://www.jimwrighto
nline.com/php/tbrc/tbr
c.php
Our failure often rests with
the fact that we do not ask
the next question…why?
Einstein
Remember:
 Fair pair rule
 The fair pair rule states that for every behavior targeted
for reduction, there should be a corresponding behavior
targeted for positive reinforcement.
 You can not take a tool away without giving one back
that fulfills the same need or function.
Four Considerations for Building
Behavior Support Plans
1. Indicate how staff, family, or support personnel
will change and not just focus on how the person
of concern will change
2. Plan should be directly based on the functional
assessment information
3. Plan should be technically sound
 Consistent with principles of behavior analysis
4. Plan should be a good fit with the values,
resources, and skills of the people responsible
for implementation
Behavior Support Plans Should
Fit the Setting
 Fit the natural routines of the setting
 Be consistent with the “values” of the people in the
setting (they need to indicate a willingness to perform the
procedures)
 Be efficient in terms of time, money, and resources
 Be matched to the skills of the people who carry out the
procedures
 Produce reinforcing (not punishing) short-term results
Behavior Plans Include

Positive Strategies

Program or Curricular Modifications

Supplementary aids and Supports to address
disruptive behaviors in question
~

Use the data collected to determine the discrepancy
between the student’s actual and expected behavior
Behavior Plans Include (cont’d)
 Emphasize SKILL building
 Interventions based on teaching…not control
 Plans based on control fail to generalize
 Suppressing behaviors results in the student manifesting
behaviors in an alternative and inappropriate manner
When a student struggles
academically, we look for
instructional solutions. We should
take the same approach for behavior
problems.
Prioritize the Behaviors to
Target
 Destructive or Potentially dangerous
 E.g. head banging, hitting or biting
 Interfere with learning
 E.g. out of seat, talking out, or noncompliance
 Sets the child apart socially
 E.g. picking nose, obsession on topics, hygiene
The best way to address
undesirable behavior…
…is to prevent it from
happening in the first place!
SUMMARY:
Designing Behavior Plans
 Manipulate the antecedents and/or consequences of
the behavior
 Teach more acceptable replacement behaviors that
serve the same function as the inappropriate behavior
 Implement changes in curriculum and instructional
strategies
 Modify the physical environment
Monitor the Faithfulness
of Implementation of the Plan
 Maintaining the integrity of the plan in ESSENTIAL!

Must reach agreement to consistently apply all aspects
 Identify any training and resources needed to implement
plan.
 Develop an action plan that includes specific objectives/
activities, persons responsible, and time lines.
 Monitor implementation to insure accuracy and
consistency (e.g., scripts, checklists, narrative reports).
Evaluate Effectiveness of
the Behavior Intervention Plan
 Objective information on intervention plan/support
includes:
- decrease in problem behavior;
- increase in replacement behaviors;
- achievement of broader goals; and,
- durability of behavior change across
time and settings.
Reasons to Modify a Plan
 The student has reached his/her behavioral goals &
objectives.
 There is a change in student placement.
 The original intervention plan is not producing positive
changes.
ONLINE RESOURCES
 http://instech.tusd.k12.az.us/Core/Behavioral_Goals.do
c
INTERVENTIONS ON-LINE!!
 http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php#ideas

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