Hinduism

Report
Hinduism
A PowerPoint Presentation by Naaz, Lovepreet, and Stuey
Hindus call their religion Sanatama Dharma, which
means "eternal religion" or "eternal truth,“ or Vaidika
Dharma, meaning "religion of the Vedas.”
Hinduism
The word Hinduism was coined
by the British administration in
India during colonial times. It is
suspected that the word is
derived from the Persian word
hindu, meaning “river,” or a
Persian corruption of the word
Sindhu, which means “the river
Indus.”
Translated, Hinduism roughly means "of
the Indus Valley" or simply "Indian“ in
modern times.
http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism2.htm
What is Hinduism??
Hinduism is a mixture of
religious, philosophical, and
cultural ideas and
practices that originated in
India. It is based heavily upon
the caste system which
governs India’s people.
It is characterized by the common belief in
reincarnation, one absolute being capable
of multiple manifestations, the law of
“cause and effect”, following a path of
righteousness, and the desire for liberation
from the cycle of births and deaths.
http://hinduism.about.com/od/basics/p/hinduismbasics.htm
What is Hinduism??
Regardless of beliefs, all
Hindus wish to obtain
Hinduism, unlike other
Hindus believe that there are four purposes
of life:
moksha,
or release, from
religions, is open to a variety
samsara, the cycle of
of beliefs, including those
Dharma, or fulfilling one’s casterebirth.
duty By breaking from
involving God and the
this cycle, the individual
universe.
Artha, or prosperity
becomes one with God.
Although Hinduism is considered
Furthermore, the system
polytheistic, all Hindus
Kama,
believe
or desire,
that sexuality, and enjoyment
of karma is universal.
there is a single Ultimate Reality,
Actions during a person’s
known as Brahman. Also
Moksha,
known
or as
the ultimate enlightenment
lifetime result in karma
“the One,” Brahman is credited
status, which will affect
towards the creation of everything.
that individual’s
reincarnation and journey
towards moksha.
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/beliefs.htm
What is Hinduism??
Hindus believe
that the creation
of the universe
was started by
Brahman. The
universe itself is
viewed as a
sphere, with India
at its center.
The world is
believed to be
cyclic, and goes
through periods of
destruction,
afterwards
resulting in a
golden age. This
ties in with the
rebirth system, as
well as the karma
of the universe.
As a result, Hinduism comes to the conclusion that the
universe is never-ending, and continues this cycle of
rebirth.
http://creationtheologies.tripod.com/creationtheologies/id1.html
What is Hinduism??
Today, it is practiced across the globe; most of the population can be found
to asparts
“the world’s
oldest
religion,” Hinduism
the third
inReferred
India, Nepal,
of Pakistan,
Bangladesh,
Sri Lanka,isIndonesia,
largest
religionMauritius,
on the planet,
with South
aroundAfrica,
one billion
followers.
Malaysia,
Trinidad,
Surinam,
Kenya,
the United
Kingdom, Canada and the United States.
http://www.faithresource.org/showcase/Hinduism/hinduismoverview.htm
http://hinduism.about.com/od/basics/p/hinduismbasics.htm
Hinduism’s origins date so far back,
that it cannot be traced to any one
individual founder. Most ancient
writings have unknown authors, and
await decipherment. Scholars have
relied on educated guesses based
around archaeology, as well as
modern texts, to trace Hinduism back
to its roots.
Origins
Some scholars believe that Hinduism must
have existed as early as around 10,000 B.C..
The earliest of the
Hindu scriptures, the Rig Veda, may have
been composed years before 6500 B.C..
http://hinduism.about.com/od/basics/p/hinduismbasics.htm
Symbolism
The Om, or Aum, is a sacred
sound, represented as a symbol,
in the Hindu religion. It is
spoken at the beginning and end
of all prayers, mantras, and
Symbols in the Hindu religion
meditation, therefore encompass
it is
many different ideals,
considered the greatest
including
of all the attributes of various
mantras.
deities, gods and goddesses. Often
these symbols are found throughout
The Aum has a threefold nature,
art, sacred objects, and rituals.
not only in its spelling. The three
letters in Sanskrit combine to
represent…
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/symbols/aum.htm
TheEarth
three sacred
TheAnd
Vedic
three
themajor
scriptures
three Hindu
worlds
- Rg,
gods
- Yajur,
- and Sama
Heaven
Atmosphere
Vishnu
Brahma
Shiva
Symbolism
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/symbols/aum.htm
Symbolism
In modern times, the Bindi has
become somewhat of a fashion
accessory for young women.
Unmarried girls and even nonHindus adorn them. They are no
longer restricted in color or
shape, and come in various
designs, forms, and colors.
One, if not the most iconic
symbols, of the Hindu religion is
the Bindi – a dot marked by
vermilion traditionally worn on a
married woman’s forehead.
It is meant to represent
the “third eye”, or the area
between the eyebrows
focused on during
meditation.
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/things/bindi.htm
Symbolism
Other symbols include…
Swastika
Trishula
The Lotus
The Pratik
Yantra
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/symbols.htm
Gender Roles
Women are often considered
inferior to men in Hindu texts. In
both social and ethical standards,
women are regarded as subservient
to men. Certain texts regarded that
women be disallowed from listening
to ceremonies and performing
rituals. It was even believed that
women had to be reborn as men
before journeying towards moksha.
Some texts went as far as calling
women impure, thanks to
menstruation.
Girls are to be closely watched by
their fathers, by their husbands once
married, and sons once widowed.
Men are regarded as the
breadwinners, and the more in
control of the two in partnership.
Men also have more religious
freedoms. Though this is not true in
all aspects, considering the varying
beliefs that Hindus are capable of
having.
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Hinduism/Ethics-Morality-Community/Gender-and-Sexuality?offset=2&max=1
Holy Scriptures
Hindu scripture is collectively
referred to as “Shastras.” This
collection was gathered by
wise saints and sages during
the history of the religion, and
is comprised of two types of
writings: “Shruti,” or heard, and
“Smriti,” memorized.
Before written in the
Sanskrit language, they
were transferred orally for
centuries.
Widely known Hindu texts include
the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads, as well as
the epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata.
http://hinduism.about.com/od/basics/p/hinduismbasics.htm
Spread
Hinduism is very versatile and
encompasses thousands of different
personal gods and goddesses. The
main three that are recognized are
Brahman, Shiva, and Vishnu, though
Brahman is recognized as the
Absolute.
Many, but not all, Hindus believe in
numerous deities, also known as devas. The
worship of animals, planets, and nature is
also advocated.
Though often labeled as a polytheistic
religion, some Hindus devote their lives to
worshipping a specific god, instead
believing that all recognized gods are
manifestations of a single being.
http://hinduism.about.com/od/basics/p/hinduismbasics.htm
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Hinduism.html
Spread
Because Hinduism was
so adaptable to outside
gods, even those
involved in other
religions, people found
it easy to revert to the
religion.
The accessibility that
Hinduism provided
thanks to this made it
easy to overshadow
other religions, such as
Buddhism, and create a
powerful force that
could spread rapidly.
Hinduism’s spread can also be accredited to
immigration, as well as trade routes that
traversed overseas.
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Hinduism/Historical-Development/Exploration-Conquest-Empire-(incl-violence-persecution).html
Places of Worship
Worship at home takes place
at an altar, in a room
decorated with depictions of
dieties as framed portraits, or
copper and marble statues.
Such depictions help focus
meditation techniques.
At home is the most common
place of worship, since temple
worship is not required. Often,
temples are only used for
festivals and special occasions,
or as means to teach children
about the Hindu religion.
http://world-religion.tripod.com/id14.html
Holy Sites
The Ganges River is
considered the heart of India,
flows through the nation
There are hundredsas
ofitholy
and provides hundreds of
temples scattered across
thousands
of people with a
India. Many Hindus take
a
source
religious pilgrimage and
visitof life. The river itself
these various centersis.tied
The to the personification
of a goddess.
most important of them are
the four corners of India,
which when visited are meant
to symbolize national
Benares is the most important
integration,
temple site, as it is the
city of as it requires
criss-crossing
the nation to
Shiva. There are over
two
thousand temples here. visit them.
http://www.globalprayerdigest.org/index.php/issue/The-Ganges-River-The-Heart-of-Indian-Civilization/
http://history-of-hinduism.blogspot.com/2008/09/sacred-places.html
Art Influences
Symbolism attributed itself to much of the
revolutionary artwork created by
Hinduism. Even ancient structures are
recognized by the iconography Hindu
symbolism has left over the ages. Much of
modern-day architecture is still influenced
by these primitive styles.
Much Hindu art is based
around abstract pieces and
geometrical shapes, in an
attempt to represent the
immaterial world that their
religion finds so fascinating.
Aside from these paintings,
sculptures were casted and
chiseled to mirror the many
deities worshipped.
Forms of Classical Hindu
art and architecture
include Rajasthani,
Moghul, Kangra, Pahari
and Kalighat.
http://www.ehow.com/info_8704857_hindu-art-architecture.html
Holidays
Holidays are celebrated for
various purposes; some
revolving around nature,
Major Holidays often observed include:
Hinduism is a very celebratory
others in honor of deities,
religion. It has been estimated
that of colors and Spring
and some to commemorate
Holi - festival
there is a festivalMahashivaratri
for every day of
eventstosuch as marriage.
(Shiva Ratri) - night sacred
the year, possibly more! Some
Festivals involve many
Shiva
scholars believe there
areNavami - birthday of Lord
different
Rama
Ramaactivities, including
thousands recognized
throughout
worship,
prayer, processions,
Krishna
Jayanti - birthday of Lord
Krishna
the world.
music, dancing, , eating,
Raksābandhana - renewing bonds between
brothers and sisters drinking, and feeding the
poor.
Kumbh Mela - pilgrimage every 12 years to four
cities in India
Ganesha-Chaturthi (Ganesha Utsava) - festival
of Ganesh
Dassera - victory of Rama over demon king
Ravana
Navaratri - festival of Shakti (in Bengal) or
Rama's victory over Ravana (South India)
Diwali - festival of lights and Laksmi
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/holidays.htm
Works Cited
http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/British/clive.jpg
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/history.htm
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Hinduism.html
http://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=8&article=1408
http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism2.htm
http://hinduism.about.com/od/basics/p/hinduismbasics.htm
http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/The-Indian-Subcontinent_-3000-to-1500-B.C..pdf
http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/hf/iakh/HIS2172/v09/undervisningsmateriale/HIS2172-The_Vedic_Age.pdf
http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/socialsciences/ppecorino/PHIL_of_RELIGION_TEXT/CHAPTER_2_RELIGIONS/Hinduism.htm
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/fastfacts.htm
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/things/bindi.htm
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/symbols/aum.htm
http://www.faithresource.org/showcase/Hinduism/hinduismoverview.htm
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Hinduism/Historical-Development/Exploration-Conquest-Empire-(incl-violencepersecution).html
http://history-of-hinduism.blogspot.com/2008/09/sacred-places.html
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/holidays.htm
http://www.globalprayerdigest.org/index.php/issue/The-Ganges-River-The-Heart-of-Indian-Civilization/
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/beliefs.htm
http://creationtheologies.tripod.com/creationtheologies/id1.html
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Hinduism/Ethics-Morality-Community/Gender-and-Sexuality?offset=2&max=1
http://www.ehow.com/info_8704857_hindu-art-architecture.html

similar documents