Motivation: reason for behavior
Emotion: feelings
Values: underlying belief systems
Purchasing a golden retriever puppy?
What are the various motives that people
might have for purchasing this product?
How do motives differ if the consumer is:
Father or mother of a family of two children, both under 6 years of
A 20 year old single man or woman who is very independent and
outdoor oriented
An older couple, retired, with children or grandchildren living near
Explore Your Motivation??
What motivates your consumption behavior?
Think about 2 or 3 products/services you
consumed this past weekend – what and
why did you purchase/consume?
Consumer Motivation
Motivation: It is the reason for behavior!
• an unobservable inner force that stimulates and
compels a behavioral response and provides
specific direction to that response.
Goal: consumer’s desired end state
Drive: degree of consumer arousal
Want: manifestation of consumer need
Three Types of Motivational Conflicts
• Two desirable alternatives
• Cognitive dissonance
• Positive & negative aspects
of desired product
• Guilt of desire occurs
• Facing a choice with two
undesirable alternatives
Classifying Consumer Needs:
Types of Needs
Summary of Psychological Motives Relevant to Marketing:
Opponent-Process Theory
Optimum Stimulation Levels
Hedonic Experiences
Risk: Seek or Avoid
Attribute Causality
Opponent Process Theory
• A stimulus eliciting an immediate positive or negative emotion is
followed by a feeling opposite to that initial emotion
Optimum Stimulation Theory
• Desire to maintain an optimal level of stimulation motivates action
Hedonic Experiences
• Consumption of products/services designed to create fantasies,
enhance sensory stimulation, or elicit emotional reactions
• Related to optimum stimulation levels
Maintain Behavioral Freedom
Motivation to Maintain Behavioral Freedom
• People want to maintain a sense of freedom
Psychological Reactance
• negative motivational state that results when a person’s
behavioral freedom has been threatened
Two types of threats can lead to reactance:
a) Social threats involving external pressure from other people to induce a
consumer to do something
– Scarcity appeals: “limited time offer, limited supply
– Pushy salespeople
b) Impersonal threats are barriers that restrict the ability to buy a particular product
or service
– Shortage of a product due to the possibility that someone else will buy it
– Potential rise in the price of a product causes a desire to buy now
Avoid or Seek Risk
Perceived Risk – consumer’s perception of the overall negativity of a
course of action
- consists of negative outcomes and probability of these outcomes
Risks include:
- financial
- physical
- performance
- psychological
- social
- time
- opportunity
Motivation to Attribute Causality
People seek out reasons to explain why things turn out as they do
Negative Product or Service Experiences
Was the cause internal or external?
Your fault or the company’s?
BIRGing and CORFing
- Attributions towards sports teams
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Marketing Strategies
• Health foods, medicines, sports drinks, exercise equipment
• smoke detectors, preventive medicines, insurance, retirement investments
• Food, entertainment, clothing
• Clothing, furniture, liquor, hobbies, cars
• Education, hobbies, sports, gourmet foods, museums
Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy
Consumers do not buy products; instead they buy motive
satisfaction or problem solutions.
Managers must discover the motives that their product and
brands can satisfy and develop marketing mixes around
these motives.
Who purchases these products and what are the motives
for purchasing:
- Imported Beer: Beck’s, Heineken
- Spaghetti Sauce: Classico, Newman’s Own
Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy
Consumed by
confident, upscale,
professional men
Desire for individuality
Desire for status
Consumed by
sophisticated adults
Motivated by indulgence
and romance
Motivated by ambition and
Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy
Discovering Purchase Motives
Manifest motives are motives that are
known and freely admitted.
Consumers don’t always readily admit their
Latent motives are either unknown to the
consumer or are such that he/she is
reluctant to admit them.
Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy
Manifest motives?
Latent motives?
Manifest motives?
Latent motives?
Motivation, Emotion & Marketing Research
The Selling of Science
• What do you think of the emotion research techniques used
at the beginning of the video?
• Motivational research using projective techniques?
– Credible and valid results?
• How does Clotaire Rapaille feel about manifest motives?
• What does Clotaire Rapaille refer to as latent motives?
• Identify manifest and latent motives
Consumer Involvement
What are some examples of products that you
are attached to? Not at all attached to?
Involvement: perceived relevance of an object based
on one’s needs, values, and interests
Level of Involvement:
– Inertia: consumption at the low end of involvement
– Cult product: command fierce consumer loyalty,
devotion, and even worship by consumers who are highly
Product vs. Situational Involvement
Identify emotions
List all the emotions you can think of
If you’re a marketer, think about where is
your emotional starting point?
– How do consumers currently feel about your
product? Brand?
– How do you want them to feel?
What are Emotions?
How are they related to Consumer Behavior?
Emotion is the identifiable specific feeling, and affect is the liking/disliking
aspect of the specific feeling.
Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect our behavior
Emotion is sometimes the prime determinant of behavior
Emotion influences:
The experiential nature of consumption
Attitude formation
Information processing
Postpurchase processes
Communication processes
Emotions and Consumer Behavior
What is your emotional reaction to the
following products and brands?
Emotion and Decision Making
• Do consumers always make decisions based on rational facts?
– Traditional consumer behavior research has emphasized a problem-solving
• Emphasis is on cognitive reasoning, attribute expectations and goals
• Consumers’ affective reactions to information (product attributes, sales
pitch, ads) impacts their judgments, decisions, and purchase choices
Affect as Information
• Information becomes “marked” with affective meaning
do you see when you look at …
– positive feelings draws us toward the option (approach behavior)
– negative feelings draws us away from an option (avoidance behavior)
• Affect Heuristic: The immediate affective reaction one experiences in
response to an object, person or idea
– Affect serves as a cue for many important judgments
Affect as Common Currency: Comparing apples to oranges
Should we remodel the kitchen …
or, should we go to …
Emotion and Marketing Strategy
Marketers have always used emotions to guide
the following on an intuitive level:
• product positioning
• sales presentations, and
• advertising
However, deliberate, systematic study of the
relevance of emotions in marketing strategy is
relatively new.
Pop Quiz #1
1. First and Last name
2. Name the topics in the two current event
presentations today.
3. What do BIRGing and CORFing stand for?
4. Explain the code on cheese in America.
5. What 3 emotions are you currently feeling?
Emotions and Advertising
Let’s go back to perception for a minute…
 Emotional content in ads can enhance attention,
attraction, and maintenance capabilities.
 Emotional messages may be processed more
thoroughly due to their enhanced level of arousal.
 Emotional ads may enhance liking of the ad itself.
 Repeated exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads
may increase brand preference through classical
Emotions and Branding
What is the motivation behind consumer attachment to
Why is emotional branding so important?
What constitutes a great brand concept today?
• Examples?
Emotions and Branding
A great brand concept can change a companies entire
Biggest misconception in branding is the belief that
branding is about market share when it is really
about “mind and emotions share”
What constitutes a great brand concept today?
 Engages consumers on the level of senses and emotions
 Comes to life for people and forges a deeper, lasting
Understanding people’s emotional needs and desires is
key to success.
• Value: a belief that some condition is
preferable to its opposite (e.g., youth)
• Core values: values shared within a culture
– e.g., honesty, cleanliness, independence,
politeness, ambitious, helpful, respect, etc.
What do you think are the three to five core values that
best describe Americans today?
Summary of American Core Values
General Features
Relevance to CB
Hard work is good,
success flows from it
Acts as justification of
acquisition of goods
Keeping busy is healthy
and natural
Stimulates interest in
products that are timesavers and enhance
leisure time
Material Comfort
“The Good Life”
Fosters acceptance of
luxury products that make
life more comfortable and
Being oneself
Stimulates acceptance of
customized product that
enable consumers to
express their personality
Freedom of choice
Fosters interest in wide
product lines and
differentiated products
Summary of American Core Values
General Features
Relevance to CB
External Conformity
Uniformity of observable
Interest in products that
are used or owned by
others in the same social
Caring for others,
particularly the underdog
Patronage of firms that
compete with market
A state of mind that
stresses being “young at
heart” and having a
youthful appearance
Acceptance of products
that provide the illusion
of maintaining or
fostering youthfulness
Fitness and Health
Caring about one’s body,
including the desire to be
physically fit and healthy
Acceptance of food,
products, activities, and
equipment perceived to
maintain or increase
physical fitness
Sustainability: New Core Value?
• Conscientious consumerism: consumer’s
focus on personal health merging with a
growing interest in global health
• Consumers who:
– Worry about the environment
– Want products to be produced in a sustainable
– Spend money to advance what they see as their
personal development and potential
• Materialism: the importance people attach to
worldly possessions
• “The good life”...“He who dies with the most
toys, wins”
• Materialists: value possessions for their own
status and appearance
• Non-materialists: value possessions that
connect them to other people or provide them
with pleasure in using them

similar documents