Essay and academic writing Lecture-8 Lecturer: P.Mend-Amgalan Essay types 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Argument essay Discussion essay Advantages and Disadvantages Cause & Effect and Problem & Solution Definition essay Argument essay States the writer’s opinion at the beginning (thesis) and supports it with evidence. The government should be permitted to censor the internet to help protect young people from offensive content. Do you agree or disagree? Form an opinion and support it. Brainstorming: Support: - Tremendous amount of adult content on the internet that is widely available to children Refute: - Censoring the internet restricts an individual’s freedom of speech. - May lead to a slower transfer of information - What is offensive to one person may not be to another 1 support, 3 refutes – easy to refute/disagree Thesis – It is not agreed that the government should be permitted to ban the internet, even in the pursuit of protecting youth from offensive content. Argument essay The presence of technology in the classroom has become more and more apparent and offers students tremendous resources with which to supplement their education. Given time, technology will completely replace the traditional teacher in the classroom. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Scope: (the areas that the essay question says we can talk about – 3 areas) technology, classroom, teachers Disagree: 1. Teachers can cater (change the approach to something/provide/serve) to the needs of their students (technology can not do this) 2. Motivation and discipline/teachers can motivate and discipline students effectively 3. Teachers can include current news and personal stories in their teaching Introduction paragraph Background statement: Technology has been increasingly used throughout the world. Detailed background statement: This is very apparent in classrooms today. Thesis: It is disagreed that technology will replace teachers in the classroom. Outline: This will be proven by analyzing how teachers can cater the needs of their students as motivate and discipline them. Supporting paragraph Topic: A very important aspect of teaching is the ability of the teacher to shape their teaching style to the needs of their students. Example: As an example, if students in any given class are having trouble understanding a classroom topic, the teacher can rephrase the topic and deliver it in a more effective way. Discussion: (Links the example to the topic directly.) A computerized teacher would be less in-tune with what students require and thus would be incapable of doing this. Conclusion: (Link this whole paragraph to our thesis) As a result, technology will not replace teachers. Supporting Paragraph 2 Motivation and discipline are key to a student’s academic success in the classroom. This is very apparent when teaching children as children require more motivation and discipline to be taught effectively. A technology-based teacher simply can not accomplish this as certain situations require judgement as to whether a student is acting in an inappropriate manner. After analyzing this, it is clear that teachers will always be needed in the classroom. Concluding paragraph (easiest, nothing new) Summary (like outline sentence in IP): Following the analyzation of a teacher’s ability to cater to students as well as their capability of guiding students towards success, (restatement of thesis:) it is clear that technology will never replace teachers in the classroom. Prediction/recommendation: Further, it is expected that technology will act as a supplement to teachers and aid them in instructing their pupils. Discussion essay Analyzes the opinions of others and give the writer’s at the end. Topic: The wealth of the UAE has historically come from the oil deposits in Abu Dhabi. If Abu Dhabi runs out of oil, the UAE economy will collapse. IP: (What we’re going to review. Don’t give your opinion until the very end of essay. Nobody knows our opinion until the very end of the essay. 2 points of view on this.) 1SP: POV1 (agree) 2SP: POV2 (refute) CP: Summary of POVs analyzed, Statement of our point of view, prediction or a recommendation. Advantages and Disadvantages (modified version of discussion of essay style) positive and negative statement. Topic: The number of older people moving into retirement is increasing. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Advantages: - Creates job vacancies for younger people - Provide societies with wisdom Disadvantages: - Strain medical systems - Expensive for governments IP: like a road map. From broad to narrow 1SP: advantages 2 SP: disadvantages CP: The advantages and disadvantages of this topic are numerous. However, after analyzing both sides, it is felt that having a large proportion of older people in a population presents more benefits than drawbacks. Cause & Effect and Problem & Solution Follow an argument essay style IP: background, detailed background, thesis (causes, problem), outline (effects, solutions) SP: topic – proposed solution Example – example to show the solution is plausible, to show this solution in action in small scale. Small version of that larger solution. Discussion - Hey, this example worked at this small scale! If we grow this more, if this example becomes more widespread it affects in broader scale. Conclusion: the stated solution is an effective one. Definition essay Very easy! In prosperity our friends know us; in adversity we know our friends. Write an essay outlining how you define “Friendship”. Friendship always has been, and always will be, defined differently by different people (background sentence). What constitutes ‘friendship’ to one person, may be considered inaccurate to another. Despite these varying definitions, it is argued that a universal definition of friendship involves honestly as its base. This will be proven by analyzing friendship as it exists both at an interpersonal and international level. … After analyzing friendship as it exists between people and countries, it is clear that honestly acts as a critical component. Thus true friendship will never exist without honesty. Linking and useful words IP: since the beginning of.., this can be seen.., on the other hand.., many people believe.., according to.., many argue that.., however, this is refuted by others. Outline sentence – these arguments will be analyzed prior to coming to a reasoned conclusion, both sides will be critiqued before reasoned conclusion is found, all arguments will be weighed prior to reaching an informed conclusion. SP: it is felt by many that.., today, many hold the idea that.., historically many people have supported the idea that… Example support – for example, many countries, Russian and .., for instance, in Asia, particularly China and Korea… Discussion statement – As this example shows.., this example shows clearly that.., Conclusion sentence - thus, it is understandable why many people feel that.., as a result, CP: Whether we feel that we more so agree with POV1 or more so agree with POV2. After analyzing these two points of view, it is believed.., following the analyzation of.., Prediction or recommendation: it is recommended for the above reasons that.., without a doubt, …will…, in the years to come, …will.., it is felt that …would be best to Hours of leisure time per year in Someland Teens 20s 40s 50s 60s 70s+ Watching TV 1200 700 500 600 700 1100 Socializing with 4 or less people 150 150 250 250 200 200 Socializing with 4 or more people 350 350 50 25 25 25 Individual exercise 150 100 200 50 75 150 Group exercise 450 350 150 50 0 0 Cinema 100 75 25 25 50 75 The table shows how people in different age groups spend their leisure time in Someland over the course of a year. According to the figures, as people age in Someland their social lives reduce. Teenagers and people in their twenties spend on average 500 hours per year on socializing and 350 hours of that time is with a group of more than 4 people. Although the total hours of socializing in their 40s, 50s and 60s is fairly constant, socializing with more than 4 people drops dramatically to 50 hours in the 40s age groups and only 25 from 50 years old. The line compares the percentage of people aged 65 or more in three countries over a period of 100 years. In 1940, around 9% of Americans were aged 65 or over, compared to about 7% of Swedish people and 5% of Japanese people. The proportions of elderly people in the USA and Sweden rose gradually over the next 50 years, reaching just under 15% in 1990. By contrast, the figures for Japan remained below 5% until the yearly 2000s. It is clear that the proportion of elderly people increases in each country between 1940-2040. Japan is expected to see the most dramatic changes in its elderly population. The diagram compares the Turnover of the company on three main branches from January to April. It shows that in March the branches of Brighton and Newhaven has the highest result, while Seaford branch has a dramatic fall just over 10000. The pie chart illustrates the highest level of education of women in Someland in 1945. According to this chart, there is a significant difference between the number of women no schooling and with first degree. It is observed that the most significant amounts are for the women no schooling and with third grade. To sum up, only 4% of total women had the highest level of education means post graduate degree in 1945. Thanks for your attention!