Essay and
academic writing
Lecturer: P.Mend-Amgalan
Essay types
Argument essay
Discussion essay
Advantages and Disadvantages
Cause & Effect and Problem & Solution
Definition essay
Argument essay
States the writer’s opinion at the beginning (thesis) and supports it with
The government should be permitted to censor the internet to help
protect young people from offensive content. Do you agree or disagree?
Form an opinion and support it.
- Tremendous amount of adult content on the internet that is widely available to
- Censoring the internet restricts an individual’s freedom of speech.
- May lead to a slower transfer of information
- What is offensive to one person may not be to another
1 support, 3 refutes – easy to refute/disagree
Thesis – It is not agreed that the government should be permitted
to ban the internet, even in the pursuit of protecting youth from
offensive content.
Argument essay
The presence of technology in the classroom has become more and
more apparent and offers students tremendous resources with which to
supplement their education. Given time, technology will completely replace
the traditional teacher in the classroom. Do you agree or disagree with this
Scope: (the areas that the essay question says we can talk about – 3 areas)
technology, classroom, teachers
1. Teachers can cater (change the approach to something/provide/serve) to the
needs of their students (technology can not do this)
2. Motivation and discipline/teachers can motivate and discipline students
3. Teachers can include current news and personal stories in their teaching
Introduction paragraph
Background statement: Technology has been increasingly
used throughout the world.
Detailed background statement: This is very apparent in
classrooms today.
Thesis: It is disagreed that technology will replace
teachers in the classroom.
Outline: This will be proven by analyzing how teachers
can cater the needs of their students as motivate and
discipline them.
Supporting paragraph
A very important aspect of teaching is the ability of the teacher to shape their teaching
style to the needs of their students.
As an example, if students in any given class are having trouble understanding a classroom
topic, the teacher can rephrase the topic and deliver it in a more effective way.
(Links the example to the topic directly.)
A computerized teacher would be less in-tune with what students require and thus would
be incapable of doing this.
(Link this whole paragraph to our thesis)
As a result, technology will not replace teachers.
Supporting Paragraph 2
Motivation and discipline are key to a student’s
academic success in the classroom. This is very apparent
when teaching children as children require more
motivation and discipline to be taught effectively. A
technology-based teacher simply can not accomplish this
as certain situations require judgement as to whether a
student is acting in an inappropriate manner. After
analyzing this, it is clear that teachers will always be
needed in the classroom.
Concluding paragraph
(easiest, nothing new)
Summary (like outline sentence in IP):
Following the analyzation of a teacher’s ability to
cater to students as well as their capability of
guiding students towards success, (restatement of
thesis:) it is clear that technology will never replace
teachers in the classroom.
Prediction/recommendation: Further, it is expected that
technology will act as a supplement to teachers and
aid them in instructing their pupils.
Discussion essay
Analyzes the opinions of others and give the writer’s at the end.
Topic: The wealth of the UAE has historically come from the oil
deposits in Abu Dhabi. If Abu Dhabi runs out of oil, the UAE
economy will collapse.
IP: (What we’re going to review. Don’t give your opinion until the
very end of essay. Nobody knows our opinion until the very
end of the essay. 2 points of view on this.)
1SP: POV1 (agree)
2SP: POV2 (refute)
CP: Summary of POVs analyzed, Statement of our point of view,
prediction or a recommendation.
Advantages and Disadvantages
(modified version of discussion of essay style) positive and negative statement.
Topic: The number of older people moving into retirement is increasing. What are the
advantages and disadvantages of this?
- Creates job vacancies for younger people
- Provide societies with wisdom
- Strain medical systems
- Expensive for governments
IP: like a road map. From broad to narrow
1SP: advantages
2 SP: disadvantages
CP: The advantages and disadvantages of this topic are numerous. However, after analyzing both
sides, it is felt that having a large proportion of older people in a population presents more
benefits than drawbacks.
Cause & Effect and Problem & Solution
Follow an argument essay style
IP: background, detailed background, thesis (causes, problem), outline
(effects, solutions)
SP: topic – proposed solution
Example – example to show the solution is plausible, to show this
solution in action in small scale. Small version of that larger
Discussion - Hey, this example worked at this small scale! If we grow
this more, if this example becomes more widespread it affects in
broader scale.
Conclusion: the stated solution is an effective one.
Definition essay
Very easy!
In prosperity our friends know us; in adversity we know our friends. Write an
essay outlining how you define “Friendship”.
Friendship always has been, and always will be, defined differently by different
people (background sentence). What constitutes ‘friendship’ to one person, may be
considered inaccurate to another. Despite these varying definitions, it is argued that
a universal definition of friendship involves honestly as its base. This will be proven
by analyzing friendship as it exists both at an interpersonal and international level.
After analyzing friendship as it exists between people and countries, it is clear
that honestly acts as a critical component. Thus true friendship will never exist
without honesty.
Linking and useful words
IP: since the beginning of.., this can be seen.., on the other hand.., many people believe..,
according to.., many argue that.., however, this is refuted by others. Outline sentence –
these arguments will be analyzed prior to coming to a reasoned conclusion, both sides will
be critiqued before reasoned conclusion is found, all arguments will be weighed prior to
reaching an informed conclusion.
SP: it is felt by many that.., today, many hold the idea that.., historically many people have
supported the idea that… Example support – for example, many countries, Russian and ..,
for instance, in Asia, particularly China and Korea… Discussion statement – As this example
shows.., this example shows clearly that.., Conclusion sentence - thus, it is understandable
why many people feel that.., as a result,
CP: Whether we feel that we more so agree with POV1 or more so agree with POV2.
After analyzing these two points of view, it is believed.., following the analyzation of..,
Prediction or recommendation: it is recommended for the above reasons that.., without a
doubt, …will…, in the years to come, …will.., it is felt that …would be best to
Hours of leisure time per year in Someland
Watching TV
Socializing with 4 or
less people
Socializing with 4 or
more people
Individual exercise
Group exercise
The table shows how people in different age groups spend
their leisure time in Someland over the course of a year.
According to the figures, as people age in Someland their
social lives reduce. Teenagers and people in their twenties spend
on average 500 hours per year on socializing and 350 hours of
that time is with a group of more than 4 people. Although the
total hours of socializing in their 40s, 50s and 60s is fairly
constant, socializing with more than 4 people drops
dramatically to 50 hours in the 40s age groups and only 25
from 50 years old.
The line compares the percentage of
people aged 65 or more in three
countries over a period of 100 years.
In 1940, around 9% of Americans were
aged 65 or over, compared to about
7% of Swedish people and 5% of
Japanese people. The proportions of
elderly people in the USA and Sweden
rose gradually over the next 50 years,
reaching just under 15% in 1990. By
contrast, the figures for Japan
remained below 5% until the yearly
It is clear that the proportion of elderly
people increases in each country
between 1940-2040. Japan is
expected to see the most dramatic
changes in its elderly population.
The diagram compares the Turnover of
the company on three main branches
from January to April. It shows that in
March the branches of Brighton and
Newhaven has the highest result, while
Seaford branch has a dramatic fall just
over 10000.
The pie chart illustrates the highest level of
education of women in Someland in 1945. According
to this chart, there is a significant difference between
the number of women no schooling and with first
degree. It is observed that the most significant amounts
are for the women no schooling and with third grade.
To sum up, only 4% of total women had the
highest level of education means post graduate degree
in 1945.
Thanks for your attention!

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