Analyzing simple and compound sentences Simple sentence A sentence with only one independent clause (also known as a main clause). Also called an independent clause Contains a subject, predicate and expresses a complete thought. Unextended: Ice melts. Extended: The ice on the pond melts fast in the spring sun. Simple sentence Simple subject: Энгийн өгүүлэгдэхүүн Complete subject: Бүрэн өгүүлэгдэхүүн Simple predicate: Энгийн өгүүлэхүүн Complete predicate: Бүрэн өгүүлэхүүн The entrance to the ancient tomb was covered with sand and rocks. A few herds of wild horses still roam the Gobi. Simple sentence Compound subject: Нийлмэл өгүүлэгдэхүүн /conjunction/ Compound predicate: Нийлмэл өгүүлэхүүн /conjunction/ А row of trees and a clump of bushes blocked our view. Хөшиглөсөн мод, бөөн бут хараа халхлав. The crowd cheered and shouted for the candidate. Цугларагсад нэр дэвшигчийн төлөө баяр хүргэж хашгиралдан байв. Basic sentence patterns a. Subject + Action Verb. - Horses gallop. b. Subject + Action Verb + Direct Object - Horses carry riders. c. Subject + Action Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object - Riders can teach horses tricks. d. Subject + Action Verb + Direct Object + Direct Complement - My grand father found horses beautiful. e. Subject + Verb + Subject Complement (Predicate noun or pronoun) - Horses are runners. - The winner of the first race was he. f. Subject + Verb + Subject Complement (Predicate Adjective) - Horses are majestic. Basic sentence patterns Recall the basic sentence pattern: S V (C) (C). That is, each sentence has a subject, a verb, and possibly one or two complements. The subject and the complements are usually nouns. 1. Subject of a sentence. The subject tells who or what if placed before verb: - Bat smokes. [ Who smokes?] - Sarah and Ivan are planning a European vacation. [ Who were planning?] (compound subject) - The buses were late. [ What were late?] - Strangers came. - Friendly strangers in huge iron canoes came. - Strangers suddenly came to the lonely South Sea islands. Basic sentence patterns Recall the basic sentence pattern: S V (C – direct object). - Birds eat insects. - Many birds eat harmful insects. - Birds often eat insects. These basic patterns could not be changed when the sentence has compound subjects and compound predicates. - Ellen and Harry joined the football club and debate club. More about complements Complement. A complement is a word in the complete predicate that completes the meaning of the verb. There are four kinds of complements: a. A direct object is a noun (or pronoun) that tells whom or what after an action verb. Usual pattern: S V C. Examples: I opened the package. [opened what?] The city is employing teenagers. [employing whom?] b. An indirect object is a noun (or pronoun) that appears after verbs, telling to or for whom, or to or for what, the action of the verb is done. Pattern: S V C(ind.obj.) C(dir.obj.) Examples: Sarah sent Tony a present. [sent to whom?] Tony had done Flo a favor. [done for whom?] More about complements c. A subjective complement (өгүүлэгдэхүүн гүйцээвэр) is a noun (or pronoun) that follows a linking verb and renames or explains the subject. Pattern: S V(link.) C. Examples: Henfield was the Democratic candidate.[Candidate gives another name or title for Henfield.] A kiwi is a fruit. [Fruit explains what kiwi is.] d. An objective complement (тусагдахуун гүйцээвэр) is a noun that follows a direct object and renames or explains it. Pattern: S V C(dir.obj) C(obj.comp). Examples: They called Henfield a hero. The electors declared Henfield the winner. The objective complement occurs most commonly with such verbs as call, name, elect, designate, consider, appoint, think. Note: An adjective can also be an objective complement. They called Henfield heroic. An object of a preposition The words that follow a preposition are called the object the preposition. Example: Can you give this parcel to him tomorrow? (the word him is the object of the preposition to) An object of a preposition is a noun (or pronoun) that ends a prepositional phrase (угтлагат хэлц) and answers the question whom or what after the preposition.(Өгүүлэгдэхүүн, өгүүлэхүүнгүй хоорондоо холбоо бүхий бүлэг үгс) Example: The dog squeezed under the low wooden fence. Smyth did her duty with supreme courage. [with what?] An object of a preposition As covered in the lesson on prepositions, a preposition usually sits before a noun (i.e., a word like dog, man, house, Alan) or a pronoun (i.e., a word like him, her, which, it, them). This is worth knowing, because the object of a preposition is always in the objective case, and pronouns change in this case. (That sounds really complicated, but it just means that he changes to him when you say something like next to him, and she changes to her when you say something like it’s for her. In general, native speakers have little trouble forming the objective case.) Can you give the parcel to him? (He changes to him in the objective case.) I went to the cinema with them. (They changes to them in the objective case.) An appositive An appositive (дагалдагч хэлц) is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words. Look at these examples: The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table. The insect, a large cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table. The insect, a large cockroach with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen table. Дагалдагч хэлц нь тодотгогч үгийнхээ араас шууд ордог нэр үг болон төлөөний үг юм. Зарим тохиолдолд тодотгогч үгийнхээ өмнө орно. Жишээлбэл: A strong runner, Mary is expected to win 500-meter race. Direct address A noun (or pronoun) in direct address names the person being spoken to: Noun: Marie, you’ve won the lottery! Pronoun: Get over here, you! Always use a comma when directly addressing someone/something, regardless of whether the direct address is at the beginning or end of the sentence. - It was a pleasure to meet you, Sir. - Hi, Rachel. Analyze the sentences 1. A glacier is a huge body of ice. 2. They named their daughter Natasha. 3. A hot-tempered tennis player, Robbie threw his racket to 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. the bin. The instructor gave his students A’s. Ladies and gentlemen, may I have your attention? Bob sold me her boat. The children played in the garden. The staircase is too sleep for her. Land is an immovable property. That garbage on the street smells bad. Compound sentence A sentence with two independent clauses (simple sentences) joined by a coordinating conjunction. The conjunctions are as follows: and, but, so, nor, or, yet. Except for very short sentences, these conjunctions are always preceded by a comma. Examples: I tried to speak English, but my friend tried to speak German. Alex played football, so Maria went shopping. Is the party on Friday, or is it on Saturday? Uuganaa took the pictures, and Nansaa developed them. Compound sentence Sentence Main clause I saw his hat Main clause but I didn’t see his gloves. Compound sentence Conjunction usages Addition [and]: He washed the car and polished it. Continuation [and then]: He washed the car and then polished it. Contrast [but, yet]: He sold his car, but/yet (he) can’t help regretting it. Choice [or]: You can park your car on the drive way or on the road. Result [so]: He couldn’t mend his car, so he wrote in pencil. The guests have no way to get there; someone must pick them up. Thanks for your attention!