ppt - Latin 601

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Salvete, discipuli!
Chapter XXIII:
Participles
Verbal Aspects
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Infinitive Participle
Active
Passive
Present Imperfect Future
1st
Singular
Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect
2nd
3rd
Plural
What is a Participle?
•
A Participle is typically defined as a
verbal adjective because it is used to
describe nouns doing actions:
•
•
The red ball is over there.
The tall boy is my nephew.
What is a Participle?
•
A Participle is typically defined as a
verbal adjective because it is used to
describe nouns doing actions:
•
•
The bouncing ball is over there.
The tall boy is my nephew.
What is a Participle?
•
A Participle is typically defined as a
verbal adjective because it is used to
describe nouns doing actions:
•
•
The bouncing ball is over there.
The beloved boy is my nephew.
What is a Participle?
•
•
•
•
A Participle is typically defined as a
verbal adjective because it is used to
describe nouns doing actions:
The bouncing ball is over there.
The beloved boy is my nephew.
All of the above examples a) describe
a noun and b) are derived from a verb.
Verbal Aspects
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Infinitive Participle
Active
Passive
Present Imperfect Future
1st
Singular
Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect
2nd
3rd
Plural
Verbal Aspects
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative Infinitive Participle
Active
Present Imperfect Future
Passive
Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect
As a participle is not fully a verb, it does not
have Person OR Number!
How many Participles are there?
•
Simply put, there are three types of
participles that one can use to
describe a noun.
–
–
–
•
Present Participle
Past (Perfect) Participle
Future Participle
The reason there are only 3 participles
is because there are 3 times when an
action could occur: now, before or
later.
The Present Participle
•
In English, the Present Participle is simply
translated as an “-ing” word.
– Bouncing ball
– Running boy
• It is used to describe an action that is
contemporaneous with the main verb:
–
–
–
The girl sat crying on the sofa.
Did you see that man dancing?
Thinking about his wife, Bob runs to the store to
buy flowers
The Past (Perfect) Participle
•
In English, the Perfect Participle is formed
as “having” + an “-ed” word. The
It is used to describe an action that
occurred before the main verb:
•
–
–
–
Having bought a bike, she cycled home.
Having lived there for such a long time, he did
not want to move.
Having stubbed her toe, Lucy cries out in pain.
The Past (Perfect) Participle
•
In English, there is also a Perfect Passive
Participle, which is formed by adding
“been” to the equation:
•
•
•
Having been cooked, the food looked delicious.
Having been screwed over by her boss for too
long, Sandy finally quit her job.
Having been struck by the news, Jeff hurried
home.
The Past (Perfect) Participle
•
In English, the Perfect Passive Participle
can also be shortened to just the “-ed” word,
but it still functions in the same manner:
– The exhausted man fell asleep.
– A beloved dog never leaves its master.
– The learned scholar is a great teacher.
The Future Participle
•
In English, there is a seldom-used Future
Participle that can be formed by the phrase
“fixin’ to _______”.
– Fixin’ to go to school, the boy packs his
lunch.
– Fixin’ to write a letter, Jackie searched for
a pen and paper.
• There is also a Future Passive Participle
that can be formed by the phrase “fixin’ to
be _______”.
– Fixin’ to be scolded by his wife, Matt
avoided his house for a few hours.
Participles Reviewed
•
In English, there are 3 tenses of the
Participle:
•
•
•
•
Present
(Past) Perfect [Active and Passive]
Future
They are formed:
•
•
•
•
•
Present = “ing”
Perfect Active “having _____ed”
Perfect Passive “having been _____ed”
Future Active “fixin’ to ______”
Future Passive “fixin’ to be ______ed”
Participle Practice
•
In groups of two, write a paragraph that has
examples of all the participles we have
learned.
• Present
• Perfect Active
• Perfect Passive
• Future Active
• Future Passive
How many Participles are there?
•
This is true in Latin, as there are only
3 participles:
- Present Active
- Perfect Passive
- Future Active
The Participle Box
To help organize the participles in Latin, we
use what is called the Participle Box.
Active
Present
Past
(Perfect)
Future
Passive
The Participle Box
However, as we said before, the Participle has
only 3 tenses…so we need to adjust our box.
Active
Passive
Present
1
___________________
Past
(Perfect)
___________________
2
Future
3
???
The Perfect Passive Participle
•
The most commonly used Participle in
Latin is the Perfect Passive Participle.
•
To form the Perfect Passive Participle,
simply take the Fourth Principle Part
from a verb and put 2-1-2 adjective
endings on it.
Perfect Passive Participle
amō, amāre, amāvī, amatum = amatus, a, um
habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum = habitus, a, um
ducō, ducere, duxī, ductum = ductus, a, um
faciō, facere, fecī, factum = factus, a, um
audiō, audīre, audīvī, auditum = auditus, a, um
All perfect passive participles are translated:
“having been ______ed”
The Participle Box
amo, amare, amavi, amatus
Active
Passive
Present
1
___________________
Past
(Perfect)
___________________
amatus, a, um
Future
3
???
Practice
1. perfect passive participle of peto, petere, petivi, petitum
2.
perfect passive participle of educo, educāre, educavi, educatum
3. perfect passive participle of iubeo, iubēre, iussi, iussum
The Future Active Participle
•
The next participle we will look at is
the Future Active Participle.
•
To form the Future Active Participle,
simply take the Fourth Principle Part
from a verb and add “urus, ura,
urum” on it.
A good way to remember this is the
word Future.
•
Future Active Participle
amō, amāre, amāvī, amatum = amaturus, ura, urum
habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum = habiturus, ura, urum
ducō, ducere, duxī, ductum = ducturus, ura, urum
faciō, facere, fecī, factum = facturus, ura, urum
audiō, audīre, audīvī, auditum = auditurus, ura, urum
All future active participles are translated:
“fixin’ to ________”
The Participle Box
amo, amare, amavi, amatus
Active
Passive
Present
1
___________________
Past
(Perfect)
___________________
amatus, a, um
Future
amaturus, ura, urum
???
Practice
1. future active participle of peto, petere, petivi, petitum
2.
future active participle of educo, educāre, educavi, educatum
3. future active participle of iubeo, iubēre, iussi, iussum
The Present Active Participle
•
The last of the three Latin participles is
the Present Active Participle.
•
To form the Present Active Participle,
simply take the Present Stem from a
verb and add “ns, ntis” onto it.
A good way to remember this is the
word Present.
•
The Present Active Participle
•
However, as we have seen before, the
3rd-io and 4th conjugations like to add
an ‘i’ to verbs in the present system.
•
Therefore, to form the Present Active
Participle in the 3rd-io or 4th
conjugation, add an ‘i’ to the stem of
the verb before adding “ns, ntis” onto
it.
Present Active Participle
amō, amāre, amāvī, amatum = amans, ntis
habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum = habens, ntis
ducō, ducere, duxī, ductum = ducens, ntis
faciō, facere, fecī, factum = faciens, ntis
audiō, audīre, audīvī, auditum = audiens, ntis
All present active participles are translated:
“_________ing”
The Participle Box
amo, amare, amavi, amatus
Active
Passive
Present
amans, ntis
___________________
Past
(Perfect)
___________________
amatus, a, um
Future
amaturus, ura, urum
???
Practice
1. present active participle of peto, petere, petivi, petitum
2.
present active participle of educo, educāre, educavi, educatum
3. present active participle of capio, capere, cepi, captus
The Gerundive
•
•
•
The last member of the Participle Box
is not a participle in a strict sense, but
is closely related. It is called the
Gerundive.
The Gerundive is a method of
expressing obligation or necessity in
Latin.
It is translated “ought to be ______ed”
The Gerundive
•
To form the Gerundive, simply take the
Present Stem from a verb and add
“ndus, a, um” onto it.
–
•
•
cf. Amanda, Miranda and agenda
Again, as with the Present Active
Participle, verbs of the 3rd-io and 4th
conjugations add an ‘i’ to the stem
before the “ndus, a, um”
A good way to remember the ending is
from the word gerundive.
Gerundives
amō, amāre, amāvī, amatum = amandus, a, um
habeō, habēre, habuī, habitum = habendus, a, um
ducō, ducere, duxī, ductum = ducendus, a, um
faciō, facere, fecī, factum = faciendus, a, um
audiō, audīre, audīvī, auditum = audiendus, a, um
All gerundives are translated:
“ought to be ______ed”
The Participle Box
amo, amare, amavi, amatus
Active
Passive
Present
amans, ntis
___________________
Past
(Perfect)
___________________
amatus, a, um
Future
amaturus, ura, urum
amandus, a, um
Practice
1. gerundive of peto, petere, petivi, petitum
2.
gerundive of educo, educāre, educavi, educatum
3. gerundive of capio, capere, cepi, captus
Participles Reviewed
amo, amare, amavi, amatus
Active
Passive
Present
amans, ntis
___________________
Past
(Perfect)
___________________
amatus, a, um
Future
amaturus, ura, urum
amandus, a, um
Declining Participles
The endings on Participles are there so
that a participle can agree with the
noun it describes in gender, number,
and case.
This occurs in the same manner that we
have seen with adjectives.
Declining Participles
The endings for the last three participles follow 21-2 adjectives. Therefore, we see “us, a, um”.
Active
Passive
Present
amans, ntis
___________________
Past
(Perfect)
___________________
amatus, a, um
Future
amaturus, ura, urum
amandus, a, um
Declining Participles
• Therefore, these participles can modify nouns
in any case:
puer amatus = the beloved boy
puerī amatī = of the beloved boy
puerō amatō = to the beloved boy
puerum amatum = the beloved boy
puerō amatō = by the beloved boy
Declining Participles
The endings for the present active participle
follow 3rd declension adjectives. Therefore, we
see the nom. and gen. of a 1 termination adj.
Active
Passive
Present
amans, ntis
___________________
Past
(Perfect)
___________________
amatus, a, um
Future
amaturus, ura, urum
amandus, a, um
Declining Participles
• Still, this participle can also modify nouns in
any case (cf. potens, potentis):
puer amans = the loving boy
puerī amantis = of the loving boy
puerō amantī = to the loving boy
puerum amantem = the loving boy
puerō amantī/e = by the loving boy
** when used as an attributive adjective, use “ī”, as a
substantive, use “e”.
Practice
1.
2.
3.
4.
amanti puellae
dicta verba
rege timendō
auditurae feminae
Homework
• HW 31

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