GROUP SUCCESS

Report
‘There is no ‘I’ in team……. But there is a
‘me’ if you look hard enough’
GROUP SUCCESS
p.187 – 200 AQA A2
AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581
Groups and Teams
GROUPS
A GROUP IS
• two or more people
• interacting with one another
• so that each person influences and is influenced by
the others
• has a collective identity
• and a sense of shared purpose
•
•
•
a social aggregate
involving mutual awareness
and potential interaction with structured
patterns of communication
•
examples :
– crowd at a soccer match
– soccer team
– parents watching their children swim
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A2 Module 4G.2
AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581
Groups and Teams
SUCCESSFUL GROUPS / TEAMS
SUCCESSFUL GROUPS
• have a strong collective identity
• members have an opportunity to socialise
• have members who share goals and ambitions
• and share ownership of ideas
• have members who are able to communicate
effectively (on the same wavelength)
•
•
•
•
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have strong cohesion (see later slides)
have members who value relationships within the
group
have a successful coach or leader (see later
slides)
who ensures that members’ contributions to the
group are valued
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A2 Module 4G.3
AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581
Groups and Teams
STEINER’S MODEL OF A GROUP / TEAM
•
•
team success = potential for success - coordination and motivation problems
actual productivity = potential productivity - losses due to faulty processes
POTENTIAL FOR SUCCESS
• usually skilful individuals make the best team
• usually individual success (of team members) correlates with overall team success
COORDINATION PROBLEMS (for players)
• occur if there should be a high level of interaction between players
• but one (or more) player is being selfish or aggressive
• if a defence is not working together
• hence overall team performance suffers
MOTIVATION PROBLEMS
• people seem to work less hard in a group than they do on their own
• example : in rowing, times of winning double sculls are often only slightly faster than
single sculls
• this is social loafing ‘the Ringlemann Effect’
MOTIVATIONAL LOSSES
• individuals may not share the same motives, this leads to loss of group cohesion
• example : some players may play a game for social reasons, others in order to win
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A2 Module 4G.4
AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581
Groups and Teams
SOCIAL LOAFING, INTERACTION AND COHESION
SOCIAL LOAFING
• individuals reduce their effort when in a group
• and can hide their lack of effort amongst the effort of other group members
• can be eliminated if the contribution of an individual can be identified
• as with player statistics (American Football, Rugby League, Cricket, Basketball)
• the need for interaction between players varies between sports
• cooperation between players can be significant in eliminating social loafing
COHESION
• selection of less skilled but more cooperative players
• the extent to which members of a group exhibit a desire to achieve common goals and
group identity
• friendship groups can have negative effects
• cohesion has both task and social elements
TASK COHESION
• people who are willing to work together whether or not they get on personally
• have the potential to be successful
SOCIAL COHESION
• teams with high social cohesion but low task cohesion are less successful
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A2 Module 4G.5
Groups and Teams
COHESION
AQA A Level Physical Education A 6581
CARRON’s MODEL
• four factors affect the development of cohesion
ENVIRONMENTAL
environmental
• factors binding members to a team
factors
– contracts, location, age, eligibility
• avoid star system, provide opportunities for socialising
PERSONAL
• factors which members believe are important
– motives for taking part
• give opportunities for motives to be realised
• develop ownership feelings and social groupings
within the team
LEADERSHIP
• the behaviour of leaders and coaches
– coaches should use all leadership behaviours to
influence different individuals
personal
factors
COHESION
leadership
factors
team
factors
TEAM
• factors relating to the group
– team identity, targets, member ability and role
• creation of team short and long-term goals
• rewarding of individual and team efforts
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A2 Module 4G.6

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