AQA ISA A quick guide to success Sections – click to jump straight there Paper 1 Paper 2 Keywords Paper 1 Always questions Sometimes questions Always in paper 1 Identify 2 sources that you used for your research. You need to write urls for web-based resources of book title + author for paper based. You must have this information written on your candidate sheet 1 mark gained Always in paper 1 Compare the usefulness of the two sources You need to write about both sources. Which was the best? Why? You must have planned your answer – you know that this question is coming! 2 marks gained Always in paper 1 From the research that you have done, describe in detail how you are going to do your investigation. This section is worth 9 marks! You must practise your answer! Make sure that you have enough notes on your candidate sheet to answer it fully. Write it in the sections described in the question. Give each section a subheading. More on the next 5 slides Always in paper 1 The equipment that you plan to use No reason to struggle here – should all be on your planning sheet. Check that you have not missed anything out. A bullet pointed list is fine More on the next 4 slides Always in paper 1 How you will use the equipment This means a method of how you will carry out your practical, not a list of what each piece of equipment is for. You should have enough information on your student planning sheet to be able to write a step by step method More on the next 3 slides Always in paper 1 The measurements that you are going to make What are you going to record in your results table? These will include the measurements that you are making in your experiment – be clear on what you are doing. E.g. in my experiment I am changing… (independent variable) and will record …. (dependent variable) You should have this information on your student planning sheet! More on the next 2 slides Always in paper 1 How you will make the investigation a fair test What are you going to keep the same in your experiment (control variables) ? I will make my experiment a fair test by… You should have this information on your student planning sheet! More on the next slide Always in paper 1 A risk assessment How are you going to make the experiment as safe as possible? What are the hazards in the experiment? E.g. Bunsen flame What are the risks caused by the hazards? E.g. burns What are you going to do to minimise risk? E.g. tie hair up You should have this information on your student planning sheet! Watch your spelling and grammar 9 marks gained Always in paper 1 Make sure that you hand in a blank table of results You must have clear headings You must have your independent and dependent variable You must include units (e.g. temperature would be in 0C, time might be in seconds) This is done before the exam – no excuses not to get it right 2 marks gained Always in paper 1 14 marks!!!!! You can do really well in paper 1 if you get prepared. Make sure that you can score as many marks as possible in the questions that are on every ISA. 14 marks on the whole paper would put you on target for a B grade Sometimes in paper 1 – they seem to be on a rotation! Which measurement will be the most difficult to measure in your experiment and why? What will be difficult to measure accurately? Why might you not be able to do this as well as you would like? Think about this as part of your method planning. We often have limitations because of the equipment we use. 2 marks gained – more on next slide! Sometimes in paper 1 – they seem to be on a rotation! Suggest what you could do to reduce the effect of any errors in this experiment? This means how could you measure it more accurately? This does not mean “I could be more careful” – it is about changing your experiment somehow. You could suggest using equipment even if the college doesn’t have it! E.g. I could record the bounce of a ball with a video camera, so I could use the slo-mo to judge height better. 1 mark gained Paper 2 Always questions Sometimes questions Always in paper 2 Hand in your charts or graphs. You will be awarded up to 4 marks for your chart or graph. A graph of your results: • Clearly labelled axis • Suitable scale • Plotted correctly • Line of best fit You should get full marks on this. Draw a practice graph first, before completing your real graph under high control. 4 marks gained Always in paper 2 What were the variables in the experiment you did? Independent variable – what did you change? Dependent variable – what did you measure? Control variable – what did you keep the same? You should get full marks on this. Make sure you know the answers for your experiment! 3 marks gained Always in paper 2 Do your results support the hypothesis that you investigated? You should use any pattern that you see in your results to support your answer. You should include examples from your results. • Start with “The results did/did not support the hypothesis” • Because the trend of the graph is… or there is no pattern in the results • Quote some of your data – e.g. at 20oC… but at 60oC… You must include all 3 points to get full marks 3 marks gained Always in paper 2 Draw a sketch graph of the results from Case study 1 • Label the axis • Draw the shape of the graph • just the shape – no numbers needed – does it go up or down? Straight line (linear) or a curve (non-linear)? You will get nothing if you don’t label the axis! 2 marks gained Always in paper 2 Draw a sketch graph of the results from Case study 1 • Try these for practice Light intensity (lumens) Amount Oxygen produced by plant per hour (ml) 100 10 200 18 300 25 400 28 500 29 Mass added (g) Extension of spring (cm) 100 2 200 4 300 6.5 400 8 500 10 Always in paper 2 Draw a sketch graph of the results from Case study 1 • Try these for practice Temperature (oC) Time taken for reaction (s) Number of people in house Time a toilet roll lasts (days) 20 120 1 10 40 80 2 8 60 60 3 6 80 50 4 4 100 45 5 2 Always in paper 2 Explain whether or not the results in Case studies 1, 2 and 3 support the hypothesis. To gain full marks, your explanation should include appropriate examples from the results in Case studies 1, 2 and 3. • • • • Write about each case study separately. Include example data to support your ideas. E.g. case study 1 supports the hypothesis because the higher the temperature, the higher the bounce. It bounced 50cm at 60oC, but only 20 at 25oC. Look carefully at the results – mention any anomalous results! Check that the experiment is valid – i.e. are they changing the right variable? Have they calculated the mean correctly – discard anomalous results and record the mean to the same level of accuracy as the results Linear or non-linear? You won’t know what the Case studies are, but you should make sure that you know what to do! 3 marks gained Always in paper 2 Hypothesis: Paint dries faster at higher temperatures • Try these for practice Case study A Case study B Case study C mean Paint Drying time (min) 8 8 A 220 7 7 7.3 B 180 6 4 5 5 C 160 40 4 3 3 3.3 D 18 50 2 1 2 1.6 E 64 Temperature (oC) Drying time (min) Temp. (oC) Drying time (hours) 20 120 10 10 9 40 100 20 8 60 58 30 80 60 100 40 Always in paper 2 A question about case study 4. • You are given a statement. • You need to use the data for case study 4 to answer the question. • Check – does the data support the statement? Or not? Explain your answer carefully, quoting data to support your argument. You won’t know what the statement or data will be, but apply your skills and don’t panic! 3 marks gained Always in paper 2 How could the results from your investigation be useful in the context you have researched? (use your candidate research notes) • What was your context? • How could you apply what you have found out to this situation? • Include enough detail! Prepare your answer – you know this question is coming! 3 marks gained Always in paper 2 Up to 26 marks!!!!! You can do really well in paper 2 if you get prepared. Make sure that you can score as many marks as possible in the questions that are on every ISA. 26 marks on the whole paper would put you on target for an A* grade Sometimes in paper 2 Most investigations contain uncertainties. Suggest one cause of uncertainty in your experiment. How could you reduce the size of this uncertainty if you were to repeat the experiment? • Think about what you couldn’t control fully or measure carefully enough • How could you improve the method next time? Plan for this question! 3 marks gained Sometimes in paper 2 Did you repeat any of the trials in your experiment. Explain why you did or did not repeat your trials. Include examples from your results. • If yes – to check repeatability, show with examples how repeatable experiment was • If no, then say why e.g. lack of time or all points close to line of best fit Plan for this question! 3 marks gained Sometimes in paper 2 Explain how you would use repeated readings to get more accurate results • Calculate the mean • By discarding anomalous results • Add together repeated readings and divide by number of results Last bullet point often gets missed 3 marks gained Sometimes in paper 2 You have been given results from other people. Do these other results show the investigation to be reproducible? • Show that you know what reproducable means! • Yes – similar trend in results or no, different trend • Quote data from their results and yours Prepare for this question! Do you have an answer? 3 marks gained Sometimes in paper 2 You have been given results from other people. Do these other results show the investigation to be reproducible? • Show that you know what reproducable means! • Yes – similar trend in results or no, different trend • Quote data from their results and yours Prepare for this question! Do you have an answer? 3 marks gained Sometimes in paper 2 Did you get any anomalous results? • Show that you know what anomalous means! • Yes – not close to line of best fit or a very different repeated value • No – all repeats similar or close to line of best fit Prepare for this question! Do you have an answer? 3 marks gained Sometimes in paper 2 What was the range of the independent variable? Was this a suitable range? • From… to… • Yes – obvious difference between lowest and highest values or no, difference too small • Quote from your data! Prepare for this question! Do you have an answer? 3 marks gained Sometimes in paper 2 Other people trying to repeat your investigation might get results that are different to yours. Suggest one reason and explain why they would get different results. • What might they have done that was different? • How would their results be different as a result Prepare for this question! Do you have an answer? 3 marks gained Sometimes in paper 2 If you were to repeat your investigation would you make any changes to your method? • No – results had clear trend, data repeatable, test was fair. • Yes – how would you improve it? E.g. repeat data, larger range, change to practical Prepare for this question! Do you have an answer? 3 marks gained Sometimes in paper 2 What was the resolution of one piece of equipment that you used to make a measurement in your experiment? Do you think that this resolution was appropriate? • Resolution : measured to the nearest… • No – results not clearly different, may overlap • Yes – clear trend in results, don’t overlap Prepare for this question! Do you have an answer? 3 marks gained Keywords Key word Hypothesis What does it mean? A statement that can be tested Accurate The more accurate a result is, the closer to the correct answer it is Precise When you get almost the same answer again and again. The answer may be accurate or not Repeatable Reproducible When you do an experiment again and get similar results When the experiment is done again using different equipment or methods, or done by another person and you get similar results Keywords Key word Objectivity Variable What does it mean? A experiment is objective when the people doing it are not trying to get a certain result Things that can change in an experiment Independent variable The thing that you change in an experiment Dependent variable The result that you measure in an experiment Control variable Something that you keep the same to make sure that your experiment is fair Keywords Key word What does it mean? Categoric variables Continuous variables These kinds of variables are best described by labels, e.g. eye colour, where each eye colour is one category These kinds of variables are best described using numbers, e.g. number of pupils in each classroom. Resolution How accurate you can measure with a piece of equipment i.e. Measuring to the nearest… Range The highest and lowest values you test Values What actual measurements you test e.g. 10oC, 20oC etc.