AQA Certificate (iGCSE) English Language Higher Revision and Study Booklet Name: AQA Certificate (iGCSE) English Language Foundation Revision and Study Booklet Name: Section A: Reading One Hour and 15 minutes! Read the passage, retrieve the evidence and answer the questions. Section A: Reading Skills Finding and selecting relevant quotes/evidence Making detailed inferences Making links between quotes and inferences Commenting on the writer’s craft Section A: Reading One Hour and 15 minutes! Read the passage, retrieve the evidence and answer the questions. What can I do to prepare for this section? Read as much as possible and discuss what you have read with someone: what have you learnt? What was the writer trying to make you think/feel/understand? How do you know? What language and techniques did they use? Practise the questions included in this booklet using the processes you have been taught: select the evidence in different colours, select the most fruitful quotes to answer the questions, choose at least THREE to FIVE quotes to answer the question; write an answer that addresses the question and links the quotes you have chosen; Answer questions in the correct amount of time (double the marks and add a couple of minutes i.e. 12 minutes for a five mark question). One you have completed them, check: have you got at least THREE to FIVE quotes? Have you made a detailed and developed inference about each quote? Have you found links between quotes? Have you referred to the writer? Have you answered the question fully and in detail? Get together with a friend and have a go at the same question in the same amount of time. Mark your friend’s answer. How have they done? Which answer is better and why? Repeat the process and see if you can improve! Use the RAG sheet to help you. In your exam, use at least THREE different colours to highlight evidence in the text relevant to different questions. This will help you focus on the most fruitful quotes and cover the text in sufficient detail: remember – top marks can only be achieved with detailed, thoughtful and well supported answers! All the answers are there in front of you – find them! Grandfather’s skirts would flap in the wind along the churchyard path and I would hang on. He often found things to do in the vestry, excuses for getting out of the vicarage (kicking the swollen door, cursing) and so long as he took me he couldn’t get up to much. I was a sort of hobble; he was my minder and I was his. He’d have liked to get further away, but petrol was rationed. The church was at least safe. My grandmother never went near it – except feet first in her coffin, but that was years later, when she was buried in the same grave with him. Rotting together for eternity, one flesh at the last after a lifetime’s mutual loathing. In life, though, she never invaded his patch; once inside the churchyard gate he was on his own ground, in his element. He was good at funerals, being gaunt and lined, marked with mortality. He had a scar down his hollow cheek too, which Grandma had done with the carving knife one of the many times when he came home drunk and incapable… …It was certainly easy to spot him at a distance too. But this was a village where it seemed everybody was their vocation. They didn’t just “know their place”, it was as though the place occupied them, so that they all knew what they were going to be from the beginning. People’s names conspired to colour in this picture. Remember to make detailed inferences about each quote and find links between them! Doesn’t seem happy at home and wants to escape Kicking seems like quite aggressive behaviour, not something we expect from a vicar He seems to enjoy a more depressing event, which suggests he is unusual and possibly unhappy and depressed himself “…excuses for getting out of the vicarage (kicking the swollen door, cursing)” “He was good at funerals, being gaunt and lined, marked with mortality” ‘cursing’ shows unexpected behaviour and that the vicar is quite angry and possibly unhappy Death may be the ultimate escape from his misery, which is why he enjoys funerals He seems ‘marked’ with death and is therefore unusual looking, which makes his stand out Q1. The writer refers to her grandfather as “a character” (line 50). What evidence has she given to support this view? (6 marks) Evidence Inference Reference to writer/question Throughout the extract the writer gives plenty of evidence to show that her grandfather is a ‘character’. One of the main reasons why she says this is because he does not seem to live the lifestyle expected and associated with being a vicar. Sage writes that he was an ‘expert in sin’ which appears to contradict with the image of a man of God that one usually thinks of. Instead of abstaining from vices such as drinking and smoking, at ‘many times… he came home drunk and incapable”. The author writes how ‘the smell of him and his tobacco’ made her grandmother sick and this all suggests that the grandfather was a colourful character and not quite what you’d expect from a Church minister. Sage also presents the idea of him being a ‘character’ through his supposed interest in death. She says that it was ‘burials he relished’ which is surprising as most people prefer the normally more jolly wedding ceremonies and this sets him apart. The author also mentions how he stood out in society, she said that ‘the grown-ups all played their parts’ and that ‘everybody was their vocation’. Sage is giving evidence for her statement that he was a ‘character’ because the grandfather appears unique and different. He is at odds with the setting he lives in. Finally the writer explains about how ’he was locally famous for his sermons’, if they were famous then they must have had some sort of quality that attracted people back and was popular. Thus she shows his nature as a ‘character’ who stood out in society. Past Papers: Section A (One hour and 15 minutes) How does the writer… These questions are asking you to comment on how a writer has created their text to achieve a particular effect. Look out for and analyse the effect of the following things: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Narrative perspective (Whose voice do you hear? Why is this important? What do they think/feel/understand?) Past, present or future tense Word types: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs GRIPPERS 3PS or SOAPAIMS (don’t call them this; name them individually: the writer uses statistics such as…) Descriptive detail Real life examples Emotive details Comparisons / contrasts Personal opinions Dialogue Directly address reader (‘you’) Order of events (Are character dealt with separately? Does something unexpected happen at the end? What effect does this have on your undestanding?) Sentence or paragraph lengths (What words/images/ideas are being emphasised? Why?) Tone (positive, negative, formal, informal, humorous, serious etc.) Atmosphere Humour or irony Hyperbole (exaggeration) Numbers Section B: Writing 45 minutes Planning and writing Section B: Writing Skills Effective and engaging communication Appropriate detail and techniques used for purpose Secure and effective use of paragraphs Range of vocabulary Varied and effective sentences Varied and effective sentence starters Accurate and effective punctuation Secure spelling of common and complex words Section B: Writing to Describe or Writing to Narrate Top Tips: Have an awareness of your purpose (clearly describe or narrate); Use a consistently appropriate tone; Write lively and detailed descriptions; Be coherent and develop your ideas in detail; Use a wide range of punctuation; Take some risks (use personification throughout your description, include a twist in your story, for example, but make sure it makes sense); Use a variety of sentences and sentence starters; Use a range of vocabulary and imagery to engage your reader; Vary the lengths of your paragraphs (use one and two line paragraphs for effect). Writing to Describe: Structure! Paragraph One Description of whole scene Paragraphs Two and Three Focus on one element Paragraphs Four and Five Focus on another element Paragraph Six Description of whole scene: how has it changed? Use personification when you are writing to describe. For example, you could give a voice to an old haunted hospital if you were asked to describe a frightening place. For example: I stand in a neglected corner of the town and watch as people scurry past, looking cautiously over their shoulders; they are watching for the ghosts of the past that roam within my walls. My grey, cold, stone walls are crumbling, breaking, decaying. Debris, scattered across the floor, is made up of stones, litter, old equipment. A gust of wind, invading through the broken glass, is the only thing that disturbs it every now and then. Frequently, however, my shadows move, shift, and dance revealing the cracks in my dead-alive foundations; I’m a shadow of what I used to be. Writing to Describe: Tasks to try as part of your exam preparation! Describe a childhood memory. Describe a frightening place. Describe a shopping centre on Christmas Eve. Describe a holiday resort at the height of summer. Describe an unpleasant or unusual place. Your story should take place in no more than FIVE minutes! 4) Resolution Use verbs and adverbs to engage your reader If you choose to write a story, use the following structure. 2) Introduce TWO contrasting characters Bring the action to a conclusion but leave some mystery! Create an engaging atmosphere 3) Action 1) Setting Create some mystery about your characters Writing to Narrate: Tasks to try as part of your exam preparation! Write a story with the opening line: “He was frozen!” Write a story with the closing line: “I never looked back.” Write a story with the title: ‘The Body’. Write a story based on the images below: Expand your vocabulary! Complete the table with effective words you have used in your writing. Learn how to spell these words and create sentences using these words. Find the synonyms of these words to help expand your vocabulary. Vocabulary Vocabulary Vocabulary Start with an adverb (-ly) i.e. Slowly Start with a topic word followed by a colon i.e. Money: Start with three single word sentences i.e. Hope. Ambition. Legacy. Start with a subordinate clause ( but make sure you complete the sentence!) i.e. As I kicked the football, a loud scream pierced my ear distracting my attention. Start with a question i.e. Do you want to….? Start with an exclamation i.e. Success! Start with a fragmented sentence (,,,) i.e. Kids crying…people watching. Start with an imperative verb i.e. Do something now. Starting your sentences in different ways is key to effective writing. Write an example of a sentence from a description of a school playground/field, using each of the different sentence starters in the table Believe You Play Rotten Never Bleak Disgraceful Purposely Frequent Old Dark Misty Abandoned Panic Empty Realisation Ripped Seven Silence Crashing Innocent Nightmare Unwanted Whole Serious Imagining Task: Choose FIVE of the words in the list. Write a sentence using this word at the start. For example: Unwanted clothes were scattered about the floor; someone had left in a great hurry! Re-write the following sentences to make them more effective and engaging. 1. The police stood ready to attack. 2. The protestors were unprotected. 3. The smoke filled the air. 4. The buildings were behind the protestors. 5. The police car was behind the officers. Remember to use a range of simple, compound and complex sentences. Write a range of sentences to describe a school playground/field. 1) I do not like that band. Simple 2) I think that jumper is awful but I know you like it. Compound 3) The fire was started deliberately, the policeman said. Complex 4) Should we go to McDonalds or Burger King? Compound 5) I hate the dark. Simple 6) I went to town and bought my brother a present. Compound 7) Although I am a vegetarian, I like sausages. Complex 8) The boy was running. Simple 9) Tom, who was only 5, saved his mother’s life. Complex Remember to vary the lengths of your sentences for effect… This sentence has five words. Here, there are five more. Five word sentences are fine. But several together become monotonous. Listen to what is happening. The writing is getting boring. The sound of it drones. It’s like a stuck record. The ear demands some variety. Now listen. I vary the sentence length, and I create music. Music. The writing sings. It has a pleasant rhythm, a lilt, a harmony. I use short sentences. And I use sentences of medium length. And sometimes, when I am certain the reader is rested, I will engage him with a sentence of considerable length, a sentence that burns with energy and builds with all the impetus of a crescendo, the roll of the drums, the crash of the cymbals; sounds that say listen to this, it is important. Remember use homophone spellings correctly! Write a sentence in each box using each homophone spelling correctly. 1) their/they’re/there Their house is really lovely. They’re so talented. There is my uncle. 2) where/were/we’re Where did you go? Were you there? We’re not coming. 4) its and it’s The plane is on its way. It’s going to be late. 5) here/hear I am staying here. I hear clearly. 7) to/two/too I am going to bed It’s two in the morning. It’s too late for me! 8) whether/weather I will decide whether I can make it. It depends on the weather. 3) been/being I have been shopping. I am being inpatient. 6) you’re/your You’re joking me! Your joke wasn’t funny! 9) our/are Our neighbours are noisy. Are they even aware they are so loud? Write an example of each technique to describe the scene in a school playground/field. 1) Death hunts me down. Personification 2) The whoosh of gun fire frightens me. Onomatopoeia 3) 3) The soft sound of snoring seems out of place in this dark trench. Alliteration 4) There are broken, bruised bodies. Alliteration 5) Pins and needles numb my hands. Alliteration 6) Fear grips me. Personification 7) Carrying the gun is like carrying a ten tonne weight on my shoulders. Simile 8) I run at lightning speed. Metaphor 9) The sound of the shots buzzes in my ear. Onomatopoeia Apostrophes for Omission: Write the contraction for each pair of words. 1) Can not 2) She will 3) They would 4) Will not 5) Should not 6) Do not 7) Has not 8) Would have 9) Could have 10) Should have Would’ve Apostrophes for Possession! A possessive noun is a word that shows ownership or belonging. Add an apostrophe and an s ('s) to a singular noun to make it a possessive noun. For Example: Betty's sandwich or Tommy’s fish If the person’s name ends in an ‘s’ just add an apostrophe after it (s’) For example: James’ ball An apostrophe can be used to show that something belongs to one or more than one person or thing. If you wish to show that it belongs to one person we add ‘s. For example: It was the boy’s football. If you wish to show that it belongs to more than person (i.e. A group) we place an apostrophe after the s. For example: It was the boys’ football. Complete the sentences adding the possessive apostrophe in the appropriate place. 1. It was Sarahs bedroom. 2. The boys ball went over the fence when he was playing on his own in the garden. 3. The girls netball match was cancelled. They were gutted! 4. James exam was a great success. 5. The teachers enjoyed a meal together. 6. Her parents car was smashed to pieces. 7. The parents evening was well attended. 8. Lydias cold was getting worse. 9. The cats leg was broken in the accident. 10. The doctors waiting room was full of patients during his late night surgery. Colons and Semi-Colons A colon ( : ) separates two parts of a sentence. A semi-colon ( ; ) joins two parts of a sentence. The part of the sentence that comes after the colon explains the part before. Both parts of the sentence will be related in some way. For example: The plate was empty: the girl had eaten all the cake. It can also indicate the start of a list. For example: The cake contains: three eggs, half a pound of flour, and lots of sugar! For example: Mary drives a Mercedes; Joanne drives a Chevrolet. Write down the following sentences putting the colon in the appropriate place. 1) The boy was in a critical condition he had been hit by a car. 2) The classroom had fifteen desks, 30 chairs and an interactive whiteboard. 3) The circus was very entertaining there were many different acts to enjoy. 4) It was a devastating storm the wind had knocked down many houses. 5) The pie contained flour, butter, lots of meat and onions for flavour. Write down the following sentences putting the semicolon in the appropriate place. 1) Elephants drink water they travel in herds. 2) Beckham plays for LA Galaxy Rooney plays for Manchester United. 3) She works all day in a store she takes classes in the evenings. 4) John is Canadian however, he lives in the United States. 5) Pupils attend school from the age of four they leave at sixteen or eighteen.