Ed Walsh presentation day 3

Report
HOW CAN ASSESSMENT
IMPROVE LEARNING IN PRIMARY
SCIENCE?
ED WALSH, CORNWALL LEARNING
INTRODUCTION
• Teacher for 20 years, 12 as subject co-ordinator
• Curriculum developer:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Development team for APP in Science
Consultant to Rising Stars and Classroom Monitor
Series Editor, Collins KS3 Science
Science Editor, Cornwall Learning’s Inspire Curriculum
Regional Science Adviser, AQA
Regional Development Lead, Science Learning Centres
PSQM hub leader
CONTEXT
• Teachers experience is of working with Programmes of Study that use level
descriptors to plan for progression
• Use of assessment tools that are based on and report in levels
• Use of ‘levels of progress’ as being a key performance indicator
• Current expectation to move away from the use of levels, whilst still tracking
progress and planning teaching accordingly
STRUCTURE
1) Developing a sense of progression
2) Identifying the outcomes
3) Deciding if outcomes have been met
4) Making use of the evidence
1) DEVELOPING A SENSE OF PROGRESSION
• Science is a hierarchical subject:
• Processes of science, such as spotting patterns in data, should become more challenging
as pupils become more competent
• The concepts being studied should also become more complex, so that answers to bigger
and more complex questions can be developed
• It is sometimes necessary to understand one idea before another one becomes accessible.
It doesn’t necessarily mean that the later idea is more complex but it has implications for
planning teaching
WHAT THE INSPECTOR SAW…
“When things went wrong, it was more often to do with teachers thinking they
knew the science involved when actually they did not, or attempting a lesson
that was too difficult or too easy for the pupils, given their abilities and prior
knowledge. The latter occurred when teachers had an insufficient understanding
of progression in the curriculum, both in general terms, and in the specific
experiences of their pupils. In a few cases, insecure subject knowledge led to
insecure assessment of standards…” Maintaining curiosity
DEVELOPING PROGRESSION
IN CONCEPTS
- distinguish between an object & the material from which it is made
- identify & name a variety of everyday materials, e.g. wood,
plastic, glass, metal, water & rock
- describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday
materials
- compare & group together a variety of everyday materials on the
basis of their simple physical properties (Y1)
- identify & compare the
suitability of a variety of
everyday materials, e.g.
wood, metal, plastic, glass,
brick, rock, paper &
cardboard for particular
uses (Y2)
DEVELOPING PROGRESSION
IN CONCEPTS
- identify & compare the suitability
of a variety of everyday
materials, e.g. wood, metal,
plastic, glass, brick, rock, paper &
cardboard for particular uses (Y2)
- compare & group together
different kinds of rocks on the
basis of their appearance &
simple physical properties (Y3)
DEVELOPING PROGRESSION
IN CONCEPTS
- describe the simple physical
properties of a variety of everyday
materials
- compare & group together a variety
of everyday materials on the basis of
their simple physical properties (Y1)
- compare & group together different
kinds of rocks on the basis of their
appearance & simple physical
properties (Y3)
WHAT THE INSPECTOR SAW…
“In about a third of the primary schools visited, pupils knew how well they were doing
and what they needed to do to improve. This proportion is not high enough and
contrasts with the generally good information that the same pupils had about their
work in English and mathematics, almost always from the same teacher. In the best
practice seen, each pupil had a tracking sheet showing what she or he needed to do to
achieve the different levels of science investigation. This was supported when teachers
annotated pupils’ work to point out which targets were being met. The pupils were also
clear about the level they were aiming to achieve.” Maintaining curiosity
DEVELOPING PROGRESSION IN CONCEPTS
- recognise that environments can
change & that this can sometimes
pose dangers to living things (Y4)
construct & interpret a variety
of food chains, identifying
producers, predators & prey
(Y4)
describe the life process of
reproduction in some plants
& animals (Y5)
- recognise that living things
produce offspring of the same kind
but normally offspring vary & are
not identical to their parents
- identify how animals & plants are
adapted to suit their environment in
different ways & that adaptation
may lead to evolution (Y6)
IDENTIFYING THE ‘BIG IDEAS’ IN SCIENCE
• “In the best schools visited, teachers ensured that pupils understood the ‘big
ideas’ of science.” Maintaining curiosity
• Progression becomes easier to identify if the underpinning ‘big ideas’ are
identified.
• For example, in Biology, the big ideas could be:
•
•
•
•
•
Living things can be classified according to observable features
Habitats provide living things with what they need
Living things exhibit variation and adaptation and these may lead to evolution.
Life exists in a variety of forms and goes through cycles
The human body has a number of systems, each with its own function
PROGRESSION IN BIOLOGY
PROGRESSION IN PROCESS

Planning
investigations
Gathering
evidence


Key Stage 1
asking simple questions
and recognising that they
can be answered in
different ways
observing closely, using
simple equipment
performing simple tests




Recording
evidence.
Reporting
findings.
[With help, they should record 
and communicate their findings
in a range of ways and begin
to use simple scientific
language.]
 identifying and classifying 

Drawing
conclusions
and making

predictions for
further tests.
using their observations

and ideas to suggest
answers to questions

gathering and recording
data to help in answering 
questions.
Lower Key Stage 2
asking relevant questions and using different types of enquiry 
to answer them
setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair
tests
making systematic and careful observations and, where

appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard
units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and
data loggers
gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a
variety of ways to help in answering questions
recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, 
labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables
reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and
written explanations, displays or presentations of results and
conclusions

using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for
new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions
identifying differences, similarities or changes related to
simple scientific ideas and processes
using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions
or to support their findings.


Upper Key Stage 2
planning different types of scientific
enquiries to answer questions, including
recognising and controlling variables
where necessary
taking measurements, using a range of
scientific equipment, with increasing
accuracy and precision, taking repeat
readings when appropriate
recording data and results of increasing
complexity using scientific diagrams
and labels, classification keys, tables,
bar and line graphs
reporting and presenting findings from
enquiries, including conclusions, causal
relationships and explanations of and
degree of trust in results, in oral and
written forms such as displays and other
presentation
using test results to make predictions to
set up further comparative and fair
tests
identifying scientific evidence that has
been used to support or refute ideas or
arguments.
2) IDENTIFYING THE OUTCOMES – HOW WOULD WE
RECOGNISE A PUPIL WHO CAN DO THESE THINGS?
FROM THE POS STATEMENTS…
…WE CAN DEVELOP OUTCOMES FOR A TOPIC
•
identify how sounds are made, associating
some of them with something vibrating
•
Explain how a sound is being made, relating it
to the idea of vibrations
•
recognise that vibrations from sounds
travel through a medium to the ear
•
Recognise that a medium is required to carry
sound
•
find patterns between the pitch of a
sound & features of the object that
produced it
•
Explain how sound has travelled from a source
to the ear
•
Explain how an object can make higher or
lower sounds
•
Explain how an object can make louder or
quieter sounds
•
find patterns between the volume of a
sound & the strength of the vibrations that
produced it
IDENTIFYING THE OUTCOMES – WORKING
SCIENTIFICALLY
FROM THE POS STATEMENTS…
•
using results to draw simple conclusions,
make predictions for new values,
suggest improvements and raise further
questions
•
identifying differences, similarities or
changes related to simple scientific
ideas and processes
•
using straightforward scientific evidence
to answer questions or to support their
findings.
…WE CAN IDENTIFY OUTCOMES
• Explain what the evidence shows
• Suggest improvements to procedure
• Suggest how investigation could be
extended
• Suggest explanations using scientific
ideas
• Offer scientific answer to enquiry
question
3) DECIDING IF
OUTCOMES HAVE
BEEN MET
A wide range of types of
evidence can be used, including:
• Tests
• Written accounts
• Verbal explanations
• Presentations
WHAT THE INSPECTOR SAW…
“In most of the schools visited, however, accurate levelling of any
science strand depended on its teachers’ ability to recognise pupils’
achievements against the National Curriculum level descriptions.”
Maintaining curiosity
PROGRESSION IN
COGNITIVE
COMPLEXITY
•
However, progression
is more complex than
the complexity of the
concept.
•
The same idea
becomes more
challenging if the
cognitive complexity is
increased.
DESIGNING
ASSESSMENT
TOOLS
DESIGNING ASSESSMENT TOOLS
Knowledge and
comprehension
Application and
analysis
Synthesis and
evaluation
OTQs
4
4
2
Short written responses
4
4
4
Longer written responses
4
4
Each test is marked out of 30 and the items are planned according
to this grid.
As well as ensuring coverage of content, the data from each test can
also be analysed to yield evidence of performance:
• Against cognitive complexity
• In developing different types of response
• In Working Scientifically as well as in mastery of concepts
DESIGNING
ASSESSMENT TOOLS
In these tests, the marks are out
of 10.
• 5 marks are for knowledge
& understanding (KU) items
• 5 marks are for application
(A) items
• 4 marks are also for
Working Scientifically items
(often but not always (A)
items
• There is a mix of OTQs and
open responses
WHAT TO RECORD…
• If the planning of schemes of learning and deployment of assessment items
are rich and varied, then recording of attainment can be relatively
straightforward.
• Pupil attainment against identified outcomes could be on the basis of:
working towards/met/exceeded
• The development of outcomes and the use of evidence should be subject to
debate and agreement
“A minority of the science leaders moderated their judgements with colleagues
in nearby primary schools. Teachers used a variety of approaches …. this can
work well, especially if teachers combine summative assessment with a
systematic review of learning carried out by the pupils themselves.” Maintaining
curiosity
4) MAKING USE OF THE
EVIDENCE – THE ‘SO WHAT’
POINT
For example, when planning
and delivering the Y6 topic
on circuits it might be useful to
draw on assessment data
relating to:
• Y4 topic on circuits
• Developing conclusions
and causal relationships in
other topics in Upper KS2
• General willingness to
explore and discuss ideas
Using circuit
symbols
Explaining how
components work
Altering voltage to
control components
(Y6)
Identify
components
Construct
circuits
Control with
switches (Y4)
exploring
and talking
about their
ideas
(Upper KS2)
reports and presents
findings from
enquiries, including
conclusions and
causal relationships
(Upper KS2)
WHAT THE INSPECTOR SAW…
“The use of assessment to inform subsequent teaching was no better
than adequate in around half the schools visited. This weakness is
not unique to science, but it was still the most common area for
improvement that inspectors identified in science inspections of
primary schools.” Maintaining curiosity
KEEP IN TOUCH
• Ed Walsh
• [email protected]
• @cornwallscied
• LinkedIn

similar documents