Language!!

Report
Activity
Map from Memory
Reading
Assessment Objectives
 AO3 i: selecting material appropriate to
purpose/ collating and making crossreferences
 AO3 ii: dev. and sustain interpretations
 AO3 iii: explaining and evaluating how a
writer uses linguistic, grammatical and
structural devices to achieve effects
What this means?
1. Multimodal Text
2. Non-fiction Text
1. How has language been
used to make the text
appealing/attractive to
a potential audience?
 Understanding and
appreciating a writer’s
use of language.
2. How have
presentational devices
(colour, font, images,
etc) been used make a
leaflet, a book cover, etc
appealing /attractive to
a potential audience?
 How has the writer used
language to present an
argument/ make their
points or arguments
effective?
What this really means?
PEE
POINT – EVIDENCE - EXPLAIN
Issue!
Description
v
Explanation/Analysis
(AO3iii)
GCSE English Language
Unit 1
Section B: Reading
Multimodal Texts
(45 mins!!)
Multi-modal texts used in the exam:







Advertisements
Leaflets
Websites
Book covers
Magazine covers
Posters
Promotional flyers
 (No DVD covers – they are still good to
practise with!)
Promotional Flyer
Leaflet
Front cover or the
back cover.
But not both!!
Multimodal Texts
Webpages
Posters
Book Covers
Persuasive Language
Used to persuade someone to do
something:
 buy a product
 visit an interesting place
 believe in a particular argument
 donate money to a charity, etc
I AM A FOREST CREEP
I
IMAGERY
A
ALLITERATION
M
METAPHOR
A
ASSONANCE
F
FACTS
O
OPINIONS/OXYMORON
R
REPETITION
E
EMOTIVE LANGUAGE
S
STATISTICS
T
THREE (RULE OF)
C
CONTRASTS/CLICHÉS
R
RHETORICAL QUESTIONS
E
EXCITING VERBS
E
EFFECTIVE OPENINGS/CONCLUSIONS
P
PERSONIFICATION/PARADOX/PUNCTUATION
Presentation Devices





Layout
Titles
Colour
Font styles and sizes
Headlines, captions
and subheadings
 White space
 Maps
 Short paragraphs
and sentences
 Bulleted or
numbered lists
 Formatting: bold,
italic and underline
 Illustrations and
photographs
 Cartoons
 Graphs and charts
 Logo
Practise!!
Compare + Contrast
A
A
A
B
B
B
 Compare and
contrast Text A +
Text B throughout
your response
highlighting
similarities +
differences
Comparative Connections







however
in spite of this
whereas
on the other hand
in other respects
on the contrary
rather







nevertheless
differs from
also
in that respect
alternatively
instead
elsewhere
“AVOID Feature Spotting”
 “The writer uses alliteration.” - this is not
enough to get you a “C” + grade
 “The writer uses alliteration. So the reader's
attention is drawn to these words.” – still not
enough to get you a “C” + grade
 You need to explain why these particular words are
singled out for attention. What's special about these
words? Why these words and not some other
words? (AO3iii)
PEE
The writer uses the alliteration (Point)
“luscious lemons” (Example).
The word “luscious” is emphasised and
suggests the lemons have a pleasingly
rich and delicious taste.(Explanation)
PEE
P
 I think the girl in the story is mean
because...
E  it says ' she bullied all the children in her
class‘.
E
 The word bullied shows us that the girl is
very rude and hurts people. It makes you
feel sorry for the victims and shocked at
the mean girl.
The Donna by Emma Howard
Britte feels lost when her recent behaviour places her into
donna training. The school is known for turning spirited girls
into obedient, cultured young women. Numerous appalling
romours surround the donna profession – rumours that Britte
hopes are unfounded.
When Britte arrives at school, her leaders are polite but vague
and evasive and Britte is sure they are hiding something. Once
Britte learns their secret her world is turned upside down.
“The Donna is an imaginative story of a young girl facing new
experiences and dangerous circumstances. You’ll fall in love
with characters and get wrapped up in the excitement.”
Melissa N. Arizona
The Donna by Emma Howard
Britte feels lost when her recent behaviour places her into
donna training. The school is known for turning spirited girls
into obedient, cultured young women. Numerous appalling
rumours surround the donna profession – rumours that Britte
hopes are unfounded.
When Britte arrives at school, her leaders are polite but vague
and evasive and Britte is sure they are hiding something. Once
Britte learns their secret her world is turned upside down.
“The Donna is an imaginative story of a young girl facing new
experiences and dangerous circumstances. You’ll fall in love
with characters and get wrapped up in the excitement.”
Melissa N. Arizona
Common Mistakes
 Students working too slowly
 Poor use of time
 Responses to Task 1 were taking up too
much time, resulting in very brief attempts
to answer Section B tasks
 Greater time and effort being put into
Task 3 (9 marks) rather than Task 2 (15
marks)
 Completing Section B without splitting the
answer into two answers as required.
Vary Your Language
means
creates
reflects
gives rise to
indicates
emphasises
conveys
implies
demonstrates highlights
reinforces
strengthens
 LAUNCH STRAIGHT IN to the answer.
 NO INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH, or GENERAL
CONCLUSION, IS NEEDED.
 DON’T COPY OUT LONG QUOTES - use ellipsis to
shorten them: “the magnificent views ... dramatic
property”.
 DON’T WASTE TIME REPEATEDLY WRITING OUT
LONG NAMES – from Unit 1 Summer 2013 ‘Matlock
Farm Park’ could simply be referred to as ‘Matlock’ or
‘Dreaming in Black and White’ could be shortened to
‘Dreaming’.
Exemplar Responses
Multimodal:
Read the exemplar answers
 “D” Standard Answer
 Top Answer
Language: Paragraph 1
“Dreaming in black and white’s’’ front cover is very
bleak with just a tittle, Author and a little bit of
synopsis “A rich and beautiful story. I loved it” This
would encourage someone to buy it but they have eg
shrunk it down its writing size and stuck it at the +
expl
bottom of the page. Were as in “Tins’’ it is just the
tittle of the book “Tins” and the Author the books
publisher “Heineman”
Description not analysis of language!!
Language: Paragraph 2
The spine has “Dreaming in black and white” the
Author Reinhardt Jung and what i presume to be
the publisher Monmonth “Tins” isn’t much differnt it
has its tittle and Author “Alex Shearer” but the
publisher has used the logo instead of the name.
Description not analysis!!
Not focusing on language!!
Language: Paragraph 3
The back of the book Dreaming in “black and white”
“There are dreams you just can’t switch off this bit of eg
+
the blurb is giving away nothing about the book
expl
keeping mystery and suspense. “In his dreams he
finds himself “Back” in 1930s Germany this sentence
gives away he is probably an ex soldier or civilian
caught up in the war and his dream centres the stage.
“Hames is disabled and like the Jews and social
misfits” So this tell us he is handicapped and the Nazis
will probley be out to get him. Michael Morpurgo has eg
given a synopsis he is all well known writer so this +
expl
would encourage people to buy this book.
Description not analysis!!
Language: Paragraph 4
On the back of the book tins, once again the book
includes Tins by Alex Shearer. “Unsuitable for
adults” this would give me the impression
because if you are a teenager would you want to
go off read a book that your not supposed too.
“Fergal collects tins” first line of the blurb sets the
plot. But one day he finds a gruesome discovery
of a finger inside a tin” the plot thickens Fergal will
obvious be this book’s hero and the way “help”
inside another this sets the plot already by telling
us that our hero Fergal must set out on a quest to
find this guy with the missing finger
eg
+
expl?
eg
+
expl
Description not analysis!!
Language: Paragraph 4 (cont.)
“And what was just “a screw ball just became a
How?
deadly can of worms” adds humour to the blurb.
“This book is a does exactly what it says on the tin”
another humorous punchline. “ Its so exciting,
terrifying and will keep you hooked from beginning
to end” This synspses is telling us this book has it ??
all basically. “hooked” from beging to end” is
another humorous punchline. “ Free Downloads”
also some advertising used. In my opinion tins has
better language used in its front, back and spine.
Some egs but no explanation!!
Presentation: Paragraph 1
The cover on “Dreaming in Black and white (it also
has a logo) has very little presentational devices.
Synopsis and dominate image of a distorted black
and white face which looks to be stretching
through a wall of some sort. In Tins it uses a silver
tin for colour and this is written in red blood which
builds up a plot of a thrill or crime novel.
Description not analysis!!
Presentation: Paragraph 2
On the spine on “Dreaming in Black and White”
offers no presentational devices apart from
“Dreaming in black and white” in a different font.
The same in Tins it uses a running font to
symbolise the blood running down the tittle tins. It
also contains a logo which I think belongs to the
publishers.
Description not analysis!!
Presentation: Paragraph 3
On the back of “Dreaming in Black and White”.
There is a logo for mommoth the publisher and
the barcode” also synopsis left by Michael
Morpurgo. In Tins it contains humour, “It does
exactly what it says on the tins” synopsis and
some advertising “Free downloads and it also
contains a barcode. In my opinion Tins just
looks like an all round better book.
X
Language!!
GCSE English Language
Unit 2
Section B: Reading NonFiction Texts
(45 mins!!)
Reading Non-fiction
Explain how the writer holds the reader’s
interest. In your answer show how the writer has:
 used a style of writing that is lively and
personal
 included an interesting mix of personal
observations
 selected words and phrases for effect, and
 made use of sentence structuring and
paragraphing
[24 marks]
Persuasive Language Devices
 Effective opening
 Rhetorical
Questions
 Rapport
 Emotive
Language
 Hyperbole
 Assertive
Language







Repetition
Alliteration
Statistics
Humour
Personal Anecdote
Tone
Strong conclusion
I AM A FOREST CREEP
I
IMAGERY
A
ALLITERATION
M
METAPHOR
A
ASSONANCE
F
FACTS
O
OPINIONS/OXYMORON
R
REPETITION
E
EMOTIVE LANGUAGE
S
STATISTICS
T
THREE (RULE OF)
C
CONTRASTS/CLICHÉS
R
RHETORICAL QUESTIONS
E
EXCITING VERBS
E
EFFECTIVE OPENINGS/CONCLUSIONS
P
PERSONIFICATION/PARADOX/PUNCTUATION
Writer’s Style
The style reveals the personality or voice of the
writer. Consider the differences between the
following sentences:





softening the blow
He's passed away.
He's sleeping with the fishes. Mafia – revenge/violent
direct/ no-nonsense/straight to the point
He died.
religious
He's gone to meet his Maker.
light-hearted
He kicked the bucket.
Style + Tone
(personality, attitude, mood)








Formal
Informal
Conversational
Chatty
Light-hearted
Serious
Sarcastic
Factual








Descriptive
Optimistic
Angry
Irritated
Exasperated
Infuriated
Pleading
Emotional
Common mistakes
 Students working too slowly
 Poor use of time
 Responses to Task 1 were taking
up too much time, resulting in very
brief attempts to answer Section B
 Not using PEE
“AVOID Feature Spotting”
 “The writer uses alliteration.” - this is not
enough to get you a “C” + grade
 “The writer uses alliteration. So the reader's
attention is drawn to these words.” – still not
enough to get you a “C” + grade
 You need to explain why these particular words are
singled out for attention. What's special about these
words? Why these words and not some other
words?
The writer uses the alliteration (Point)
“luscious lemons” (Example).
The word “luscious” is emphasised and
suggests the lemons have a pleasingly
rich and delicious taste.(Explanation)
PEE
P
 Skellig has no table manners and is a
messy eater.
E
 ‘The red sauce trickled down from his
lips, down over his chin on to his black
jacket.’
E
 This shows that he eats in a disgusting
way and gets food all over himself. It
could be because he is in a rush to get
food as he hasn’t eaten for a long time,
or perhaps he is not used to other people
watching him.
PEE
P
 The writer uses the verb “to claw”
effectively
E
 “She tried to claw his face with her
fingernails”
E
 The word “claw” means to scrape or
tear and is used here by the writer to
suggest that the girl is violent and
animal-like.
Vary Your Language
means
creates
reflects
gives rise to
indicates
emphasises
conveys
implies
demonstrates highlights
reinforces
strengthens
 LAUNCH STRAIGHT IN to the answer.
 NO INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH, or
GENERAL CONCLUSION, IS NEEDED.
 DON’T COPY OUT LONG QUOTES - use
ellipsis to shorten them: “the magnificent
views... dramatic property”.
Exemplar Responses
Non-Fiction Texts:
Read the exemplar answers
 “D” Standard Answer
 Top Answer
Paragraph 1
First of all, the massive title reading “Warning” would catch
a potential readers eye then followed by the words “This is
so stupid” which means the reader think it is going to be
humourous. The title also reflects what the article is about
with the warning sign. The use of brackets makes the
writers article very personal, it gives the reader the sense
that the writer is talking directly to them. It almost feels like I
know the writer and we are having a conversation. The use
of short sentences makes the article ‘snappy’ as well as
humourous. Its hard to get a hold on the writers personality
or sense of humour as its hard to tell if he is being really
serious about these signs or just ‘having a laugh’.
Not precise
Examples??
Paragraph 2
The use of humour & hyperbole language (?) really help
engage the reader & really make a ‘fool’ out of the signs.
“As if we’re going to stand by as a one-legged blind man
looks mournfully on a seat”, this hyperbole statements (?)
really makes the signs look stupid. The writer is really trying
to make his point about how stupid he feels the signs are &
it really feels like he is trying to convince the reader as well
about how stupid they are, he is even counting them! I also
feel that the writer has made the article very personal by
writing about a day in his personal life with his wife & son &
he also uses the brackets to convey his thoughts and
feelings & to also show that he may have a wicked and
witty sense of humour.
Examples??
Paragraph 3
As the article goes on I start to feel like I know the writer more Rep.
and more through the brackets and his hyperbole language as
he refers to the signs as threats. The writer doesn’t seem to
realise why these signs are there, to be honest if they weren’t
there; people would trespass, people would die, people would
bump their head, people would forget to pay & people would fall
when the floor is wet. “At lunch we cope with feeding Freddie”, I
find this very humourous as there were no signs to help them to
feed their baby, but they managed. I picture the writer to be a bit
of a ‘drama queen’ as I think he is over reacting over something
very small & he may have a problem with authority. The writer
again uses ‘snappy’ sentences to show his witty sense of
humour when he says “At least I’ll be safe here. If only the
mattress wasn’t flammable.” No matter where he goes he can’t
escape from the signs.
Subjective comment!!
Language: Paragraph 4
Egs?
The writer gives facts by telling us what the signs
state & then gives his opinion on them. I find his
opinions quite funny as I see them as over
dramatic, but its language like this, combined with
the humour that help engage the reader & make
them want to keep reading and you wonder what
he is going to ‘come off with’ next. This is also a
very relative topic as we see these signs in
everyday life, but never pay any ‘heed’ to them but
next time we might pay a bit more attention, so
maybe his article was worth while.
Speculation
 Unit 1: Personal Writing?
 Unit 2: Functional Writing?
Personal writing titles
Write a letter to a friend
explaining why you
would like him or her to
join you in a visit to a
place which you think is
very special.
AQA Paper 1, section B
Imagine that you are
going to do work
experience in a Wildlife
park or another visitor
attraction.
Write a letter to the
personnel manager
introducing yourself and
informing him or her
about what job you
would like to do and
why.
Functional writing
Some people think it is
wrong that primitive
peoples and their
communities are
disrupted by tourists and
TV crews and that they
should be left in peace.
Write an article for a
travel magazine which
argues for or against this
idea.
AQA Paper 1, section B
You are going to write an
article for your school
newspaper persuading
your readers that we
should help homeless
people.
The article should be
about:
 Where there are
homeless people
 Who they are and the
situation they are in
 What we should do
about it.
What to expect
TASK 1
Write a letter/ speech/ magazine article to …
(audience) expressing your opinion on a given
topic.
You may wish to make use of some of the facts
and opinions presented on Page ? if you
consider them to be relevant to your discussion.
Stimulus
Functional Writing
Present a balanced argument
Response:
1. Introduction
2. Arguments for
3. Arguments against
4. Conclusion
Functional Writing
Persuasive Approach:
1. Introduction
2. Present your point of
view/ opinion
3. (Can refute
arguments against
your point of view/
opinion)
4. Conclusion – onesided

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