resource 1 - Somerset Learning Platform

Report
Food Technology
GCSE Revision 2014
Name:
Target
Grade:
Food Technology Examination (2 hours)
Section A
Section B
30%
70%
Theme:
Theme:
Decorated Food Technology
cakes
Topic areas / tests for DTT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Function and properties of food: Starch (flour), sugar,
protein (eggs), fats and oils
Ingredients: Raising Agents
Page in
AQA
book
10 – 17
28,29
Processes &Techniques: enrobing, shaping, forming,
finishing techniques, tenderising
Colloidal Structures (gels, suspensions, foams, emulsions)
18,19
The Eatwell plate, government guidelines, 5-a-day
The Nutrients (Protein, Carbohydrates, Fat, Vitamins,
Minerals, Water, NSP)
Dietary needs & special diets
Environmental considerations (nano, organic, fairtrade, farm
assured, food miles, GM)
20,21
30,31
22
23
92, 93
•
Cake making methods (rubbing in, creaming, melting,
whisked)
32,33
•
•
Pastry making methods (shortcrust, puff, choux)
The function of ingredients(pastry)
38,39
•
Sauce Making Methods, function of ingredients (sauce)
44-47
•
Bread, function of ingredients in bread
50-53
40,41
Topic areas / tests for DTT
Page in AQA
book
•
•
Equipment
Equipment and nutrition
62-65
•
•
•
Food Spoilage
Food Storage & reheating
Food handling
68, 69
•
•
•
Additives
Use and effect of additives
Acids and Alkalis
76, 77
•
80, 81
•
•
•
Food production methods (one off, batch, mass,
continuous flow)
CAD/CAM
Standard components
Quality Control
•
•
•
Labelling
Nutritional labelling & Traffic light labelling
Packaging Materials (including MAP)
86, 87
•
Sensory Testing
66,67
70, 71
72, 73
78, 79
54, 55
82, 83
56, 57
84, 85
24-27
88-91
110-113
2014 GCSE Food Technology Revision - Section A Design question:
How to get full marks (5/ 6 marks) for design ideas –
• recognisable sketch that fits design criteria – explain HOW your design fits
the design criteria (refer to the decorations you have chosen)
•
write the product name,
• draw two DIFFERENT products,
•
label in detail
• add measurements (what size is the product, is it a small decorated cake or a
large decorated cake? Portion sizes etc - could put weight in grams on.
• Explain HOW your product is suitable for providing sensory appeal e.g.
colour, aroma, texture, shape, variety of flavours, finishing techniques.
• Include finishing techniques and use a variety which complement each other
and fulfil what the brief has asked.
1cm Shortbread & Gingernut
Biscuit Base
Fresh Raspberries
Fresh Raspberries
In the filling
Raspberry Fruit Coulis
Raspberry Cheesecake
Rich cream cheese,
sour cream and
sugar filling
1cm thick digestive
biscuit and butter
base
Fresh Raspberries
for garnish
Fresh Raspberry’s on
top for decoration
2014 GCSE Food Technology Revision - Section A Design question:
How to get full marks for the ‘how to make your product in a test kitchen’ question:
Comment on:
•
Personal hygiene – e.g. tie hair up / wash hands / wear apron
•
Kitchen hygiene – e.g. sanitise work surfaces, check equipment is clean
•
Visual checks – check ingredients are in date
•
Temperature – e.g. preheat oven to 210oC (bread products) 180oC (pasta
products)
•
Named process – e.g. slicing, dicing, sieving, rolling, whisking – aeration, grating,
baking etc.
•
Logical sequence – e.g. don’t bake your cake before it is in the tin. Do not
decorate until it has been allowed to cool after cooking
•
Quality control checks e.g. weigh ingredients using calibrated digital scales, check
homemade pasta sheets are correct size & shape, has correct amount of sauce
been added? Is cheese sauce the correct consistency? Is oven correct
temperature? Is cooking time correct? Check product is golden brown.
•
Times – e.g. sauté onions for 4 minutes, cook chicken until ‘sealed’ (5 minutes),
bake for 20 minutes
•
Kitchen safety – e.g. use colour coded chopping boards to avoid cross
contamination (definition: the transfer of bacteria from one surface to another
e.g. cutting raw chicken and then using the same unwashed knife to cut another
product or ingredient). Board colours: red (raw meat), yellow (cooked meat), blue
(fish), green (fruit / veg), brown (veg), white (dairy/bread).
•
Kitchen safety 2 – e.g. wear oven gloves. For example: ‘Place in preheated oven
180oC for 25 minutes. Remember to wear oven gloves.’ Would get you 2 – 3
marks.
•
Knowing your recipe & quantities of ingredients - try to learn FOUR relevant
recipes – basic fresh pasta recipe /pasta dishes / white sauce / tomato sauce etc.
2014 GCSE Food Technology Revision - Section A Design
question:
How to write a design specification. Remember ‘SATSUMAS’:
• Size – e.g. it must be an individual, portion – 12cm x 8 cm.
HOWEVER: If you just copy the design criteria from the question
you will NOT get a mark
• Appearance – Describe the appearance of the decorations
using sensory vocabulary.
• Taste / Texture – cake must be light, fluffy with consistent air
bubbles and display work should be consistent
• Shape – What shape will the product be? How will this shape
be achieved? Tin or cutters or piping?
• Unit cost – e.g. my product must cost no more than £1.50 per
portion
• Use by date – e.g. my product must have a 3 day shelf life as it
contains high risk foods.
• Materials – e.g. my product must be made using seasonal,
locally sourced fruit, free range eggs , seasonal fruit, unsalted
British butter, Fairtrade cocoa, chocolate and sugar etc.
• Age (target group) – e.g. my product must be suitable for… give
an age range, gender and situation – make sure this agrees with
the design brief
• Suitability for manufacture – is this a “one off product” or
could it be batch produced? If it is smaller could it be mass
produced? What are the positives and negatives of each
production type?
• Storage – e.g. it must be stored chilled at 0 - 4 oC
Useful Websites / books:
Website
Information
www.bbcgoodfood.com/content/recipes/specialdiets/
Recipes for special diets
www.fairtrade.org.uk
Information and resources
about fair-trade and
sustainability
www.soilassociation.org/
Organic food information
www.abelandcole.co.uk/
organic food delivery company
www.foodforum.org.uk/ffiles/Be_good_to_yours
elf-Mat+Nut+Inn+Pro+Man+Con+SysKS4+Post.shtml
Food Forum & Useful website
www.sainsburys.co.uk
Recipe ideas and lots of food
information
www.uktv.co.uk/food
Recipes
www.bbc.co.uk/food
https://sites.google.com/site/foodrevision/
Revision, past papers &
controlled assessment advice
www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/design/foo
dtech/
BBC Bitesize food technology
area – tests, activities, videos
www.nutrition.org.uk
Information & resources
www.food.gov.uk
Food standards agency. Food
recall info.
www.nhs.uk/LiveWell/Goodfood/Pages/Goodfood
home.aspx
Food & Diet
www.nhs.uk/conditions/Foodpoisoning/Pages/Introduction.aspx
Food poisoning information
www.vegsoc.org
Vegetarian Society
www.coeliac.org.uk/
Coeliac disease (special diets)
The Book we use regularly in the GCSE: Food Technology course is: AQA Design
and Technology, Food Technology. Nelson Thomas. ISBN – 9781408502723
Sugar
Give 3 examples, description and uses of different
types of sugars below.
Sugar Type
Description
Uses
Sugar is being adapted in recipes because…
The
Functions
of Sugar
Starch
What are the 2 types of Carbohydrates and where are they
found?
How and where is starch obtained from?
Define these key terms and give examples:
Bulking Agent
Thickening
Agent
Gelatinisation
Gelling Agent
Modified
Starch
Protein
Garnish:
Thickening:
Coagulation:
Emulsification:
Enriching:
functions
of eggs
Binding:
Aeration:
Coating:
Glazing:
Fat
Fats are from 3
different sources:
Types of Fat
1.
2.
3.
Saturated
Unsaturated
Found in…
Description:
Remember! Saturated fat contains more cholesterol, which has been
linked to an increased risk of heart disease. They should therefore
be used more sparingly in cooking.
The Functions of Fat
Function
Description
Fat coats the flour particles, preventing the flour
absorbing the water. Preventing the water absorption
stops the gluten developing. If the gluten cannot develop
the mixture is shortened giving a crumbly, melt in the
mouth texture.
Extend
shelf-life
Required to add air into food. Eg. When fat is creamed
with sugar to helps traps air
Colour and
“shine”
Adds distinct flavour and odours to food. Eg. Biscuits
Emulsion
Raising Agents
How are raising agents added into food products?
Mechanical:
Chemical:
Biological:
In the table give examples how air, steam and carbon
dioxide act as raising agents:
Air
Steam
Carbon Dioxide
The Eatwell Plate
Explain what the Eatwell plate is and why is helps
towards a balanced diet.
Fill in the Eatwell plate with the name, nutrients and
food examples:
What are the 3 guidelines for a healthy diet?
1.
2.
3.
Function of Nutrients
Nutrient
Function in the body
Carbohydrate
(Starch &
sugar)
Fat
Protein
Minerals
Iron
Calcium
Vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin B
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Important Non-nutrients
Water
NSP
Non-starch
Polysaccharides
Food source
Different / Special dietary needs
Some people have to follow a special diet because…
1. They may need to lose weight
2. They have an illness that needs to be controlled, by what
they eat.
3. Certain foods make them ill, so they have to avoid eating
them
Special
Diet
Calorie
Controlled
Lactose
Intolerant
Coeliac
disease
Diabetes
Nut
Allergies
Vegetarian
An explanation of diet and changes which need to
be made when following the diet
Nutritional Labelling
Dietary
Reference
Values
(DRVs)
Traffic light
labelling.
Nutritional
Panel
Guideline
Daily amount
(GDAs)
**Page 24-27 AQA Food tech book**
Processes & Techniques
Give a brief explanation and an example of the key processes
and techniques. Pg 18.
•
Tenderising is….
•
Shaping and forming is….
•
Enrobing is…..
•
A Finishing Technique is….
Food Structures – Page 30/31
Define what a colloidal structure is….
Colloidal
Part
Structure
Emulsion
Part
Example
Mayonnaise
Foam
Solid Foam
Gel
Suspension
Meringue
Liquid eg water
White sauce
Sauce Making
What is the basic 4 components (ingredients) of a sauce:
1…………………………………………. 3. ………………………………………….
2. ……………………………………… 4. ………………………………………….
Type of
Sauce
Starch
Based
Fruit or
vegetable
Egg-based
Oil/water
emulsions
Cream
How is it made? Give examples of each type
of sauce.
Acids & Alkalis
Define and give food examples of the following:
Acid (pH ____ )Alkali (pH ____ )Neutral (pH ____ )Uses of Acids—Give an example of each of the use of the
following type of acid:
•
Citric Acid-
•
Acetic Acid (vinegar)-
•
Ascorbic Acid-
Uses of Alkalis‘ - What aids the main use of an alkali in food
production?
•
Bicarbonate of soda -
Curdling is….
Enzymic
browning is..
Standard Components
A standard component is…
3 examples of standard components that might be
used and what they are in…
5 examples of advantages of using standard
components are…





5 disadvantages of using standard components
are….





Types of Equipment
What 3 reasons would I use electrical equipment in the
kitchen?
What 10 processes can be carried out using electrical
equipment?
1
6
2
7
3
8
4
9
5
10
What are 6 steps to ensure you use equipment safely
and effectively?
1.
4.
2.
5.
3.
6.
What electrical equipment would you use for the
following?
Liquidising soup 
Rubbing-in shortcrust pastry 
Slicing peppers for a stir fry 
Whisking meringues for Pavlova 
Uses of Equipment
What task does each of the following equipment perform?
Food
Processor
Tunnel Ovens
Depositor
Mandolin
Floor Standing
Mixer
Enrober
How to ensure a consistent product every time
1.Plan the production plan out using CAD and program
into CAM to ensure general quality control.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Food Spoilage
What 4 conditions do Bacteria like to grow in? (Give
examples and explanations)
T__________
F___
T___
M_______
How do we stop bacteria growing in food?
T
F
T
M
Temperature
-18C
0-5C
5-63C
37C
72C
What is happening to bacteria?
Food Hygiene (Pg 68/69)
How does food poisoning happen?
Define what Pathogenic bacteria is.
What are the 3 most common types of food
poisoning and which foods carry them?
1. S
2. C
3. S
How does preservation ensure a longer shelf life?
If we change the condition that food is in it can help to
remove it:
Removal of L…………….. : Drying, dehydration
Alteration of T……………………………. : Freezing, chilling
Removal of A…………………. : Modified atmosphere packaging
Adding a P……………………………..: Jamming, Pickling, Salting
Food Storage
Temperature of Domestic Freezer :
Temperature of Commercial Freezer :
When food is frozen bacteria……
Temperature of Fridge:
When food is chilled bacteria….
What is cryogenic freezing?
What 4 essential rules need to be followed when
reheating food?
1……………………………………………………………………………………
2…………………………………………………………………………………..
3…………………………………………………………………………………..
4………………………………………………………………………………….
How do you use a temperature food probe?
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
Step 4:
Food handling & Personal Hygiene
List 7 things food handlers have to do to make
sure their hygienic and safe in the kitchen.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Explain what cross-contamination is and when it
could occur….
Red chopping board is for…………………………………………
Green chopping board is for…………………………………….
Yellow chopping board is for…………………………………….
Blue chopping board is for…………………………………………
White chopping board is for……………………………………..
Additives
What is a food additive and what types are available?
What are the 4 main roles of additives?
1
2
3
4
Complete the table of additives, functions & food examples:
Additive
Function
Food Example
Preservatives
Colourings
Flavourings
Emulsifiers
Stabilisers
Anti-oxidants
Nutritional
enhancers
Thickeners &
Gelling agents
What are the issues in the media surrounding E numbers?
Food Production
Define the following key terms:
Scaling up …………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Commercially viable ……………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
Describe the following production methods:
Production
Type
One-off
Production
Description
Positive/Negative


Batch
Production


Mass
Production


Continuous
Flow
Production


CAD / CAM
C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A _ _ _ _ D _ _ _ _ _
C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A _ _ _ _ M _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
What are some of the advantages of using CAD/CAM
in food production?



Task: Describe what CAD / CAM are and name 3 things
they are used for in food production.
Description
3 things it is used for
in food production
(Designing)
CAD
1.
2.
3.
(Making)
CAM
1.
2.
3.
Computer Control
Give 7 examples of how computer control and
monitoring used in food processing.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Give 4 examples of how computers monitor food
safely.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Quality Control
Describe what Quality Control is and how it can be
carried out:
What can be monitored by computer sensors?
What is a sensory evaluation?
Define what Tolerance means….
Packaging & Labelling
Why do we package & label
food?
Reason
Explanation
P
P
P
P
List 10 Things that must be displayed on a food product
label (according to EU Law):
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Packaging Materials
Task: Give 2 advantages and 1 disadvantage for each
material for food packaging:
 Advantage
 Disadvantage
Metal
Paperboard/ Plastic
Card
Glass
Material
Give food packaging examples of each type of material:
Glass
Plastic
Paperboard/ Metal
card
Environmental Considerations
How can manufacturers be more environmentally
friendly with their packaging?
1…………………………………………………………………………………………..
2 ………………………………………………………………………………………….
3 ………………………………………………………………………………………….
4 ………………………………………………………………………………………….
5 ………………………………………………………………………………………….
Define the following key terms:
Genetically Modified
Nanofoods
Organic Food
Fairtrade
Farm assured
Food miles
Key words/Terms
Additives - Substances added to food in small amounts to perform a
function such as to preserve, colour or flavour a product.
Aesthetics - The appreciation of good taste or good design. The
product appeals to your senses. “It looks appealing, I want to eat it!”
Ambient temperature - Normal room temperature. 20 - 25°C
Antibacterial - Working against or prohibiting the growth of
bacteria.
Bacteria - Small microscopic organisms found all about us. They
multiply by splitting in two every 20 mins. (Binary fission)
Batch production - Producing a small quantity of identical products.
For GCSE assume 50.
Blast chill - To cool food quickly by blasting it with cold air.
Blast freezing - Quickly freezing that makes small ice crystals
which do less damage to the food than slow freezing.
Brand - A particular make of product usually with a well known name
e.g. Heinz baked beans.
C.A.D. - Computer-aided design e.g. programs used for designing
packaging.
C.A.M.- Computer-aided manufacture. e.g. using a computer to help
control baking temperatures.
Component - A ready prepared part of something. e.g. a ready made
pizza base.
Consumer - A person who buys or uses products and services.
Continuous-flow production - Continuous processing 24/7.
Expensive to set up, cheap to run. Fewer people employed; usually
computer controlled.
Cook-chill - Food that has been cooked, fast chilled and then
stored at low temperatures.
Cook-freeze - Food that has been cooked, fast frozen and then
stored below freezing point.
Cross contamination - The transfer of harmful bacteria from one
area to another.
Danger zone - The temperature range in which bacteria thrive (4 60°c).
Diet - The food and drink that we eat.
Dietary Reference Values DRV’s - DRV’s show the amount of
food energy or other nutrients needed by people of different
ages.
Due diligence - In food preparation this means that the
company has set up systems to help avoid contamination of
food products.
E numbers - The number given to an additive to show that it
has been approved by the EU.
Environmental Health Officer EHO - The enforcement
officer at local government level who covers public health such
as the hygiene of food premises and food safety.
Flow diagram - Step by step chart or plan of a system or
production process.
H.A.C.C.P. - Hazard analysis and critical control point.
Hazard - Anything that can cause harm to the consumer.
High risk area - The section in the food preparation area where
food is most likely to be contaminated by bacteria.
High risk foods - Those most likely to encourage bacterial
growth. e.g. cooked meat, cooked poultry, fish, dairy foods.
Image/Mood board - A display of pictures and drawings to give
ideas about a target group or a range of products.
Just in time - Some factories & fast food outlets order stock
just in time to manufacture the product. They do not have room to
store it days/weeks in advance.
Key words / Design Criteria - Important words that may relate
to the design brief.
Logo - The symbol of a company used on products.
Low risk area - Section in the food preparation area where food
is less likely to be contaminated by bacteria.
M.A.P. - Modified atmosphere packaging. Removing the air and
flushing the packet with a gas.
Marketable product - One that appeals to people and will sell
when it reaches the shops; to succeed, all products must be
marketable.
Modelling - To experiment with an idea without actually cooking it.
You can model the nutritional value of a food product by using
FOODPC6.
One-off production - One product is made, usually to order. It is
unique. It can be expensive.
Organoleptic Testing - A posh term for sensory analysis. Using
your sensory organs to test a product. In simple language, taste
testing!
Portion - A portion for one is the amount of food that satisfies
the need for one person.
Product specification - The exact details needed to make the
product.
Prototype - A sample product to be used for trialling and market
research.
Quality assurance - A system that is set up before a product is
made and which lays down procedures for making a safe, quality
product.
Quality control - The steps in the process of making a product to
make sure that it meets the standards; faulty products are
removed.
Repetitive-flow production - Assembly line production of a
product, often using a conveyor belt. Used for producing large
numbers.
Standard Component - A component pre-prepared that can be
used when producing a new product. Eg. a standard component may
be shop bought mayonnaise, tomato sauces for pasta, pizza
bases
Sensory descriptors - Words that describe taste, smell, texture
and flavour.
Shelf life - How long a food product can be kept, making sure it is
safe to eat and good quality.
Target Market / group - The person or group of people that the
product is aimed at. e.g. teenagers, families.
Tolerance level - The amount and flexibility allowed when making
a product – in terms of weight, colour, size – so that it meets
quality standards.
Traceability - Tracing a fault back to the point at which it
occurred in order to remedy the fault and avoid it happening again.

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