Rice improvement project progress

Report
RICE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT
PROGRESS
BY
HUNJA MURAGE
JKUAT
Objectives
 Main goal is to Improve food security in Kenya through improving rice production
 Specific objectives;
1. Documentation of the constraints and obstacles to achieving maximum rice
productivity in Kenya and the expected intervention measures.
2. Increasing the productivity of basmati rice through breeding for increased grain
number, resistance to lodging by dwarfing and resistance to blast through
phenotypic and later genotypic selection (Targets: HB23/Basmati hybrids;
Upland rice hybrids)
3. Increasing the productivity of basmati rice through rice blast suppression using
epiphytes, rhizobacteria and actinomycetes as biotic agents and using endophytes
as growth promoters.
4. Food quality and agricultural products value addition through utilization rice
bran, broken rice in of rice straw and rice husks.
5. Reducing post harvest losses through improved threshing
6. Increasing water use efficiency in rice production through increased adoption of
technologies such as SRI, subsurface drip irrigation, and AWD
7. Reconstruction of rice gene bank at Mwea to conserve the Kenyan's rice
germplasm
8. To determine the Nitrogen dynamics of Kenya rice soils for optimum rice
production
9. Assessment of the impact of the introduced intervention measures on rice
production within regions under study
Outputs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Information has been obtained on the obstacles facing Kenyan rice farmers in the rice
value chain. Some of this information has been availed to other researchers through
presentations.
Basmati is the most popular aromatic variety in Kenya but has a very low productivity of
2.8 tons/ha compared to other aromatic varieties at 5.5 tons/ha. By selection of the HB23x
basmati crosses, new Basmati Hybrid improved lines with over 3000 filled grains/plant and
over 40tillers/plant at F4 generation have been developed compared to 1100 filled grains
/plant and less than 25 tillers/plant for basmati.
Improved Basmati lines resistant to lodging have been developed.
Improved LIA lines that require no fertilizer inputs for normal growth and yields have been
developed and are in the F9 generation.
Biotic isolates active against the blast pathogen and those with bio-fertilizer ability have
been obtained and their field performance is on course.
Senbakoki which farmers in Mwea have agreed to adopt.
The farmers have reported a reduction in breakage of rice seeds during.
The rice gene bank has been reconstructed and rice germplasm collection done. This is
expected to offer a wide gene pool for breeding purposes. The rice breeders will use
conserved germplasm for rice improvement. Erosion of the local rice gene pool will be
stopped because there will be backed up germplasm in the gene bank.
Ways of utilizing husks as energy source has been developed. The rice husk stove, the
briquetting machine and the carbonizing kilns will go a long way in revolutionizing the
energy requirements in the rice growing regions.
The value added products from broken rice will serve as alternative income and food
source for farmers and consumers.
RESULTS / OUTPUTS
1.Documentation of the constraints and obstacles to achieving
maximum rice productivity in Kenya
• A Social Survey was conducted from June to September 2011 in the rice growing
areas.
• In Mwea Irrigation Scheme 302 farmer respondents were interviewed. The
following are some of the findings;
• The average land holding is 2.83 acre per household, ranging from 0 to 15.25
acres.
No
2%
Yes
98%
Source of rice seeds
Farmers awareness of rice blast
disease
Impact of rice blast
Have never
been
affected
24%
Type of blast
2%
6%
40%
Affected
76%
52%
Farmers that have been affected by
the rice blast disease
Perception on rice blast disease susceptibility in various rice varieties
Panicle
Leaf
Neck
Stem
Rice blast disease mapping
Geographical distribution of rice blast disease in Mwea region
2. Increasing the productivity of basmati rice through breeding for increased grain number,
resistance to lodging by dwarfing and resistance to blast through phenotypic and later
genotypic selection (HB23*Basmati hybrids and LIA)
x
Habataki parent
Tillers No. 50
Culm.L 93
Panicle.L. 23
Filled Grains 3395
Panicle No. 49
x
Tillers No. 18
Culm.L 97
Panicle.L. 21
Filled Grains 1194
Panicle No. 14
Basmati370 parent
Hybrids from the
crosses
Tillers No. 72
Culm.L 93
Panicle.L. 26
Filled Grains 3692
Panicle No. 71
T- 65 Parent
O. Longistaminata
parent
Tillers 26.4
Culm .L 71.7
P. L 23.8
LIA LINE UNDER EVALUATION
Agronomic characteristics of the HB23x Basmati hybrid selection during the F3 generation
SNO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
RICE LINE TILLER NO.
Line 1
50
Line 2
72
Line 3
40
Line 4
50
Line 5
30
Line 6
56
Line 7
35
Line 8
29
Line 9
37
B370
18
PLANT
HEIGHT
93
93
90
86
93
96
94
118
95
97
PANICLE
LENGTH
23
26
27
27
25
26
29
28
22
21
PANICLE
NUMBER
49
71
39
40
28
56
34
29
37
14
FILLED
GRAINS
3395
3692
3432
3667
3732
4867
3978
3430
3520
1194
EMPTY
TOTAL GRAINS/PA
GRAINS GRAIN NO. NICLE
1776
5171
106
3559
7251
102
1820
5252
135
1994
5661
142
1643
5375
192
1571
6438
115
2702
6680
196
805
4235
146
904
4424
120
143
1337
96
Agronomic traits of the LIA selection during the F6 generation
SNO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
CROSS ID
Selection 1
selection 2
Selection 3
Selection 4
Selection 5
Selection 6
Selection 7
Selection 8
NO OF TILLERS
Tillers 26.4
25.4
23.1
20.5
16.2
18.5
16.0
18.8
CULM LENGTH
64.4
59.4
56.0
59.1
54.4
71.7
68.2
66.8
PANICLE LENGTH
21.3
19.8
19.3
18.2
17.4
23.8
22.6
22.2
Evaluation of HB23 x Basmati F3 hybrid selections at Mwea
Evaluation of LIA F5 selections at JKUAT rice experimental field
3. Screening Epiphytes, Rhizobacteria and Actinomycete as biotic agents
for rice blast suppression and as growth promoters
Screening the bacterial and fungal isolates for bio-fertilizer activities
+
Phosphate Solubilization test
-
+
IAA production test
Screening the Actinomycete isolates for antifungal activity against rice blast
M.grisea
Growth Inhibition Zone
Actinomycetes
Isolate 5
Isolate 4
4. Food quality and agricultural products value addition through utilization of rice straw and
rice husks for energy and broken rice for value added products
Kilns for
Carbonized rice husks
Compression
carbonizing
Rice husks
briquetting
machine
Rice husks gasifier
stove
Briquettes
Broken rice
Fabricated briquetting
machine
Rice flour
Rice flour
mixed breads
Garlic
flavoured
Briquettes
Rice
noodles
Rice
crackers
Rice flour
filled sausages
5:Reducing post harvest losses through improved threshing
Units of Senbakoki fabricated in JKUAT and disseminated to Mwea for evaluation
Farmers in Mwea using the Senbakoki thresher during rice harvesting
6. Increasing water use efficiency in rice production through increased adoption of
technologies such as SRI, subsurface drip irrigation, and AWD
SRI and AWD
The reconstruction of the old rice gene bank at Mwea
The structure which was being used as a rice
gene bank at Mwea
The reconstructed rice gene bank at Mwea
The condition inside the old rice gene bank at Mwea
Evaluation of the purity of the local rice varieties in the field and under
greenhouse conditions at JKUAT
Collected local varieties
Local varieties in greenhouse
at vegetative stage
Planting in the field
Local varieties in the field
Phenotypic characterization of Local
at flowering stage
rice varieties at the JKUAT rice
experimental field
8.To determine the Nitrogen dynamics of Kenya rice
soils for optimum rice production
Determining nutrient losses through leaching and vaporization
Determining nutrient losses
Leachate collection tubes
through leaching
Rice plants ready for harvesting
Field preparation for evaluation of Nitrogen dynamics of Kenya
Percolation measurement- drain pipe for collection of leachate and
lysimeter for percolation measurement
Acknowledgement
We appreciate the National council for Science and
Technology (NCST) for providing financial support to
this project and Jomo Kenyatta University (JKUAT)
for providing space on which to carry out the project
THANK
YOU
END

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