A Preschool Teacher`s Guide to Speech and Language Development

Report
A Preschool Teacher’s Guide to
Speech and Language
Intervention
Presented by: Sarah Tidmore, M.S. CCC-SLP
What is Speech Language Pathology:
A health profession that evaluates,
diagnoses, and treats speech, language,
cognitive-communication, and swallowing
disorders.
Language VS. Speech
 Language is made up of socially shared rules that
include:
 What words mean
 How to make new words
 How to put words together
 What word combinations are best in what situations
 Speech: The actual act of producing the sounds
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/language_speech.htm
Language is made up of socially shared
rules
3 Subtypes of Language:
 Receptive Language- How the child
understands and processes what is being said
to them.
 Expressive Language- How the child shares
thoughts, ideas, and feelings using speech.
 Pragmatics- The social and emotional use of
language
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/language_speech.htm
Speech: The actual act of producing the
sounds
Components of Speech include:
 Articulation: the movement of the lip, tongue, and jaw to produce the
sounds of speech
 Intelligibility: The percentage that you are able to understand what the
child is saying
 Dysfluency (Stuttering): The many forms of interruptions in the production
of speech that prevent easy, effortless, and smooth flow of speech.
 Voice: The use of vocal folds and breathing to create sounds
 Oral Motor: How the child uses oral strength and coordination to produce
adequate articulatory precision, and swallow safely and efficiently.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/language_speech.htm
Speech and Language Milestones
Adapted from the American SpeechLanguage - Hearing Association’s
How Does Your Child Hear and Talk?
(http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm)
Birth to 3 months
Receptive Language:
Expressive Language:
 Startles at loud sounds
 Makes pleasure sounds (cooing
and gooing)
 Quiets or smiles when spoken to
 Seems to recognize familiar
voices and quiets if crying
 Cries differently for different needs
 Smile when he/she sees you
 Increases or decreases sucking
behavior in response to sound
 Shared attention with another
person
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
4-6 months:
Receptive Language
Expressive Language
 Moves eyes in direction of sounds
 Babbling sounds more speech-like
with many different sounds
including /p/,/b/,/m/
 Responds to changes in tone of
your voice
 Notices toys that make sounds
 Chuckles and laughs
 Pays attention to music
 Vocalizes excitement and
displeasure
 Emerging two-way engagement
(peek-a-boo)
 Makes gurgling sounds when left
alone and when playing with you
 Responds to name
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
7 months to 1 year:
Receptive Language
Expressive Language
 Enjoys games like pat-a-cake
 Babbling both long and short
groups of sounds ex: "tata upup
bibibibi“
 Turns and looks in direction of
sounds
 Listens when spoken to
 Uses speech/non-crying sounds to
get/keep attention
 Recognizes words for common
items like "cup", "shoe", "book", or
"juice“
 Uses gestures to communicate
(waving, holding arms to be
picked up)
 Begins to respond to requests
(e.g. "Come here" or "Want
more?")
 Imitates different speech sounds
 Has one or two words (hi, dog,
mama) around first birthday.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
What can I do to help? Birth to 1 year
 Check the child's ability to hear. Pay attention to ear problems and
reoccurring infections.
 Reinforce the baby's communication by making meaningful eye
contact, and imitating vocalizations.
 Repeat/Imitate laughter and facial expressions.
 Teach the baby to imitate actions, such as peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake,
or waving bye-bye.
 Talk while you are doing things ex: dressing or feeding
 Talk about where you are going, what you are doing, and who or
what you'll see.
 Talk about colors, practice counting, teach animal sounds
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
1 to 2 Years
Receptive Language:
Expressive Language:
 Points to a few body parts when
asked.
 Says more words every month.
 Follows simple commands and
understands simple questions
("Roll the ball," "Kiss the baby,"
"Where's your shoe?").
 Listens to simple stories, songs,
and rhymes.
 Points to pictures in a book when
named.
 Uses some one- or two- word
questions ("Where kitty?" "Go byebye?" "What's that?").
 Puts two words together ("more
cookie," "no juice," "mommy
book").
 Uses many different consonant
sounds at the beginning of words.
 At 19-24 months should be 2550% intelligible
 Participates in back and forth two
way engagement and
communication.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
What can I do to help? 1-2 years
 Talk while doing things/going places. Point to familiar objects and
say their names.
 Use simple but grammatical speech that is easy for the child to
imitate. Ex: More cookie
 Remember OWL:
 Observe what the child is interested in
 Wait 10-15 seconds for the child to initiate
 Listen to what the child has to say
 Expand on words.
 Read to the child everyday, talking about the pictures on each page
 Have the child point to and/or name pictures and objects.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
2-3 Years
Receptive Language:
 Understands opposites ("gostop)
 Follows two requests ("Get the
book and put it on the table").
 Listens to and enjoys hearing
stories for longer periods of
time
Expressive Language:
 Has a word for almost everything.
 Uses two- or three- words to talk
about and ask for things.
 Uses /k/, /g/, /f/, /t/, /d/, and /n/
sounds.
 Speech is understood by familiar
listeners most of the time.
 Asks for/directs attention to
objects by naming them.
 Speech is 50-75% intelligible
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
What can I do to help? 2-3 years
 Use clear, simple speech that is easy to imitate.
 Show interest, repeat what the child has said and expand on it.
 Ask the child to repeat things that you do not understand and model
correct production.
 Expand on the child's vocabulary by reading books with simple
sentences.
 Name objects and describe the pictures in books, stating synonyms for
familiar words.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
What can I do to help? 2-3 years (cont.)
 Make a scrapbook to practice naming pictures, use gestures and
speech to teach object function.
 Look at family photos and name the people. Write simple
phrases/sentences to describe what is happening in the pictures.
 Ask the child questions that require a choice, rather than simply a
"yes" or "no" answer. Ex: Do you want milk or juice?
 Continue to sing songs, play finger games to introduce the child to
the rhythm and sounds of language.
 Help the child group objects into categories.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
3-4 years
Receptive Language:
Expressive Language:
 Hears you when you call from
another room.
 Talks about activities at school or
at friends' homes.
 Hears television or radio at the
same loudness level as other
family members.
 Unfamiliar listeners understand
child's speech.
 Answers simple "who?", "what?",
"where?", and "why?" questions.
 Uses sentences with 4 or more
words often.
 Talks easily without repeating
syllables or words.
 Masters 50% of consonant and
blends
 Speech is 80% intelligible
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
What can I do to help? 3-4 years
 Make silly pictures and help the child explain what is silly about the
picture.
 Sort pictures and items into categories, increase the challenge by
asking the child to point out what is different
 Expand vocabulary and the length of the child's utterances by:
reading, singing, saying rhymes, talking about the surrounding
environment
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
What can I do to help? 3-4 years (cont.)
 Read books that have a simple plot, talk about and reenact the story
with the child.
 Look at family pictures; have the child explain what is happening.
 Take turns asking questions about each picture.
 Expand on social communication and storytelling skills by "acting
out" everyday activities.
 Ask the child to repeat what they said if you do not understand.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
4-5 years
Receptive Language:
Expressive Language:
 Pays attention to a short story and
answers simple questions about
them.
 Uses sentences that give details
("The biggest peach is mine").
 Hears and understands most of
what is said at home and in
school.
 Tells stories that stay on topic.
 Communicates easily with other
children and adults.
 Says most sounds correctly
except a few /l/, /s/, /r/, /v/, /z/,
/ch/, /sh/, /th/.
 Says rhyming words.
 Names some letters and numbers.
 Uses the same grammar as the
rest of the family.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
What can I do to help? 4-5 years
 Talk about spatial relationships (ex: in, on) and opposites
 Offer a description or clues and have the child identify what you are
describing.
 Work on forming and explaining categories (Ex: sorting pictures of animals,
foods, etc.)
 Follow the child's directions as she or he explains how to do something.
 Give full attention and praise to the child when he or she is speaking.
 Build on the child' s vocabulary, provide definitions and use new words in
context.
 Encourage the child to ask for an explanation if he or she does not
understand what a word means.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
What can I do to help? 4-5 years (cont.)
 Expand on the child' s language skills by taking turns, ex: playing "I
Spy“
 Give the child two-step directions
 Encourage the child to explain how they have done something.
 Draw a picture, and write down the child's story. The child will
soon grasp the power of storytelling and written language.
 Play age-appropriate board games with the child.
 Have the child help you plan and discuss daily activities, asking for
their opinion.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
What can I do to help? 4-5 years (cont.)
 Play games incorporating things that are the same or different.
 Sort items into categories, having the child point out more subtle
differences between objects.
 Expand on social communication and narration skills (telling a story)
by role-playing.
 Read and act out stories with easy-to-follow plots.
 Help the child predict what will happen next.
 Ask "wh" questions
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm
Stuttering
Adapted from Zebrowski, Patricia M.,
Ellen M. Kelly. Manual of Stuttering
Intervention. Clifton Park: Singular
Publishing Group, 2002.
Zebrowski & Kelly, 2002
Normal Disfluencies
 Types of Stuttering
 Phrase Repetitions (I love..I love school)
 Interjections (I , um, love school)
 Word Repetitions (I..I love school)
 During their preschool years children are rapidly acquiring language
and speech sounds.
 A child acquires receptive concepts before expressive concepts
often leading to the child knowing what they want, but not how to
express it.
 Many children will begin to display characteristics of disfluencies, as
the child's speech and language improve, the child's disfluencies
improve.
Zebrowski & Kelly, 2002
Disordered Dysfluencies
 Types of stuttering
 Part Word Repetitions (W.W.Wow, I love school)
 Prolongations (WWWWow, I love school)
 Blocks ({ silent pause}...I love school)
 Frequency: More than 10% of the conversation consists of
dysfluencies
 Duration: Stuttering events last longer that 1 second
 There are secondary characteristics with stuttering instances:
 Eye blinks
 Facial tension
 Labored or heavy breathing
 You must look to see if it's frequent or inconsistent and if there is
noticeable struggle when speaking
Zebrowski & Kelly, 2002
Bibliography
 Guitar,Barry Ph.D., University of Vermont, Edward G. Conture, Ph.D., Vanderbilt
University. “7 Tips for Talking with Your Child.” The Stuttering Foundation. April
2008. Stuttering Foundation of America.
http://www.stutteringhelp.org/Default.aspx?tabid=632
 “How Does Your Child Hear and Talk?” American Speech-Language-Hearing
Association. 02 June 2010.
<http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm>
 Shipley, Kenneth G., Julie G. McAfee. Assessment in Speech-Language Pathology:
A Resource Manual Second Edition. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, 1998.
 Templeton, 1957; Wellman et al., 1931, in Sanders- Journal of Speech and Hearing
Disorders, 1973.
 “What is Language? What is Speech?” American Speech-Language-Hearing
Association. 02 June 2010.
http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/language_speech.htm)
 Zebrowski, Patricia M., Ellen M. Kelly. Manual of Stuttering Intervention. Clifton Park:
Singular Publishing Group, 2002.

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