PPT

Report
FISHERIES & ECOSYSTEM
SUSTAINABILITY: OVERFISHED &
OVERWHELMED?
Denzil Miller
CCAMLR
SECRETARIAT
A LITTLE HISTORY
THE TERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE
REALPOLITIK – TRAGEDY OF COMMONS
© FAO
“AN OLD SPECTRE HAUNTS FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
TODAY GOVERNANCE WITHOUT GOVERNMENT”
(O.S. STOKKE 1999)
ANNUAL REGIONAL FISH CATCHES
ANNUAL CATCH PER CAPITA
(KG)
© UNEP
ANNUAL CATCHES
(M TONNES)
© UNEP
GLOBAL STATUS OF EXPLOITED FISH STOCKS
© University of Michigan
Note Decrease
Note Increase
© UNEP
© CFAS
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
NEED TO OPERATIONALISE EAF
“Development That Meets The Needs Of The
Present Without Compromising The Ability of
Future Generations to Meet Their Own Needs”
World Commission on Environment and Development
(Brundtland Report)
1982 UN Law of the Sea Convention (LOSC)
1982 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR)
*1992 Conference on Environment & Development (UNCED)(“Rio”)
*1992 UNCED Agenda 21
1992 Convention on Biodiversity (CBD)
1993 Compliance Agreement
1995 Fish Stock Agreement (UNFSA)
*1995 FAO Code of Conduct (CCRF)
*2001Reykjavik Declaration
*2002 Earth Summit
*FAO Technical Guidelines [4.(2)]
* “Soft” Law
THE BALANCE OF SUSTAINABILITY EQUIVALENTS
NEGATIVE EFFECTS
UNCERTAINY ≈ INCREASED RISK ≈ INCREASED PRECAUTION
POSITIVE MANAGEMENT ACTION &
EFFECTS
MANAGE HUMAN
EXPECTATION
© FAO
© Acclaim
© FAO
MANAGE ECOSYSTEM EFFECTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES
BY-CATCH
ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION
© Commonwealth
© AIMS
© USGO
EAF PRACTICALITIES
MERGE TWO PARADIGMS
Ecosystem Management
Fisheries Management
(Ecosystem Well-Being)
(Human Well-Being)
OPERATIONAL MECHANISMS
THE INTERNATIONAL RFMO CHOICE
BETWEEN THE DEVIL & THE DEEP BLUE SEA
Fish Until Stocks Become Self-Regulating
(i.e. Fishing No Longer Sustainable)
OR
Improve Current, & Develop New, Initiatives to
Manage Fishing
EAF SCOPING
Geographic Area
Stakeholders
Align with Ecological Boundaries
Fisheries
Questions Being Asked
Non-Fisheries (NGOs)
(LME – Existing Fisheries)
Major Issues
Principles & Policy
EAF MANGEMENT NEEDS
FISHING PART OF A LARGER SYSTEM
Fishing
Ecosystem
Various Fishing
Methods
Interacting System of
Plants & Animals
Includes Humans &
Abiotic Environment
Fishing (Direct) Impacts on Ecosystem
IMAF/By-Catch
Ecosystem (Indirect) Impacts on Fishing
Climate Change
EAF MANAGEMENT TOOLS
CONVENTIONAL FISHERIES MEASURES
PROTECTION
Effort
Capacity
Gear
Catch
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT
By-Catch Regulation
IMAF Regulation
Protected/Closed Areas
GEAR TECHNOLOGY
Selective Gear
Friendly Gear
OPERATIONALISATION - THE CCAMLR EXAMPLE
Conservation Includes Rational Use
Conservation Principles in Management
Target Species
(Catch, Effort, Area, Trade Monitoring & Control)
Maintain Ecological Relationships Dependent & Related Species
(Monitoring [CEMP], By-Catch, IMAF)
Minimize Risks of Change Not Reversible in 20-30yrs
(Precautionary Limits, N&E Fisheries, Rebuilding Stocks )
Account for Harvesting Effects
(IMAF/Area Closures/SSRUs)
Environmental Change Effects
(CEMP. SSMUs)
CCAMLR ECOSYSTEM MONITORING PROGRAMME
(CEMP)
Operational Objectives
Monitor Harvested/Other Species Changes to Improve Understanding
Monitor Selected Environmental/Species Indicators
Monitor Appropriate Time/Space Scales
Develop Management Approaches
Promote Flexibility & Pro-Action
Develop Management Decision Rules
Determine Performance & Reference Points
CCAMLR EAF ELEMENTS
DESIGN
Goal Setting
Scheme Overview
MULTI-PERIOD
REVIEW
DATA COLLECTION
ENVIRONMENT
Standardised Collection & Storage
HARVESTING
(Impact)
DATA INTERPRETATION
Standardized Analysis
Advice Dveloipment
DECISION RULES
© FAO
MANAGEMENT
Implementation
RESEARCH
MODELING
ROLE OF RESEARCH
DEVELOP / APPLY / EVALUATE
ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE &
FUNCTION
MANAGEMENT MEASURES
MPAs
MANAGEMENT PROCESS
Participatory Process
New Assessment Methods
ECONOMIC/SOCIAL ASSESSMENT
Integrated Modeling (OECD)
MODEL SYSTEM
MESSAGE
1. EAF NOT NEW !!
2. PRINCIPLES OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES UNEVEN
3. REQUIRES CONSISTENT INDICATORS/REFERENCE
POINTS/DECISION RULES
4. FULL STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION DESIRABLE
5. CONSIDER EXISTING & NEW MEASURES
6. REVIEW LEGISLATION (NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL)
7. POLITICAL & SCIENTIFIC SOLUTIONS REQUIRED
© WWF
POLITICALLY ASTUTE EAF
Sustainable Use of Marine Resources & Areas
Effective Institutions
International Engagement/Alliances of Relevant & “LikeMinded” Institutions
Relevant Information Exchange Between Such Institutions
Co-Ordinated Actions in Relevant Fora
Strong & Tested International Law (ITLOS) viz RFMOs
Effective MCS & On-Water Enforcement
Responsible Fishing With Institutional
Co-Operation & Standardisation
THE END

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