International conservation related conventions

Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005
Largest assessment of the health of Earth’s ecosystems
Experts and Review Process
– Prepared by 1360 experts from 95 countries
– Includes information from 33 sub-global
– Called for by UN Secretary General in 2000
– Authorized by governments through 4
– Partnership of UN agencies, conventions,
business, non-governmental organizations
Finding 1
– Over the past 50 years, humans have changed
ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in
any comparable period of time in human history
– This has resulted in a substantial and largely
irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth
More land was converted to cropland in the 30 years
after 1950 than in the 150 years between 1700 and 1850
20% of the world’s coral reefs were lost and 20%
degraded in the last several decades
35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last decades
Finding 2
– The changes that have been made to
ecosystems have contributed to substantial
net gains in human well-being and
economic development
- Since 1960, while population doubled and economic
activity increased 6-fold, food production increased 2 ½
times, food price has declined, water use doubled, wood
harvest for pulp tripled, hydropower doubled.
– But these gains have been achieved at
growing costs that, unless addressed, will
substantially diminish the benefits that
future generations obtain from
Findings cont.
– Approximately 60% (15 out of 24) of the ES
evaluated in this assessment are being degraded or
used unsustainably
– The degradation of ES often causes significant harm
to human well-being and represents a loss of a
natural asset or wealth of a country
– According to the MA, climate change is likely to
become the dominant direct driver of biodiversity loss
by the end of the century
Finding 3
The challenge of reversing the
degradation of ecosystems while
meeting increasing demands for their
services can be partially met under
some scenarios that the MA considered
but these involve significant
changes in policies, institutions and
practices, that are not currently
under way
TEEB 2010: The Economics of
Ecosystems and Biodiversity
TEEB “spells out direct
links between
Biodiversity loss &
Ecosystem degradation
The economic invisibility
of ecosystems and
biodiversity is a major
cause of losses of the
services they provide.
TEEB’s main reports
Science & Economics
Policy Evaluation
for National PolicyMakers
Evaluation & Decision
Support for Local and
Regional Policy
Business Risks
& Opportunities
TEEB's mission is to make Nature economically visible
TEEB – Recommendations
Economic valuations of
ecosystem services
should be made
National accounts
should be upgraded to
include value of
ecosystem services
Development of new
accounting systems
should be given high
priority, nationally and
Ecosystem conservation
and restoration should
be viewed as an
Biobränslen – hjälp eller stjälp
EUs mål – 10% ersättning av fossila
bränslen 2020 (även USA)
har ökat exponentiellt globalt,
med stora plantager i syd
Alla biobränslen är inte
bra för klimatet
Biobränsleplantagernas effekter på
biologisk mångfald
Allvarligaste effekten förlust av naturliga
habitat – skogar, savanner m.m.mångfaldsförlust av stora mått
 Risk för spridning av invasiva främmande
 Stora plantager – vattenbrist, pesticider –
påverkar mångfalden i/kring
jordbrukslandskapet negativt.
Stigande matpriser
 Lokalt producerade flytande biobränslen kan
ge nationella och lokala fördelar: minskat
tryck på skogen, minskat oljeberoende
 Nya jobb
 Fattigas markrättigheter
(landlösa, pastoralister
 ”Land grabbing”
Launched in Rio, signed/ratified by 168 (of
190) states
 Main aims: conservation, sustainable use
and access and benefit sharing
 Work programmes (Thematic
Programmes, cross-cutting issues)
 Cartagena Protocol (biosafety, 103)
 ABS protocol
Cross-cutting issues
Access and Benefitsharing
Climate Change and
Biological Diversity
Traditional Knowledge
Biological Diversity and
Economics, Trade and
Incentive Measures
Impact Assessment
Identification, Monitoring,
Invasive Alien Species
Protected Areas
Sustainable Use of BD
Technology Transfer and
“Improved human well-being and social equity,
while significantly reducing environmental risks
and ecological scarcities”
Transitioning to a green economy has sound
economic and social justification for
governments and companies
Many green sectors provide significant
opportunities for investment, growth and jobs.
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