Mumbai Case Study

Mumbai Case Study
Learning intentions
• Site and situation
• Population
• Growth
A Map of India & Mumbai
Site and situation
• Mumbai is a mega city.
• Mumbai’s original site was an island off the west
coast of India.
• It grew as a fishing and trading port and as an
industrial centre and spread on to six more
• The wetlands between these islands have now
been reclaimed to form one island, Bombay
• Mumbai was originally a series of fishing villages
that became a port and this is what helped
encourage it’s early development.
Mumbai is the world’s 4th largest city in the
Top Ten
1. Shanghai
2. Istanbul
3. Karachi
4. Mumbai
5. Moscow
6. Sao Paulo
7. Beijing
8. Tianjin
9. Guangzhou
10. Delhi
Causes of urban growth
• Until the 1980’s, the economy was based
mainly on textile manufacturing and
shipping with there still being a major port
there today.
• There’s been an increase in IT and financial
services recently.
• Mumbai is a major centre for out-sourced
work – companies there work for foreign
• Mumbai is a major media centre for India
and is one of the largest in the world.
Causes of urban growth…
• A rapid amount of people are drawn in from the
countryside due to work being so varied from highly
skilled jobs to practical work and people believe they will
have better life chances in the city.
• Travellers from Europe used the ports that became
known as “The gateway to India”. The area around the
port became industrialised as a result and became used
for importing and exporting goods.
• A variety of services grew around the port and this led
the city to grow during British rule, and even more rapidly
when British rule had left in 1947.
• Banking, finance and insurance that were associated
with the ports allowed Mumbai to become a major
source of finance. This enabled Mumbai’s economy to
grow and is allowing it to become a world city.
Mumbai’s CBD
Learning intentions
To learn about the features of the CBD in
- Shopping
- Offices
- Transport
Starter question…?
What would you expect to find in the CBD of
a city and why – take 5 minutes to discuss
with your group.
e.g. The CBD will have the oldest buildings
because it contains the oldest area of the
Shopping malls
Covered and air-conditioned
Sell mostly high-order goods
Assured quality of goods
An orderly and clean environment
Sell goods for a fixed price
Pay by cash or credit card
Street markets
Open air
Sell a huge range of goods
Quality of goods variable
Noisy and crowded environment
Lower prices, but need to haggle
Pay by cash only
Mumbai is the biggest financial and
commercial centre in India.
The main office district in the CBD is on
reclaimed land at Nariman point.
Why does the CBD attract so many offices?
Building transport in Mumbai has become more difficult
because of the site of Mumbai:
• It was originally on several islands, so causeway and
bridges have had to be built.
• Bombay Island itself is narrow, so there is little space
for roads and railways.
• The CBD is at the southern tip of the island so it can
only be accessed from the north.
Mumbai has two main strategies for dealing with this
It set up the Urban Transport Project in 2002, which is using
four methods to solve traffic congestion:
• Improve railways – more tracks, more stations
• Improve roads – new road links between the main highways,
widen some roads up to six lanes
• More buses – 500 new eco-buses
• Speed up road traffic – flyovers instead of intersections,
subways instead of pedestrian crossings.
• In 1979, building started on a new town (called New
Bombay) on the mainland opposite Mumbai. This should
grow into a large city, with its own shops, services and jobs,
which should reduce the number of people travelling into the
centre of Mumbai.
Learning intentions
• Factors causing people to move from rural
to urban areas
• Housing in the suburbs
The movement of people from the countryside into cities is
called rural to urban migration.
People move for two reasons. Firstly they may wish to get
away from things they do not like, these are called push
Secondly, people are attracted to things that they do like,
these are called pull factors.
Look at the following photographs, what causes people to
move from the countryside to the city?
400,000 square feet (37,000 m2) of living space.
parking space for 168 cars.
a one-floor vehicle maintenance facility.
nine elevators in the lobby
three helipads and an air traffic control facility
health spa, yoga studio, small theatre with a seating
capacity for 50 on the eighth floor,14 swimming pools,
three floors of hanging gardens, and a ballroom.
• an ice room infused with man-made snow flurries.
• Cost $2 billion
• 600 full time staff
• Antilia is the name of a twenty-seven floor personal
home in South Mumbai belonging to businessman
Mukesh Ambani the billionaire Chairman of Reliance
• Look at the following slides, what are the
problems found in Dharavi?
Problems caused by urban
• Problems with health occur due to pollution from within the shanty
towns and heavy industry causes air pollution that also contributes
to poor health.
• Widespread poverty and unemployment due to so many moving to
the area and the high birth-rate means there isn’t enough
• Poor education leads to people being unemployed as they haven’t
the skills and knowledge needed and too many people mean that
schools and public services can’t deal with the amount of people.
• Land value in Mumbai is expensive due to there being little land so it
makes it impossible for those living in shanty towns to afford homes.
This results with people living in illegal shanty towns that increase
the health problems due to them being so cramped.
• Asia’s second largest slum is Dharavi and is home to 800,000
people which has cheap, poorly made housing.
• Poor transport links as they are so busy and cramped with
commuters as there are so many living within the city.
• Pollution increases due to those living in the shanty towns.
• In 1970 a plan was introduced to move the port, markets
and industrial functions out of the old city to Navi
Bombay on the east. The idea was to also move workers
too. The plan was partially successful but the problem in
Dharavi had to be sorted.
• More than 600,000 live in Dharavi (next to the CBD), and
the idea was to move the housing and people will be rehoused into temporary accommodation.
• The two storey homes will be replaced by seven storey
so that it can house more people. Those who can prove
they have been living in Dharavi since 1995 will receive
free accommodation
• The new buildings will have to have infrastructure
including roads, water, drainage, schools, industrial
estate etc.
Solutions (cont.)…
• However, the project can not go ahead unless the
majority of the registered residents in the shanty town
agree. However, the unregistered people will have their
views ignored
• Governments and developers have used underhand
tactics to make people sign the agreements.
• There are fears amongst the people that the government
won’t actually build alternative accommodation but
instead will be replaced with higher value developments
for businesses and companies to allow the city to
continue to expand.
Sample answer
In the 1970s the Government of India began
plans to create a new city, Navi Mumbai, to
move many of the residents from Dharavi.
Part of Dharavi where residents had been
evicted had the houses bulldozed.
This new town had better services and
amenities. The two storey houses were
made into seven storeys to house more
people. They were made of brick to be
more secure.
In Dharavi itself some self help schemes
have been put in place. This is where the
authority provide building materials for the
residents to enable them to build the houses
themselves. They also provide areas with
electricity and sanitation.

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