Semiconductor Radiation Engineering- Global Applications

Report
Prof. Dr. Ahmed Shuja Syed
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Member Experts Group, SASSI
Vice President, CESET
Adjunct Professor & Principal Investigator Advanced
Electronics Laboratory Project, Faculty of Engineering
& Technology, International Islamic University,
Islamabad
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
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Semiconductor Devices and Materials
are driven by ICT’s industrial age
(Computation, Communication and
exploding internet usage- Economy
Drivers)
WHY Semiconductor Technology
Dominates?
Physical Properties are rapidly
alterable;
Response to external inputs can be
tailored that allows the devices to
implement information processing
operations;
Implementable Boolean logic,
Amplification of signals, Generation
of signals, Storage and Retrieval of
information…
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Intel’s First Fab in Israel:Year 2008; the first
high-volume, $3.5 Billion, 45 nanometer
manufacturing factory outside the US.
Apple to Build R&D
Centre in Israel; IBM has
already got few!
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
The Andhra Pradesh government and SemIndia have announced the setting up of a $3-billion (Rs 13,500 crore) project to
manufacture semiconductors used in computers, mobile phones and other digital devices at a 1,200-acre site near the
upcoming Hyderabad international airport, 40km from the city. Two other semi conductors makers Nano Tech and
Cypress Semiconductor have evinced interest in locating their bases in the Fab City and negotiations are on to woo some
more semiconductor companies. Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad, have been hotly pursuing the project.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
• FABS- Zero
• Full Cycle Commercial R&Ds- Zero
• Corporate R&D Centres- Zero
• Corporate Funded Labs in Universities- Zero
• Class (100) Clean Room fully nurtured to provide proof of concept- Zero
• ISO 14000+ Standardized Semiconductor Design Facilities- Zero
• Non QA Semiconductor Design Facilities for Fab-less Solutions- IIU,
COMSATS, UET Taxila/AWC, NED, etc.
• Process Unsolicited Fabrication and Characterization Facilities- Research
Scale (Universities and Strategic Organizations)
•Semiconductor Process Engineering Focused BS/MS Degree Programs on
National Scene- None went through a closed loop (industrial capacity
building is missing)
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
RSE Focused R&Ds/Labs
RSE Focused Corporate Sector
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
• In semiconductors, ion implantation
is used to selectively dope regions of
the wafer - superior to chemical
diffusion because, lateral diffusion is
minimized
• The energies used in semiconductors
typically range from 200 eV several
MeV’s
• Idea of doping semiconductors using
ion implantation was patented by
William Shockley in 1954
• Ion implantation is a direct
descendent of the Manhattan project
- separation of Uranium isotopes for
the first atomic bombs
Principal Research/Development
Techniques:
•Rutherford BackScattering (RBS),
•Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE),
•Channeling (PIXE & RBS),
•X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF),
•Microbeam RBS and PIXE,
•Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA),
•Ion Implantation, and
•Optical and electrical characterization
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
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Surface Treatments
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Doping (semiconductor devices)
Hardening & Coatings
Antifouling
Materials Synthesis
Micro/nano Lithography
Bio Medical
 Ion Beam Therapy
 Cell irradiation – radiation sensitivity
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Materials (Ion Beam) Analysis
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Cultural Heritage
Civil Engineering
Geological & Cosmological
Biomedical
Requirements
6 ion species
1-1000keV
1011 – 1018
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
The Quantum Computer is a "dream machine"
that has the potential to perform certain types of
calculations millions of times faster than today's
most powerful Supercomputers. If, as Moore's
Law predicts, the number of transistors on a
microprocessor continues to double every 18-24
months, the year 2020 or 2030 would find the
circuits on a microprocessor measured on an
atomic scale.
Example of the work toward a technological basis
for quantum computing: deposition and spatially
resolved, in situ monitoring of a single atom.`
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
In 1945, the synchrotron was proposed as the latest accelerator for high-energy physics,
designed to push particles, in this case electrons, to higher energies than could a cyclotron, the
particle accelerator of the day. An accelerator takes stationary charged particles, such as
electrons, and drives them to velocities near the speed of light. In being forced by magnets to
travel around a circular storage ring, charged particles tangentially emit electromagnetic
radiation and, consequently, lose energy. This energy is emitted in the form of light and is
known as synchrotron radiation.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Middle East ILSF - Iranian Light Source
Facility , Iran
SESAME, Jordan
SESAME (Synchrotron-light for
Experimental Science and
Applications in the Middle East) is the
Middle East's first major international
research centre in the making. It is an
autonomous intergovernmental
organization at the service of its
Members which have full control over
its development, exploitation and
financial matters. SESAME, which is
located at Allan (Jordan), will be a
"third generation" synchrotron light
source.
Current Observers (2012) are France,
Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Kuwait,
Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden,
Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and
the United States of America.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Facilities are used for the detailed study of engineering and manufacturing. The X-ray beams
allow for detailed analysis and modeling of strain, cracks and corrosion as well as in situ study
of materials during production processing. This research is vital to the development of high
performance materials and their use in innovative products and structures.
Determining the properties and morphology of buried layers and interfaces remains an important area in
solid-state science. Many of the technological products of materials science are based on thin-film devices,
which consist of a series of such layers. Structural studies of in-situ processing of semiconducting polymer
films is also likely to be an important area of growth in the coming decade.
Diffraction of high-intensity x-ray beams is an ideal technique to study spin, charge and orbital ordering in
single crystal samples to understand high temperature superconductivity.
Magnetic contrast in images will be provided by exploiting either circular or linear dichroism. At 10 nm
resolution, the nanoscience beamline provides high quality images of the magnetic domains of thin films
and multilayers, clusters, exchange-biased films, giant magnetoresistive metals and metalsemiconductor spintronic materials. At higher spatial resolutions it is possible to conduct experiments on
individual nanoclusters. Spectroscopy on nanosized particles is able to unravel their electronic and
chemical properties which may be dominated by the surface due to a large surface to volume ratio.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
The definition of the terahertz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has varied but is
generally considered to be the band between infrared and microwave radiation, usually
running from 300 GHz to perhaps 10 THz, overlapping those bands commonly referred to as
the sub-millimetre and far infrared.
Applications in semiconductor manufacturing
are especially appealing, given the large
potential market. Terahertz spectroscopy has
already been demonstrated to yield
semiconductor wafer parameters including
mobility, conductivity, carrier density and the
presence of plasma oscillations.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Radiation hardening is a method of designing and testing electronic components and systems
to make them resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle
radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as would be encountered in outer
space, high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors, particle accelerators, during nuclear
accidents or nuclear warfare.
Reverse Mode Semiconductor
Manufacturing for Nuclear and
Space Applications
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
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A photograph of a bar with
10 terahertz laser sources
developed by the Harvard
University engineers. One of
the lasers is connected to
the contact pad (seen on the
left) by two thin gold wires.
A 2mm-diameter Silicon
hyper-hemispherical lens is
attached to the facet of the
device to collimate the
terahertz output. The
emission frequency is 5 THz,
corresponding to a
wavelength of 60 microns.
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Credit: Courtesy of the
Capasso Lab, Harvard School
of Engineering and Applied
Sciences
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Courtesy: MASAYOSHI TONOUCHI, Institute of Laser Engineering, Japan
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
A 100 mm diameter
wafer and
fabricated lithiumdrifted Si detectors
for the Cosmic Ray
Isotope
Spectrometer
(CRIS) on NASA's
Advanced
Composition
Explorer (ACE)
spacecraft launched
in 1997.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
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A 20 by 20 orthogonalstrip lithium-drifted Si
detector for imaging and
high-resolution
spectroscopy
measurements. The active
part of the detector is 46
mm by 46 mm by 3.5 mm
thick. These detectors may
be operated at relatively
high temperatures (above
200K) while still
maintaining low noise
performance.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
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A 2 by 2 detector array
assembled from four
detector modules. Each
module consists of a frontend electronics assembly
and a 1 cm3 coplanar-grid
CdZnTe detector
contained in a compliant
mount. Large detector
arrays can be formed in
this fashion in order to
achieve the high detection
efficiencies required in
some applications.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
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A 40 by 40 pixel array
Ge detector developed
for hard x-ray
astronomy. The pixels
are 0.3 mm by 0.3 mm
in size with a 0.5 mm
center-to-center
spacing. The detector
was produced using the
amorphoussemiconductor
electrical contact
technology.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
Measured 137Cs spectrum obtained with a 1
cm3 CdZnTe-based detector. Left:
conventional planar geometry. Right:
Coplanar-grid geometry. This demonstrates
the spectroscopic performance improvement
achieved with the coplanar-grid technique.
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
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Capacity Building (R&D, Manpower Training, Facilities, Engagement of
Global Players)
National Priority ?? Complete absence on global map!
User Facilities- Medium Scale Solutions
Mega Facilities- Owning or Sharing?
Dual Usage - Operational Assessment for PSDP/Security Funds
Being Heart of Energy and Nano Research- Directional Pump-priming
policy orientation
Applications such as Ultra-sophisticated Detectors, 4th
GenerationThermal Imagers, Space RadHard Chips, Super Computing
ICs, Electromagnetic Pulse Weapons, Nano-nuke Memory Devices etcDirect beneficiaries of Semiconductor Radiation Engineering have
multiple complexity levels of design and fabrication with almost “zero”
access to international FABs- What would we do?
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
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Next generation device designs for nano-scale chip fabrication
Design, characterization & process optimization of ultra shallow
junctions in sub 22nm CMOS
Fabrication protocol optimization for III-V based quantum devices
for photonic applications
Study, Design and Modeling of thermal effects in III-V-based
HEMT devices for opto-telecommunication application
Ion-beam induced substrate engineering for Liquid Crystal
Display (LCD) Applications
Process Engineering and Characterization for GaAsN Thin films
for Diverse Applications
Design and Simulations of MEMS based Micro-needle Arrays for
Biomedical Applications
Characterization of Damaged Engineered Silicon for Applications
in Large Area Electronics
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad
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Able to provide support on R&D and
commercial manufacturing of semiconductor
radiation engineered devices for diverse
applications
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Collaborative Linkages are Welcome!
Centre for Emerging Sciences, Engineering & Technology (CESET), Islamabad

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