RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEART RATE, RATE OF PERCEIVED EXERTION, VO2MAX, AND DISTANCE RUN IN THE COOPER 12 MINUTE RUN TEST IN COLLEGE AGE STUDENTS INTRODUCTION • Conflicting research in RPE music (Birnbaum, et al., 2009), (Wheeler, et al., 2010) • Type of music (Potteiger, et al., 2000) • Distraction hypothesis and motivation (Russell, et al., 2003) • Research lacks in the areas of VO2max and amount of work done HYPOTHESIS • Heart rate and rate of perceived exertion will be lower for the music condition. Along with this we also think that VO2max and the distance ran will be higher with the music condition. • We predict that all four of the testing variables will be improved with the music condition. OUR EXPERIMENT IN PRACTICAL TERMS • Why test RPE and distance run? • Why measure VO2max? • How do these factors affect the way people exercise? PARTICIPANTS • 5 males, 5 females (although did not test gender) • Between 19-21 years old • Had to meet CDC protocol for healthy adult physical activity lifestyles • Had used AWC treadmills before • Ran both conditions: music vs. no music • most beneficial if participants chose their own music (would be listening to their preference own of music) • eliminated two limitations that could have been present: lack of motivation and possibility of them disliking the music METHODS • Ran both conditions: music vs. no music • with at least 48 hours in between • 5 minute warm-up (bike or light jog) • Performed the Cooper 12 Minute Run Test • treadmill on a 1.0 incline • Told to set a moderate pace, but were allowed to increase/decrease pace when desired • took note of speed changes and averaged them to find persons average speed throughout the test • Covered tops of the treadmills showing the time, distance run, heart rate, and only left the speed controls showing • wanted variables to be unknown METHODS • Time was monitored by the time on the treadmills • After completion, we took note of their distance run • 1 person in our research team took each participant’s recovery heart rate (15 seconds after finished running) • Used distance run and recovery heart rate to calculate VO 2max score using equation in Table 12.3 from the Beam and Adams (2011) article • • (had to convert distance run to the nearest yard and find heart rate in beats per minute (take for 15 seconds and multiply by 4) Measured rate of perceived exertion (RPE) by using the Borg’s RPE 15 point scale • a Likert scale giving a numerical value to the degree of difficulty in which a participant feels during and right after a workout (CDC, 2011) 6 No exertion at all 7 Extremely light (7.5) 8 9 Very light 10 11 Light 12 13 Somewhat hard Borg RPE Scale 14 15 Hard (heavy) 16 17 Very hard 18 19 Extremely hard 20 Maximal exertion 9 - "very light" exercise; for a healthy person, it is like walking slowly at his or her own pace for some minutes 13 - "somewhat hard" exercise, but it still feels OK to continue 17 - "very hard" is very strenuous; a healthy person can still go on, but he or she really has to push him- or herself; it feels very heavy, and the person is very tired 19 - extremely strenuous exercise level; for most people this is the most strenuous exercise they have ever experienced RESULTS • Calculated using a Paired Samples T-Test using SPSS • used an alpha level of 0.050 for our level of significance (Neutens & Rubinson, 2009) • Each condition was tested with each of the 4 variables • Distance Ran, RPE, Heart Rate, VO2max Graph A: This displays the statistical analysis of the mean number of miles completed in 12 minutes by 10 participants. The standard deviation of the means is also shown. Graph B: This displays the statistical analysis of the mean rated value of perceived exertion by the 10 participants after running the Cooper 12 min. Run Test. The standard deviation of the means is also shown. Graph C: This displays the statistical analysis of the mean measured heart rate by the 10 participants after running the Cooper 12 min. Run Test. The standard deviation of the means is shown as well. Graph D: This displays the statistical analysis of the mean measured VO2max (mL·kg-1·min-1) by the 10 participants after running the Cooper 12 min. Run Test. The standard deviation of the means is shown as well. Graph E: This displays Pairs 1-4 which exceed the value of the constant p-value which determines the significance of the experiment differential. This graph displays all variables to fail to be considered worthy of showing significant difference for exceeding the p-value constant (0.050). CONCLUSION • Hypothesis should be rejected • Results suggest it does not matter whether or not someone listens to music while working out • music does not affect the amount of work done, the heart rate, how hard they think their workout is, or the amount of oxygen consumed during the workout (supported by a similar research done by Young et. al., (2009)) • Before this study, our results had the potential to significantly change the way people might work out • Based on our actual results, their workouts will not be affected when listening to music or not FOR FUTURE RESEARCH • Larger sample size • make our results more significant • Set a minimum speed • to better predict the VO2max - individuals must be working at a high level of intensity • Limit other forms of physical activity • participants had practices before or after the testing • caused participants to either be tired and sore or not work as hard before their practices QUESTIONS? REFERENCES Beam, W.C. & Adams, G.M. (2011). Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual (6th Ed). New York: McGraw Hill. Birnbaum, L., Boone, T. & Huschle, B. (2009). Cardiovascular responses to music tempo during steadystate exercise. The Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 14, 50-57. Retrieved from Ebscohost. CDC. (2011). Physical Activity for Everyone. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/adults.html CDC. (2011). Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale). Retrieved October 11, 2011, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/measuring/exertion.html Neutens, J. J. & Rubinson, L., (2009). Probability Level Alpha. Research Techniques for Health Sciences 4/E. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. Potteiger, J. A., Schroeder, J. M., & Goff, K. L. (2000). Influence of music on ratings of perceived exertion during 20 minutes of moderate intensity exercise. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 91(3 Part 1), 848854. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Russell, W. W., Pritschet, B. B., Frost, B. B., Emmett, J. J., Pelley, T. J., Black, J. J., & Owen, J. J. (2003). A comparison of post-exercise mood enhancement across common exercise distraction activities. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(4), 368-383. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Wheeler, B. , Robertson, R., Swank, M., Miller, T., (2010). Effect of Music and Dialogue on perception of exertion, enjoyment, and metabolic responses during exercise. International Journal of Fitness, 6(2), 45-52. Young, S. C., Sands, C. D., & Jung, A. P. (2009). Effect of music in female college soccer players during a maximal treadmill test. International Journal of Fitness, 5(2), 31-36. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.