PowerPoint - Amy Nader`s Portfolio

• Conflicting research in RPE music (Birnbaum, et al., 2009),
(Wheeler, et al., 2010)
• Type of music (Potteiger, et al., 2000)
• Distraction hypothesis and motivation (Russell, et al., 2003)
• Research lacks in the areas of VO2max and amount of work done
• Heart rate and rate of perceived exertion will be lower
for the music condition. Along with this we also think
that VO2max and the distance ran will be higher with
the music condition.
• We predict that all four of the testing variables will be
improved with the music condition.
• Why test RPE and distance run?
• Why measure VO2max?
• How do these factors affect the way people exercise?
• 5 males, 5 females (although did not test gender)
• Between 19-21 years old
• Had to meet CDC protocol for healthy adult physical activity
• Had used AWC treadmills before
• Ran both conditions: music vs. no music
• most beneficial if participants chose their own music (would be
listening to their preference own of music)
• eliminated two limitations that could have been present:
lack of motivation and possibility of them disliking the
Ran both conditions: music vs. no music
• with at least 48 hours in between
5 minute warm-up (bike or light jog)
• Performed the Cooper 12 Minute Run Test
• treadmill on a 1.0 incline
• Told to set a moderate pace, but were allowed to increase/decrease pace
when desired
• took note of speed changes and averaged them to find persons
average speed throughout the test
• Covered tops of the treadmills showing the time, distance run, heart rate,
and only left the speed controls showing
• wanted variables to be unknown
Time was monitored by the time on the treadmills
After completion, we took note of their distance run
1 person in our research team took each participant’s recovery heart
rate (15 seconds after finished running)
Used distance run and recovery heart rate to calculate VO 2max score
using equation in Table 12.3 from the Beam and Adams (2011) article
(had to convert distance run to the nearest yard and find heart rate
in beats per minute (take for 15 seconds and multiply by 4)
Measured rate of perceived exertion (RPE) by using the Borg’s RPE 15
point scale
• a Likert scale giving a numerical value to the degree of difficulty in
which a participant feels during and right after a workout (CDC, 2011)
6 No exertion at all
Extremely light (7.5)
9 Very light
11 Light
13 Somewhat hard
Borg RPE
15 Hard (heavy)
17 Very hard
19 Extremely hard
20 Maximal exertion
9 - "very light" exercise; for a healthy person, it is like walking slowly at his or her own pace for some minutes
13 - "somewhat hard" exercise, but it still feels OK to continue
17 - "very hard" is very strenuous; a healthy person can still go on, but he or she really has to push him- or herself; it
feels very heavy, and the person is very tired
19 - extremely strenuous exercise level; for most people this is the most strenuous exercise they have ever
• Calculated using a Paired Samples T-Test using SPSS
• used an alpha level of 0.050 for our level of significance
(Neutens & Rubinson, 2009)
• Each condition was tested with each of the 4 variables
• Distance Ran, RPE, Heart Rate, VO2max
Graph A: This displays the statistical analysis of the mean number of
miles completed in 12 minutes by 10 participants. The standard
deviation of the means is also shown.
Graph B: This displays the statistical analysis of the mean
rated value of perceived exertion by the 10 participants
after running the Cooper 12 min. Run Test. The standard
deviation of the means is also shown.
Graph C: This displays the statistical analysis of the mean
measured heart rate by the 10 participants after running the
Cooper 12 min. Run Test. The standard deviation of the means
is shown as well.
Graph D: This displays the statistical analysis of the mean
measured VO2max (mL·kg-1·min-1) by the 10 participants
after running the Cooper 12 min. Run Test. The standard
deviation of the means is shown as well.
Graph E: This displays Pairs 1-4 which exceed the value of the
constant p-value which determines the significance of the
experiment differential. This graph displays all variables to fail to
be considered worthy of showing significant difference for
exceeding the p-value constant (0.050).
• Hypothesis should be rejected
• Results suggest it does not matter whether or not
someone listens to music while working out
• music does not affect the amount of work done, the
heart rate, how hard they think their workout is, or the
amount of oxygen consumed during the workout
(supported by a similar research done by Young et. al.,
• Before this study, our results had the potential to
significantly change the way people might work out
• Based on our actual results, their workouts will not be
affected when listening to music or not
• Larger sample size
• make our results more significant
• Set a minimum speed
• to better predict the VO2max - individuals must be
working at a high level of intensity
• Limit other forms of physical activity
• participants had practices before or after the testing
• caused participants to either be tired and sore or not
work as hard before their practices
Beam, W.C. & Adams, G.M. (2011). Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual (6th Ed). New York: McGraw
Birnbaum, L., Boone, T. & Huschle, B. (2009). Cardiovascular responses to music tempo during steadystate exercise. The Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, 14, 50-57. Retrieved from Ebscohost.
CDC. (2011). Physical Activity for Everyone. Retrieved October 11, 2011, from Center for Disease
Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/adults.html
CDC. (2011). Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale). Retrieved October 11, 2011,
from Center for Disease Control and Prevention:
Neutens, J. J. & Rubinson, L., (2009). Probability Level Alpha. Research Techniques for Health Sciences
4/E. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.
Potteiger, J. A., Schroeder, J. M., & Goff, K. L. (2000). Influence of music on ratings of perceived exertion
during 20 minutes of moderate intensity exercise. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 91(3 Part 1), 848854. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Russell, W. W., Pritschet, B. B., Frost, B. B., Emmett, J. J., Pelley, T. J., Black, J. J., & Owen, J. J. (2003). A
comparison of post-exercise mood enhancement across common exercise distraction activities.
Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(4), 368-383. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Wheeler, B. , Robertson, R., Swank, M., Miller, T., (2010). Effect of Music and Dialogue on perception of
exertion, enjoyment, and metabolic responses during exercise. International Journal of Fitness,
6(2), 45-52.
Young, S. C., Sands, C. D., & Jung, A. P. (2009). Effect of music in female college soccer players during a
maximal treadmill test. International Journal of Fitness, 5(2), 31-36. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

similar documents