Medieval History of Nepal

By Bibhu Poudel
●Least comprehended era in Nepal’s History.
●Lichhavi dyansty was ruling Nepal.
●It started with the start of the rule of Raghav Dev on 880 A.D
or 937 B.S.
●Raghav Dev, Shankar Dev, Gunakam Dev, Bijay Kam Dev
were the last kings of Lichhavi Dynasty.
●Bijay Kam Dev was Childless.So Vaskardev from thakuri
Dynasty ruled Nepal.
●Baldev, Padma Dev, Sankhar Dev ruled after Vakardev.
●Bam Dev lead a coup against Shankar Dev.
●Harsha Dev(III),Mahendra Dev, Rudra Dev, Narendra Dev,
Amrit Dev ruled Nepal.
●After Amrit Dev , Dev and Malla dyanasty ruled Nepal
●Malla King.Dev Prince.Dev King.Malla Prince.
●Later Jayasthiti Malla overthrew Arjun Dev to terminate the
●Rise of Malla Dynasty inside Kathmandu Valley.
●Khas Rajya , Gandak Pradesh, Sen Rajya divided.
●Nepal divided into 52 small states or principalities.
●Ended in 1744 B.S after Prithvi Narayan Shah started the
unification of Nepal.
● Nanyadev started to rule east Terai making
simaraungadh the capital in 1154 B.S.
●Fertile land, enough money and strong
military power
● Frequently attackd kathmand valley.
● In 1384 B.S, Gayasuddin from Delhi attacked it. Harisingh
Dev the 6th king flew away. Died in Dolakha. Queen, son and
military general refugee in Bhaktapur.
●Nag Raj from Khati in Tibet Started to
rule making Sinja the capital in 1207 B.S.
●Chap, Chapilla, Krasichalla, Krachdhilla,
Ashek Malla, Jitari Malla, Ripu Malla,
Aditya Malla, Kalyan , Pratap, Punya,
Prithvi and Abaya Malla.
● Millitary Power. Rulers were brave fighters.
●Kumaon and Gadwal - West,
Tibet-North , Terai-South during
the rule of King Krasichalla.
●Gorkha –East. Attacked Kathmandu
Valley thrice in 2 years during the rule of Jitari Malla.
●Nuwakot –East.Attacked Kathmandu Frequently during the
rule of Aditya Malla.
●Has 226 years of history.Ended with the death of Abaya
●In 1264 B.S , Arimalla ruled
Kathmandu Valley.
System came to use after his regime.
●Abaya Malla, Jay Dev, Jaybhim Dev, Ananta Malla, Ananda
Malla,Rudra Malla , Ari Malla (II), Raj Dev, Arjun Dev, Jayasthiti
Malla, Jyoti Malla and Yaksha Malla ruled after Ari Malla.
●Weak kingdom during
Dev-Malla-Dev-Malla rule.
●Khas , Doy kings attacked frequently.
King Samasuddin from Delhi attacked ,
burned temples ,looted treasure from
Pashupati Nath and broke the statue.
●Jayasthiti Malla overthrew Arjun Dev and the DMDM sytem
was brought to an end.
●Most prominent figure of medieval Nepal.
●1418 B.S , Married Rajalla Devi, Daughter of
Arjun Dev.
●Devala Devi, His Mother in Law died in 1423 B.S.He then
started to take part in the rule.
●In 1437 B.S overthrew Arjun dev and started Malla rule inside
Kathmandu Valley.
●Political- One Dynasty Rule.Stronger
●Social-4 Barna, 36 Castes,64 Subcastes on
the basis of their work.
●Economic-Land reform. Inroduced Mana, Pathi, Daharni and
●Religious-Built temples , established guthi to run temples.
●Judicial- Laws based on religion and capital punishments.
●The most powerful kingdom,
Khas Rajya, broke down to 22 small
●Jumla, Jajarkot,Cham,Acham, Rukum,Musikot,Rolpa, Malnet,
Bajhang, Dailekh,Salyan,Bangfi, Jahari, Kalangwa ,Garmekot,
Doti, Bishalpur,,Malebom,Galkot,Gutum,Gajur, Dharma.
● Yaksha Malla extended his
kingdom to Palpa. After his death,
the center or Kathmandu valley lost
its control over the Gandaki Pradesh.
●In 16th century B.S , it broke down to 24 different states.
●Palpa, Kaski, Tanahu, Lamjung, Galkot, Parbat, Nuwakot,
Pun,Garahun, Rishing, Dhiring, Dhor, Gulmi, Musikot, Isma,
Pyuthan,Bhirkot,Dhurkot, Argha, Khachi, Satahu, Salyan,
Pathyu, Liglig.
●It was the land between arun,
Koshi river and Mechi River.
●It was divided into 10 limbu
kingdoms.Morang was the most
powerful and had central
● Bijaypur was the capital of
morang kingdom of Limbuwan
●It came to an end after Limbuwan-Gorkha Treaty.
●Palpa was the most powerful state in the Gandaki Pradesh.It
envaded Kathmandu valley when it was ruled by King Mun
Mun Mukunda sen.
● The king of Palpa, Mukunda Sen extended his kingdom to
Kirat Pradesh.Later the area was divided by his relatives and
made independent states.They were Makwanpur, Bijaypur and
●Makwanpur-His youngest Son lohang Sen started to rule in
the area between Makwanpur and Bijaypur as a free state.
●Bijaypur-In the regime of Makwanpur’s King Subha Sen, his
Nephew Indra Sen freed Bijaypur as his partition share and
started ruling it as an independent State .
●Chaudandi- Between the power struggle,Jagat Sen, youngest
son of Mani Sen re-divided Makwanpur and started to rule
Chadandi which was his partition share.
●In 1538 B.S after the death of Yaksha
Malla, his sons started to rule the
●Ratna Malla ruled Kantipur which was
a free state and Bhadgaon jointly with
his brother.
●Patan , as a partition share was for the daughter of Yaksha
● In 1538 B.S , Ratna Malla
established an indepenent
●Bagmati- East, Trishuli-West,
Tilak Parbat-North ,Patan-South
were the boundaries.
●Amar, Surya, Narendra, Mahindra, Sadashiva, Siva Singh,
Harihar Singh,Laxmi Narsingh, Pratap, Chakrabartindra,
Nripendra, Bhupalendra, Bhaskar, Mahendra Singh, Jagajjyaa,
Jayprakash, Jyotiprakash.
●Ray Malla, the oldest son of Yaksha
Malla got Bhadgaon as his partition share.
●Sanga-East, Bagmati-West, Kuti-North,
Forest of Medini Malla-South were the
boundaries of Bhadgaon.
●Subarna, Pran, Bishow, Tralokya, Jayajyotir, Narendra,
Jagatprakash, Bhupatindra, Ranajit.
●It was under Yaksha Malla’s daughter
as partition share.
●For a long time it was under
Kathmandu’s regime. Later, it was
Ruled by Siddinarsingh Malla after rift
with his older brother Narsingh,both
sons of Harinarsingh, King of Kantipur.
●Bhadgaon-West, Lamidada-East, Bagmati-North, Forest of
Medini Malla-South.
●Sri Niwas, Yognarendra, Lokprash, Yogprakash, Bishnu,
Rajya Prakash, Bishwojeet, Dalmardan , Tej Narsingh Malla
ruled Patan after Siddhinarsing Malla.
● Construction works were carried out.Many temples and
stupas were constructed.Pratap Malla built Krishna Mandir,
Taleju Bhawani, Ranipokhari,Guheswari Temple and
Reconstructed Swoyambhunath.
● Due to the competiton between the three kings of
Kantipur, Bhadgaon and Patan, three Durbar Squares were
●Jayasthiti Malla brought judicial, economic , social
political changes.
●Siddhinarsingh Malla introduced coins in Patan.
●The early patronage of Buddist kings was given to more strict
Hindu devotion.
●Nepal was open for foreigners.So trade between India and Tibet
helped Nepal to start trade with both sides.
●Nepal during the Malla Rule witnessed the maximum number of
changes so it can be said as the golden period of Medieval Nepal
●Myth of Kings should not visit Budhanilkantha was started
during the reign of Pratap Malla.
●Different new festivals and Jatras like Indra, Macchindra, Bhote
were started.
● Nepal Parichaya,siddhiswor Man Shrestha, Shyam Krishna Joshi,
Akshalok Prakash
● History of Ancient and Medieval Nepal in a Nutshell with some
comparative traces with foreign History, D.B Shrestha and C.B
● Greater Nepal Documentary by Manoj Pandit on

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