Global Livestock: Breeding and Production

Report
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
The World
Animal
Husbandry
Part 2.
Prof. Dr. Pal Hajas ([email protected])
www.euragro.hu
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production(1)
There has been rapid global
expansion of
•production and
•consumption of animal
products which is expected
to continue to grow.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production(2)
While traditional livestock systems
contribute to the livelihoods of 70% of
the world's rural poor,
increasingly the emerging large-scale
operations with sophisticated
technology and international trade
cater for the rapidly growing markets
for meat, milk and eggs.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production (3)
Livestock production currently
accounts for one third of the global
crop land which is used to produce
feed for animals and competes for
land, water, energy and labour, and is
being challenged by the vagaries of
climate change and socio-economic
pressures.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production (4)
Increasing productivity - making the
most efficient use of the production
inputs - throughout the whole
livestock sector will be fundamental if
the sector is to meet the growing
demand for quality livestock products
whilst minimising its impact on the
environmental and the world’s natural
resources.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production (5)
Increasing productivity, especially in
the small to medium scale production
systems, is currently constrained by
lack of skills, knowledge and
appropriate technologies compounded
by insufficient access to markets,
goods and services, and weak
institutions.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production (6)
The result is that both
production and
productivity remain below
potential, and losses and
wastage can be high.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production (7)
However, adapted breeds, local
feed resources and animal health
interventions are available, along
with improved and adapted
technologies that include sound
animal husbandry, on and off -farm
product preservation and valueadding product processing.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production (8)
Together with supportive policies
and institutions, they have the
potential to substantially improve
productivity, income generation
and to make a major contribution
to poverty reduction.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production (9)
The global programme on
animal production focuses
primarily on
•small-scale dairying,
•small-medium scale poultry
and, to a lesser extent, on
•small ruminant systems
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production (10)
which can make a significant
contribution to
•improved livelihoods and
•local economic development.
This will be achieved through the
provision of topical information,
guidance and technical support.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Livestock and Animal Production (11)
What is „Animal Production?”
Ethiopia Bio Farming:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_dWhHPSHW3E
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
We must go to the
source!
How to handle our Global
Animal Genetic
Resources?
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
http://lprdad.fao.org/cgi-bin/getblob.cgi?sid=-1,123
Exchange, Use and Conservation of Animal
Genetic Resources
Policy and regulatory options
S.J. Hiemstra1, A.G. Drucker2, M.W. Tvedt3, N. Louwaars1, J.K. Oldenbroek1,
K. Awgichew4, S. Abegaz Kebede5, P.N. Bhat6 & A. da Silva Mariante7
1 Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands (CGN) of Wageningen University
and Research Centre, the Netherlands
2 International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and School for Environmental
Research, Charles Darwin University,
Australia
3 The Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway
4 Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, Ethiopia
5 Ambo College, Ethiopia
6 World Buffalo Trust (WBT), India
7 EMBRAPA Cenargen, Brazil
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Characteristics, status and trends of
AnGR and the livestock sector (1)
Domestic animals supply
•30% of total human
requirements for food and
agriculture and
•70% of the world’s rural poor
depend on livestock as a
component of their livelihoods.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Characteristics, status and trends of
AnGR and the livestock sector (2)
The global livestock sector
consists of a
•variety of production systems
and
•farm animals are used for a
variety of functions.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Characteristics, status and trends of
AnGR and the livestock sector (3)
Centuries of selective breeding and
exchange of farm animals or
germplasm among users within and
across countries have resulted in the
development of the current diversity of
breeds and within-breed genetic
diversity.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Characteristics, status and trends of
AnGR and the livestock sector (4)
The exchange of AnGR
•has played and
•will continue to play an
important role in breed and
livestock sector
development.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Characteristics, status and trends of
AnGR and the livestock sector (5)
Although detailed quantitative
data about gene flow between
countries and continents is not
available, different AnGR flow
directions can be characterized
to a large extent.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
International, regional
and national law, as
well as customary law
at community levels,
are all relevant for
AnGR.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
International agreements with a
general scope (CBD, WTO/TRIPS
and WIPO Treaties also apply to
AnGR.
Throughout the study, the term
AnGR refers to animal genetic
resources used in or potentially
useful for food and agriculture
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Currently, the exchange of AnGR is
mainly regulated by
•the transfer of private
ownership (by private law
contracts and customary law)
and
•is also influenced by zoosanitary regulations.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
As the implementation of
international treaties with a
general scope advances
further, they may have an
increasingly significant
impact on AnGR exchange,
use and conservation.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
While the special nature of
agricultural biodiversity is
recognized, the FAO Global
Strategy and the FAO State
of the World’s AnGR give the
widely accepted orientation
to all stakeholders
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
What is „Animal Production?”
Afghan Livestock Bazaar:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNK4Lw1tT9g
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (1)
It is generally accepted that
•farm animal genetic
diversity is under threat
and that
•action is needed to halt
further losses.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (2)
In situations where AnGR currently
have a low direct use value, they
may nonetheless be particularly
valuable for future use, which will
require the public sector to play an
important role in their
conservation and management.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (3)
However, there is limited
awareness about the
importance of the conservation
and sustainable use of AnGR
among policy makers and
major stakeholders in the
livestock sector.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (4)
Genetic erosion may be
minimised through
•complementary ex situ (in
vitro) and
•in situ conservation
approaches
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (5)
Organised at
•national,
•regional and/or
•global levels.
Such approaches should take into
account different views of the ‘unit
of conservation’.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (6)
A variety of different strategies
is available to stimulate in situ
conservation, including
strengthening of breeding
capacity and programmes for
local breeds.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (7)
Ex situ conservation requires
•appropriate infrastructure
and organisation,
•technical capacity,
•legal arrangements and
•sustained funding.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (8)
The Boran story 1
The Boran, a medium-sized cattle breed of
East African origin.
The breed most widely kept primarily for
beef production in the semi-arid zones of
Kenya.
Commercial ranchers prefer the Boran to
Bos taurus breeds because of their relative
adaptability to the local environment.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (9)
The Boran story 2
Achieved through generations of natural
and artificial selection in conditions of high
ambient temperature, poor feed quality, and
high disease and parasite challenge.
Boran genetic material is recommended as
a means of improving beef production in
other indigenous and exotic breeds in the
tropics.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (10)
The Boran story 3
Genetic exports to Zambia, the United Republic of
Tanzania, Uganda, Australia and the United States of
America occurred from the 1970s to the 1990s.
Export of Boran embryos to Zimbabwe and South Africa
took place during 1994 and 2000. This market potential
has been an incentive for farmers to improve the breed. By
the 1970s, the Boran had undergone crossbreeding with B.
taurus types, backcrossing, and within-breed selection
(which was mainly based on visual appraisal guided by
experience).
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (11)
The Boran story 4
During the 1970s a recording scheme was initiated.
Producers sent animal performance records routinely to
the Livestock Recording Centre (LRC) for genetic
evaluation.
However, because of inconsistency and delays in the
release of evaluation results, and the expenses associated
with recording, most producers opted out of the scheme.
In 1998, a bull performance testing project was
implemented by the National Beef Research Centre in an
attempt to evaluate bulls across various herds.
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (12)
The Boran story 5
However, the performance testing could not
be sustained because of a lack of funds.
Recently, breeding objectives for Boran
production systems have been developed.
Systems are classified according to the sale
age of the animals (24 or 36 months), levels
of input (low, medium or high), and final
goal (beef or dual purpose).
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
Conservation and sustainable use (13)
The Boran story 6
Traits of economic importance have been identified, and
genetic parameters have been estimated for some of them.
These traits include
sale weight for steers and heifers,
dressing percentage,
consumable meat percentage,
milk yield in dual purpose production systems,
cow weight, cow weaning rate, cow survival rate,
post-weaning survival rate, and feed intake of steers,
heifers and cows. Genetic improvement of the Boran in
Kenya is facilitated by the Boran Cattle Breeders’ Society
(BCBS).
Global Livestock: Breeding
and Production (DE AMTC, 2010.12.06.
Prof. Dr. Hajas Pál)
What is „Animal Production?”
The easy calving of Boran Cattle:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VxlApoWx8hE

similar documents