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Wireless Repeater
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議程
• 背景介紹
• 產業及市場
• 未來展望
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你是否遇過?
• 想用手機打電話或上網的時候, 才發現沒有電信服務
?
• 在用手機打電話或上網的時候, 發現通訊品質很差?
• 在用手機打電話或上網的時候, 電池一下就沒電了?
• 結果是……
–
–
–
–
默默接受…..
客訴….
氣到想換電信服務商?
無奈到想換手機?
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電信商到底在想什麼?
• 想您口袋裡的錢, 但卻不想花大錢建設?
• 面臨上述問題, 電信商需要解決
– 網路覆蓋問題
• 室外: 城市, 郊區, 鄉村, 山區, 隧道, 高鐵, 遊樂區, ….
• 室內: 捷運, 百貨公司, Café shop, 便利商店, 地下室, 你家…
– 系統容量問題
• 基地台可以支持的使用者容量
• 如何榨出一個基地台的最大效益?
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電信商可用之招(1)
• 改善室外覆蓋的招數
– 招數1: 階層式網路架構
– 招數2: 建置RRH (Radio Remote Head)
– 招數3: 建置Repeater
Cell Range
Cell Range
Outdoor
Micro BS
Indoor
Micro BS + RRH
or +Repeater
Macro BS
Pico BS
Femto
BS
Micro BS
WiFi
+
Outdoor
CPE
Femto
BS
Pico BS +
Repeater
Indoor Repeater
Femto
BS
BS: Base Station
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電信商可用之招(2)
• 改善室內覆蓋的招數
– 招數1: 室內基站, 如Pico BS, Femto BS
– 招數2: 室內WiFi轉室外用戶端設備 (WiFi+Outdoor
CPE)
– 招數3: Repeater
Cell Range
Cell Range
Macro BS
Outdoor
Micro BS
Indoor
Pico BS
Femto
BS
BS: Base Station
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Micro BS
WiFi
+
Outdoor
CPE
Femto
BS
Micro BS + RRH
or +Repeater
Pico BS +
Repeater
Indoor Repeater
Femto
BS
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電信商可用之招(3)
• 建置基地台來解決室內外的網路覆蓋及系統容量是最好的
方案, 但是
– 建置成本過高
– 基地台站點抗爭
– 小型基站(Pico/femto BS)的解決方案不成熟 , 商業模式不清楚
• WiFi + outdoor CPE來解決室內覆蓋是個快速的解決方案,
但是無法保證服務品質(QoS, Quality of Services)
• 建置Repeater不失為另一種 “好的”室內外網路覆蓋解決方
案
– 佈建簡單
– 成本低廉
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小結: Repeater使用情境
• Repeater使用在電信網路及數位電視廣播上,用來填補基站
的覆蓋空隙或死角(Coverage Enhancement),甚至擴大基
站覆蓋範圍(Range Extension)
Coverage hole
Penetration into
inside room
Mobile Access
Shadow of
buildings
RS
RS
BS
RS
Valley between
buildings
RS
Coverage extension at
cell edge
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Underground
Acronym:
RS: Repeater Station
Source: IEEE 802.16
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Repeater到底是何方神聖?
• Repeater(強波器) = 濾波器 +放大器
• 濾波器(Filter): 僅通過想要放大的信號, 阻
絕其他信號/干擾
• 放大器(Amplifier): 放大信號的功率
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Repeater的種類
• Repeater主要可分類為
– 無線射頻Repeater: Band-selective, Channel-selective, Frequencyshift
– 光纖Repeater
• 若以信號放大的處理方式來說,可分為類比式(Analog)及數
位式(Digital)
無線射頻Repeater
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光纖Repeater
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Digital Repeater的好處
• 對Operator
– 安裝容易且可動態調整參數,縮短工程時間且減少工
程人員派遣至站點的次數
– 效能穩定,減少掉話率(Drop Call Rate) ,進而減少客
訴率
• 對Repeater Maker
– Digital Repeater的售價佳,Profit Margin高
– 可快速客製化,並減少Analog Repeater造成的高庫存
及呆料
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Digital Repeater的關鍵技術:ICS
• ICS: Interference Cancellation System
– To combat the insufficiency of RF isolation between the donor
and service antennas
– To enable repeater maximum output power with “Good Enough”
signal quality under deployment limitation
Desired signal
Interference
Noise
n[ m , k ]
H[m, k ]
s[ m , k ]
Theory of I.C.:
Transmitter
H I [m , k ]
y[ m , k ]
x[ m , k ]
Repeater
Receiver
Repeater
Transmitter
Receiver
ˆ [ m , k ] P x[ m , k ]
y[m , k ]  H
I
I
ˆ [ m , k ]) P x [ m , k ] 
 H [ m , k ] Ps s[ m , k ]  ( H I [ m , k ]  H
I
I
 H [ m , k ] Ps s[ m , k ] 
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Pn n [ m , k ]
Pn n [ m , k ]
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Digital Repeater的關鍵技術:PNP
• PNP: Plug and Play
– End users can easily install the repeater by themselves without any
technician’s support
– Operators do not need to spend installation expenses
• Working principle
– Module periodically detect the received signal strength
– Accordingly, the module automatically adjust the gain based on the PNP
algorithm such that the repeater/relay is always operating in an (sub-)
optimal condition (max. linear amplification, min. interference)
• PNP repeater installation procedure
– Step 1: End users measure the signal strength by their mobile phones
– Step 2: Put the PNP repeater near the windows, where the signal
strength is relatively good
– Step 3: Power on the repeater and that is all
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議程
• 背景介紹
• 產業及市場
• 未來展望
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Repeater產業生態
• Repeater一直以來都是Operator直接採購,因此
Repeater Business相當區域化
• Own Brand Repeater Makers (在台灣及大陸的Own
Brand Repeater廠商的大部分產品為ODM/OEM貼牌)
–
–
–
–
USA & Euro: Andrew, Powerwave, Axell,…
China: Comba(京信), Crentech(國人), Hxct(虹信), …
Korea: Solid Tech, Withus, ..
TW: Coiler (台灣可億隆), 佳得(Remotek)
• Repeater ODM/OEM集中在中國大陸及韓國
– 分別有大大小小上百家ODM/OEM,而且幾乎只專注在其本國市
場
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主流Repeater產品現況
• 目前在全球的 Repeater市場中,仍以Analog Repeater為
主,但Analog Repeater的缺點是需要繁複的工程施工及
設定,尤其需要穩定的信號傳輸環境
• 由於Digital技術能讓Repeater安裝簡便,並且適合變動的
信號傳輸環境,因此Digital Repeater應用一開始就受到相
當矚目及期待
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Repeater市場未來性
• 除中國外,印度及泰國等國家都將陸續發行3G執照。另
外,隨著無線行動通訊走向4G,對於無線信號的覆蓋品
質要求會越來越高,因此未來透過Repeater來達成覆蓋優
化的需求會越多
• 隨著Digital技術的成熟,可以將Repeater整機包括Donor
及Service Antennas作成All-in-one,這將促成家用及個人
Repeater的市場來臨,市場規模將至少會有倍數以上的成
長
• 一般室外與室內Repeater的數量比例約為1:10,目前室內
的市場主要集中在室內公共區域或營業場所,如地鐵、百
貨公司、餐廳及辦公室。
• 目前全球一年的Repeater市場規模約為2~3B USD(室內及
室外約1:1)
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議程
• 背景介紹
• 產業及市場
• 未來展望
Confidential. Copyright © 2010 MoreLink
Technology Corporation. All rights
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Mobile Comm. Evolution in
Next Decade (1)
09
2G
10
11
12
15
16
17
18
19
20
WCDMA/HSPA
16e/j WiMAX
Business
Trial
LTE
Tech.
Trial
4G
14
GSM/GPRS
3G
B3G
13
IMTAdvanced
Standard
16e/j WiMAX
Business Deployment
LTE
Business
Trial
IMTAdvanced
Tech. Trial
LTE
Business Deployment
IMT-Advanced
Business
Trial
IMT-Advanced
Business Deployment
*B3G: Beyond 3G
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Yr
Mobile Comm. Evolution in
Next Decade (2)
• User behavior has been changing from mobile voice to
mobile data
• WCDMA/HSPA still dominates the market share of
mobile communications in the following years
• Then, paradigm shift to B3G/4G will occur. Only niche
market of B3G/4G at this moment
• Two candidates left in the race to the 4G
– 802.16m(WiMAX2) by IEEE & WiMAX Forum
– LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) by 3GPP
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Relay:Repeater的下一步
• Relay: N.G. of Repeater
– Defined by WiMAX, LTE, and 4G
• 3 layers relays
– L1 relay: a.k.a. repeater
– L2 relay: 16j relay, LTE L2 relay
– L3 relay: a.k.a. wireless-IP BS, LTE L3 relay
L3 Protocol
L3 Relay
L2 Protocol Control,
Baseband Management
L2 Relay
RF
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L1 Relay
21
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