Reference Obligation

Report
European Leveraged Loan CDS Trading
Morgan Stanley & Co. International Ltd
Leveraged LCDS:
Introduction
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
2
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
Executive Summary
•
Morgan Stanley has led the development of the European Leveraged Loan CDS market
•
Leveraged Loan CDS has enabled European bank loan portfolio managers to transfer leveraged loan risk efficiently to
investors whilst still remaining a lender of record and retaining crucial client/sponsor relationships
•
Since launching the business in July 2005, Morgan Stanley has traded approximately $3.5 bn in notional contracts value
•
More than three dozen investors, both buy- and sell-side, have signed into the Morgan Stanley documentation
•
Six other European dealers have agreed to use standard documentation that is substantially similar to the document
created by Morgan Stanley
•
We anticipate the launch of the first purely synthetic CLO once the liquidity in the market develops
•
Morgan Stanley was instrumental in the development of the European Leveraged Loan index product (iTraxx LevX) which
launched recently
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
3
Leveraged Loan
Asset Class
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
4
Leveraged Loan Asset Class
European High Yield Bonds vs. Leveraged Loans
High Yield Bonds
Leveraged Loans
Interest
Fixed/Floating
Floating
Coupon/Margin
Unchanged
Margin Ratchet (e.g., Leverage)
Rated
Yes
Not usually public
Seniority
Senior or subordinated
Senior
Security
Unsecured
Secured
Covenants
Incurrence covenants
Maintenance covenants
Callability
Call protections, premiums
Not customary
Investors
Funds, Pension Funds,
Insurance Companies
Banks, Funds
Volatility
High
Low
Recovery
Low (~20-50%)
High (~60-80%)
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
5
Leveraged Loan Asset Class
European Leveraged Loan Capital Structures
Type
Repayment
Maturity (years)
Margin (bps)
Senior Debt
Tranche A
Term Loan
Amortising
7
225
Tranche B
Term Loan
Bullet
8
275
Tranche C
Term Loan
Bullet
9
325
Bullet
7
225
Revolver
Other potential senior tranches: Acquisition, Integration, Capex
Subordinated Debt
Note:
2nd Lien
Term Loan
Bullet
9-9.5
400-700
Mezzanine(1)
Term Loan
Bullet
10
9-12% (incl. PIK),
plus warrants
High Yield Bond(1)
Details depend on the Issuer and market conditions at time of issue. More
typical for the larger deals
(1) Subordinated debt will either comprise mezzanine or a high yield bond, not customary for both
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
6
Leveraged Loan Asset Class
Leveraged Structures: Contractual and Structural Subordination
US High Yield
European High Yield
Shareholders
Shareholders
European Mezzanine
Support Package
(Guarantees on
subordinated basis
by operating
subsidiaries with fall
away provision)
Shareholders
HY
Mezzanine
Hold Co
Hold Co
Senior
Facilities
HY
(2nd Lien over assets)
Inter-company
loan
Intermediate
Hold Co
Operating
Subsidiaries
Support Package (incl.
guarantees and security)
Hold Co
Operating
Subsidiaries
Senior
Facilities
Senior
Facilities
(1st Lien
over assets)
Operating
Subsidiaries
Support Package (incl.
guarantees and security
over all assets)
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
7
Leveraged Loan Market
Overall New-Issue Leveraged Loan Volume
$400B
$300B
369
276
262
256
234
246
$200B
179
173
242
196
195
156
131
133
$100B
127
90
123
$0B
33
1999
60
79
2000
2001
40
48
2002
2003
Europe
Source:
68
2004
37
2005
1Q06
US
S&P LCD
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
8
Leveraged Loan Market
Average Contributed Equity to Leveraged Buyouts
Equity as a Percent of Total Sources
50%
40%
34%
32%
34%34%
34%35%
1999
2000
2001
37%
32%
34%35%
33%33%
33%
30%
33%
31%
2003
2004
2005
1Q06
30%
20%
10%
0%
2002
Europe
Source:
US
S&P LCD
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
9
Leveraged Loan Market
Average Leveraged Buyout Purchase Price Multiple
9.00
8.00
8.79
8.31
7.67
7.40
7.56
7.29
7.32
7.06
7.00
8.71
7.57
7.09
6.99
6.81
6.63
6.62
5.99
6.00
5.00
1999
2000
2001
2002
Europe
Source:
2003
2004
2005
1Q06
US
S&P LCD
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
10
Leveraged Loan Market
Moving Up The Capital Structure
L+1050
L+950
L+850
L+750
L+650
L+550
L+450
L+350
L+250
EUR HY Loans
Source:
EUR HY Bonds
06
1Q
05
2Q
04
3Q
03
4Q
03
1Q
02
2Q
01
3Q
00
4Q
00
1Q
99
2Q
98
3Q
97
4Q
1Q
97
L+150
US HY Loans
S&P LCD, Morgan Stanley
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
11
Convergence of Markets
Institutional Investors’ Share of the Primary Market for Leveraged Loans
75%
60%
45%
30%
15%
0%
1999
2000
2001
2002
Europe
2003
2004
2005
LTM 1Q06
US
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
12
Leveraged LCDS:
Introduction
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
13
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
Benefits to Buyers of Protection





Morgan Stanley has
developed a trade
confirmation for use with
European leveraged loans
•
CDS terminates upon full repayment of underlying loan – No Basis Risk
•
Ability to hedge the right part of the capital structure – No Recovery Risk
Intention is to create a
different CDS market for each
level of the capital structure:
i.e., senior secured, second
lien and mezzanine loans
•
Ability to hedge private leveraged loans
•
Ability to mitigate risk without risking sponsor / company relationship
Users can now mitigate risk
on private leveraged loans,
without crystallizing losses
•
Ability to trade out of protection and recover cost of hedge over remaining life of loan
•
Free up regulatory capital
•
Ultimately improved liquidity over the cash market
Restructuring as a credit
event will enable bank loan
portfolio managers to
efficiently reduce regulatory
capital usage
Tenor of hedge can be
chosen by protection buyer
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
14
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
Benefits to Sellers of Protection




•
Ability to access credits that no longer are trading in the cash market
Seller of protection can
access credits that no longer
actively trade in the
secondary market, without
the risk of early prepayment
•
Ability to access private transactions (i.e., that have no public securities)
•
No prepayment risk – if loan is fully repaid, CDS terminates
Seller can choose the
currency of exposure,
regardless of underlying
currency of loan
•
No margin ratchet concerns
•
Ability to sell in GBP, USD or EUR, regardless of underlying currency of loan
•
CLO managers can add more recent transaction exposure to vintage vehicles
•
Cash settlement option available to Seller only
•
Capital efficient means of gaining exposure to credits given leveraged nature of product
Cash settlement option
available to Seller if unable to
take delivery of loan on a
Credit Event
Tenor of exposure can be
chosen by Seller of
protection
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
15
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
Benefits to Buyers and Sellers of Protection

More efficient trading and
risk/reward transfer through:





T + 1 settlement
Tax efficient
Consent avoidance
Fee avoidance
Ultimately greater liquidity
•
Ability to close trades on T + 1 vs. T + 10 (par) vs. T + 20 (distressed)
•
Ability to choose tenor of credit exposure (1 – 10 years)
•
Tax efficient means of exposure to credits
•
Avoids borrower / agent consent issues
•
Avoids transfer fees
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
16
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
Key Features of Trade Confirmation




Morgan Stanley has
developed the leveraged loan
CDS from the standard ISDA
form as a baseline
The CDS is not linked to any
single tranche, rather to a
ranking within the capital
structure
Adjustments were made to
accommodate the unique
nature of the loan product
and to enable the ISDA form
to deal with security and
ranking
•
Reference Entity – all obligors
•
Reference Obligation – Reference Credit Agreement, plus, New Tranches (permits the
ability to add tranches, for e.g., in the instance of a recapitalization, provided certain
tests are met)
•
Termination Event – full refinancing of all tranches relating to CDS
•
Any tranche within credit agreement can be delivered – cheapest to deliver concept
•
Credit Events:
1) Failure to Pay
2) Bankruptcy
3) Restructuring:
Voting rights were added to
ensure the Seller had the
ability to influence any future
creditor decisions
- Restrictions apply only if Buyer triggers under Restructuring
- Maturity limited to later of Mod Mod R or longest dated tranche before Restructuring
- Security diminished in Restructuring causes credit event, but cannot be delivered by Buyer
•
Physical settlement is the default, however, Seller has cash settlement option if unable
to receive physical or unwilling to accept participation
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
17
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
30 Business Days after
NOPS Fixing Date
30 calendar days
Notice
of Physical
Settlement
(NOPS)
Event
Determination
Date

Protection Buyer must
deliver NOPS by the
30th calendar day after
the Event Determination
Date (NOPS Fixing
Date)

Voting Rights pass on
delivery of NOPS
5 Business Days
Physical
Settlement
Date
5 Business Days
Participation
Settlement
Decision Date
Cash
Settlement
Election
Date
(Participation)
• Protection Buyer
notifies Seller of its
intention to create a
Participation (with
elevation rights) OR
• Transaction
terminates
• No time limit to
close Participation if
so elected
Cash
Settlement
Election
Date
Seller notifies Buyer of
intention to cash settle
no later than 5
Business Days after
the NOPS Fixing Date
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
18
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
Cash Settlement Mechanics
Later of (i) 5 Business Days after
Cash Settlement Election Date
and (ii) 10 Business Days after the
NOPS Fixing Date
3 Business Days
Cash
Settlement
Decision
Date
Cash
Settlement
Date
Valuation
Date
• Final Price = highest bid
• If no firm quotations
obtained then Physical
Settlement applies
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
19
Differences Between: European & US LCDS and
European Bond CDS
Reference Entity
European Bond CDS
European LCDS
US LCDS
• ABC plc and any
Successor
• Any borrower/guarantor/
obligor or surety under the
credit agreement
• ABC plc and any
Successor
• Successor provisions do not
apply
Reference
Obligation
• Typically a Bond
• All tranches or facilities under
the credit agreement
(including new tranches)
• Loan of the Designated Priority
specified on the Reference
Obligation Secured List
Obligation
• Borrowed Money
• Reference Obligation Only
• Borrowed Money
Credit Event
• Bankruptcy
• Bankruptcy
• Bankruptcy
• Failure to Pay
• Failure to Pay
• Failure to Pay
• Modified Modified
Restructuring
• Modified Modified
Restructuring
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
20
Differences Between: European & US LCDS and
European Bond CDS
European Bond CDS
European LCDS
US LCDS
Deliverable
Obligation
• Bond or Loan
• Not Subordinated
• Specified Currency
• Not Contingent
• Assignable Loan
• Consent Required Loan
• Transferable
• Maximum Maturity: 30 yrs
• Not Bearer
• Reference Obligation or any
obligation of the Reference
Entity that is senior to the
Reference Obligation and
secured on same assets
• Loan
• Not Subordinated
• Specified Currency
• Not Contingent
• Assignable Loan
• Consent Required Loan
• Participation Loan
• Maximum Maturity: 30 yrs
• Syndicated Secured
Early Termination
• Not Applicable
• Trade terminates if all of
Reference Obligations are
redeemed/repaid
• Trade terminates if no
Substitute Reference
Obligation is identified
Excluded
Deliverable
Obligations
• None. Usually the Reference • The Reference Obligation if
Obligation is a Deliverable
security is released and
Obligation
materially diminished following
a Restructuring credit event
exercised by the Buyer
• Reference Obligation if it fails
the Syndicated Secured or
Specified Currency
characteristic
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
21
Differences Between: European & US LCDS and
European Bond CDS
European Bond CDS
Physical Settlement
European LCDS
• Buyer delivers
• Buyer delivers Deliverable
Deliverable Obligations
Obligations with an
with an outstanding principal outstanding principal balance
balance equal to the Physical equal to the Physical
Settlement
Settlement Amount
Amount
• Seller can elect for Cash
Settlement to apply in
relation to all/part of the
Deliverable Obligations
US LCDS
• Buyer delivers DO with an
outstanding principal balance
equal to the Physical
Settlement
Amount
• Seller can elect for Cash
Settlement to apply if
assignment/participation
not completed within the
required time period
• Buyer/Seller may elect
settlement at any time in a
form which reflects the
economics of the trade
Delivery Timeline
• Notice of Physical Settlement • NOPS must be sent within 30
(“NOPS”) must be sent within calendar days of the Event
30 calendar days of Event
Determination Date
Determination Date (credit
event notice and notice of
publicly available information)
• NOPS must be sent within
30 calendar days of the
Event Determination Date
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
22
Differences Between: European & US LCDS and
European Bond CDS
European Bond CDS
Delivery Timeline
(continued)
European LCDS
• Deliverable Obligations
• Deliverable Obligations
must be delivered within 30
must be delivered within 30
business days of satisfaction business days of the day that
of Conditions to Settlement
is 30 calendar days after the
(i.e., delivery of NOPS)
Event Determination Date
US LCDS
• Deliverable Obligations
must be delivered within 30
business days of satisfaction
of Conditions to Settlement
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
23
Leveraged LCDS:
Trading Strategies
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
24
Back-of-the envelope Pricing
Two possible approaches:
• Calculate premium/discount of loan in basis points (i.e., loan trading at 101 = 100bps premium)
• Divide premium/discount by number of years to maturity/repayment (i.e., assuming 2yr takeout: 100/2 = 50bps)
• Add discount to or subtract premium from spread of underlying loan (i.e., 225 – 50 = 150bps) OR
• Assume bond CDS and Loan CDS have same default probability and the recovery rate for LCDS is 70%
and for bond CDS is 40%
• Spread LCDS/Spread bond CDS = 1-R/1-R (where R is the recovery rate)
• 1-70%/1-40% = 30/60 = 0.5 (LCDS spreads should be 0.5 times bond CDS spreads)
Source: Morgan Stanley
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
25
Capital Structure Trades and Curve Trades
What Views Do You Express in Long/Short Trades?
Senior vs. Sub
Sub vs. Senior
Curve Steepener
Curve Flattener
Trade
Strategies
Long 1st Lien vs.
Short 2nd Lien
Long Unsecured vs.
Short 2nd Lien
Long 3yr vs.
Short 5yr 1st Lien
Long 5yr vs.
Short 3yr 1st Lien
Rationale
• Defensive trade,
positive carry.
• Benefits from rising
default probability and
wider recovery rate
spread
• Bullish trade on
deleveraging and
IPO
• Long convexity
• LBO-exit play
• Assumes average
life of LBO ~36mths
• Long credit, positive
carry but also positive
JTD risk
Hedge-Ratio
• Loss-given-default
neutral
• Carry-neutral
• Carry-neutral
• Flat notional
Economics
• Positive carry
• LGD neutral
• Flat carry
• Flat carry
• LGD negative
• Positive carry
• DV01 long
Risks
• Sharp deleveraging,
IPO
• Wide recovery rate
differential
• Default
• Limited spread
widening
• Debt repayment
• Curve steepening
Source: Morgan Stanley
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
26
Leveraged Loan CDS: Relative Value
Comparing Value Across Capital Structures
1,000bps
Spread to 1st Lien
Spread to 2nd Lien
Unsecured
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
KBW
Source:
Unity
Basell
ATU
WDAC
KDG
Rexel
Cognis ONO
Telenet Grohe
Invensys
Morgan Stanley
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
27
European Leveraged
Loan CDS Market
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
28
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
Credits Available to Trade
AA
Ahold
Supermercados
Ahlsell
Amadeus
ATU*
Autobar
eircom*
Eutelsat*
EWT
Frans
Bonhomme
Focus*
Gala
Balta
Basell*
Gambro
Gardena
Gerresheimer*
Global Garden
Grohe*
Ineos*
Invensys*
Brenntag
BSN Medical
Cognis*
Debenhams
Debitel
Demag
Elior
Elis
ISS*
KBW*
KDG*
Kloeckner
Pentaplast*
Kwik-Fit
Linpac
M. Greisheim
Man Utd
Moeller
MTU Friedrich.
Multikabel
New Look*
NTL B’Cast
NTL/Telewest
Numericable
ONO*
Ontex
Pirelli Cable
Rexel*
Rockwood
Ruhrgas
Saga
Sanitec
SBS
Seat*
SigmaKalon
Smurfit Kappa*
Springer/KAP
SSP
Stabilus
Sulo
Symrise
TDC*
TDF
Telenet*
TMD Friction
Travelex
TUI*
United Biscuits*
UPC*
Vendex*
Vetco
Vivarte
Waste
Recycling*
WDAC*
Weetabix
Wind*
Xsys
Yell
Yellow Brick
Road
* Public Transactions
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
29
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
30
Leveraged LCDS:
Future Developments
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
31
European Leveraged Loan CDS Market
Future Developments

Once the single-name trading
business develops, the
market should follow the
recent development of the
traditional investment grade
and HY bond CDS markets
•
Tradable Senior Secured, Second Lien and Mezzanine iTraxx indexes
•
Macro hedging instruments for portfolio management
•
CLO tranche hedging
•
Synthetic CLO vehicles
•
Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI)
•
Recovery Trading
•
First to Default Baskets
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
32
European Leveraged Loan Indexes
LevX Indexes




The underlying contract will
be similar to the single-name
contract
1)
Trading on a price basis
allows for easy inter-dealer
assignments and unwinds
2)
Index will roll and re-balance
March 20 and September 20,
in line with other European
indexes
Physical settlement is initially
intended, however, a cash
settlement protocol may be
adopted in future
Lev X – Senior
•
35 1st lien credits only
Lev X – Subordinated
35 2nd and 3rd lien credits only
• Weighting of 2nd and 3rd lien between 40% and 60%
•
• June
2011 maturity
on price-basis with fixed coupon – only premium or discount
exchanged
• Traded
• Zero
factor applied to credits refinanced or credits defaulted; coupon paid on
remaining
• Physical
settlement
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
33
Source:
Lo
es
t's
Recovery Rate (%)
90
80
H
r,
Fo
C
re
ab
st
ea
le
Pr
lth
o
C
d
uc
ar
e,
ts
M
Ph
et
al
ar
s
m
an
a
d
M
Br
i
n
oa
in
dc
g
as
tin
R
et
g
Te
ai
an
l
le
d
co
M
m
e
di
m
a
un
ic
a
Tr
t
Bu
i
on
an
ild
s
sp
in
or
g
ta
an
tio
d
n
M
a
In
te
du
ria
st
ls
C
ria
he
l/M
m
ica
an
Ba
ls
uf
nk
a
in
ct
g
u
rin
Te
an
g
xt
d
ile
Fi
na
s
an
nc
Fo
d
e
Fu
od
rn
,B
i
t
ev
ur
e
,T
ob
M
a
cc
is
C
ce
o
on
lla
Le
s
ne
is
u
m
ur
ou
er
e
s
an
Pr
d
od
En
uc
te
ts
rta
C
om
in
m
pu
en
Au
te
t
rs
to
m
an
o
d
tiv
El
e
ec
tro
ni
cs
In
su
ra
nc
e
tili
tie
s
En
e
rg
D
ru
y
g
St
or
es
U
ng
,R
dg
i
rm
ar
ke
ts
,
g,
Pa
pe
Su
pe
in
am
G
Recovery Trading:
Recovery Is Only 40% on Average
Recovery Varies a Great Deal Sector to Sector
100
100
Median
Minimum
90
Maximum
80
70
70
60
60
50
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
0
Morgan Stanley
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
34
Appendix A
European Loan
Trading Process
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
35
European High Yield Credit Sales & Trading




The Loan Market does not
benefit from a central
clearinghouse
Key trade issues are
negotiated on each trade
Anatomy of a Trade
Bank Debt
Credit Default Swap
Trade Date (telephone or otherwise)
Trade date (telephone or otherwise)
Buyer and Seller exchange
Confidentiality Letter (if necessary)
T
Trade Date (telephone or otherwise)
T+1
Seller sends:
Effective Date, Buyer now protected
 Confirmation to Buyer
Buyer returns Confirmation to Seller
Seller sends Confirmation to Buyer
 Request to Agent for Borrower
consent (if required)
 Credit Documentation to Buyer
Standard documentation has
been developed by the LMA,
but it is not the only method
to document a trade
Trade settlement process can
be drawn out and require
close supervision
Bond
T-x
(unless sent prior to the Trade
Date)
T+2
Buyer returns Confirmation to Seller;
Agent sends consent request to
Borrower
T+3
Seller sends draft Completion
Documents to Buyer
T+2 - T+7
Buyer's due diligence on Credit
Documentation (unless completed
prior to Trade Date)
T+5
Signing of Completion Documents
(subject to any necessary consents)
and delivery to Agent (if required)
T+7
Borrower's approval of trade (or failure
to approve trade)
T+10
Settlement Date
T+11
Giving of any necessary notices
Not earlier than T+1m
Settlement Date
Date on which any assignment,
unwind or upfront fees are made
First premium cashflow (for trades not
paid for with an upfront fee). Premium
is paid quarterly in arrears aligned with
the maturity date. First cashflow
period long if it would otherwise have
been shorter than one month.
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
36
Disclaimer
The information and opinions in this report were prepared by Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated ("Morgan Stanley"). Morgan Stanley does not undertake to advise you of changes
in its opinion or information. Morgan Stanley and others associated with it may make markets or specialize in, have positions in and effect transactions in securities or instruments of
companies mentioned and may also perform or seek to perform investment banking services for those companies.
Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated, Morgan Stanley DW Inc. and/or their affiliates will deal as principal in the securities recommended herein.
Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated, Morgan Stanley DW Inc. and/or their affiliates or their employees have or may have a long or short position or holding in the securities, options
on securities, or other related investments of issuers mentioned herein.
The investments discussed or recommended in this report may not be suitable for all investors. Investors must make their own investment decisions based on their specific
investment objectives and financial position and using such independent advisors as they believe necessary. Where an investment is denominated in a currency other than the
investor’s currency, changes in rates of exchange may have an adverse effect on the value, price of, or income derived from the investment. Past performance is not necessarily a
guide to future performance. Income from investments may fluctuate. The price or value of the investments to which this report relates, either directly or indirectly, may fall or rise
against the interest of investors. Price and availability are subject to change without notice.
To our readers in the United Kingdom: This publication has been issued by Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated and approved by Morgan Stanley & Co. International Limited solely
for the purposes of section 21 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. Morgan Stanley & Co. International Limited and/or its affiliates may be providing or may have
provided significant advice or investment services, including investment banking services, for any company mentioned in this report. NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO PRIVATE
CUSTOMERS AS DEFINED BY THE U.K. FINANCIAL SERVICES AUTHORITY LIMITED.
This publication is disseminated in Japan by Morgan Stanley Japan Limited and in Singapore by Morgan Stanley Asia (Singapore) Securities Pte Ltd.
To our readers in Australia: This publication has been issued by Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated but is being distributed in Australia by Morgan Stanley Dean Witter Australia
Limited, a licensed dealer, which accepts responsibility for its contents. Any person receiving this report and wishing to effect transactions in any security discussed in it may wish to
do so with an authorized representative of Morgan Stanley Dean Witter Australia Limited.
To our readers in Canada: This publication has been prepared by Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated and is being made available in certain provinces of Canada by Morgan
Stanley Canada Limited. Morgan Stanley Canada Limited has approved of, and has agreed to take responsibility for, the contents of this publication in Canada.
To our readers in Spain: Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, S.V., S.A., a Morgan Stanley group company, supervised by the Spanish Securities Markets Commission (CNMV), hereby
states that this document has been written and distributed in accordance with the rules of conduct applicable to financial research as established under Spanish regulations.
Past performance is not indicative of future returns. Certain assumptions may have been made in this analysis which have resulted in any returns detailed herein. No
representation is made that any returns indicated will be achieved. Transaction costs (such as commissions) are not included in the calculation of returns. Changes to the
assumptions may have a material impact on any returns detailed.
Please see additional important disclosures at the end of this report.
37

similar documents