Chapter 04 Hardware

Report
Teachers Discovering Computers
Integrating Technology and
Digital Media in the Classroom
7th Edition
Chapter 4
Hardware for Educators
Three main parts of computers
 Input
 System unit
 Output
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The System Unit
 Electronic components a
computer uses to process
data
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Data Representation
 Analog vs. Digital
 Digital
 Two states
 (1) on
 (0) off
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Data Representation
 Binary number system
 Combination of ones and zeroes represent
characters
Bit
Byte
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The Components of the System Unit
1-(The Motherboard)
Contains many of the electronic components
2- Chip (Processor)
A small piece of semiconducting material usually no
bigger than one-half-inch square and is made up of
many layers of circuits and microscopic components
that carry electronic signals
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The Components of the System Unit
3. The Control Unit
A component of the CPU that directs and coordinates most of
the operations in the computer
 Fetch - get the next instruction from memory
 Decode - translate the instruction
 Execute - carry out the command
 Store the result - write the result to memory
 Machine cycle
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The Components of the System Unit
4. The Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
 Performs the execution part of the machine cycle
 Arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division)
 Comparison (greater than, equal to, less than)
 Logical (AND, OR, NOT)
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The Components of the System Unit
5. The System Clock
 Synchronizes all computer operations
 Each tick is called a clock cycle
 Faster clock means more instructions the CPU can
execute each second
 Speed measured in gigahertz (GHz)
What is the Speed of your computer? Link
Windows /Pause
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The Components of the System Unit
6. Memory (ROM)
 Used to store data and instructions
 The operating system and other system software
 Application software
 Data being processed by application programs
 Bytes are stored at specific locations or addresses
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The Components of the System Unit
 Memory (ROM)
 Size of memory is measured by the number of
bytes available
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The Components of the System Unit
7- Random Access Memory (RAM)
 The memory chips in the system unit
 When the computer starts, certain operating
system files are loaded from a storage device into
RAM
What is the Speed of your computer?
Link
Windows /Pause
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The Components of the System Unit
 Random Access Memory (RAM)
 Configuring RAM
 The more RAM, the more programs and files a
computer can work on at once
 Software usually tells you how much RAM is
required
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The Components of the System Unit
 Read-Only Memory
(ROM)
 Cannot be modified
 Contents not lost when
the computer is turned
off
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The Components of the System Unit
8. Expansion Slots and Expansion Cards
 Expansion slot
 A socket on the motherboard that can hold an expansion
card
 Add new devices or capabilities to the computer
 Expansion card
 Circuit board that enhances functions of a system
component and/or provides connections to peripherals
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The Components of the System Unit
9. Removable Memory
Devices
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Flash memory cards
USB flash drives
PC Cards
ExpressCard modules
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The Components of the System Unit
10.Ports and Connectors
 Port
 Point of attachment to the system unit
 Usually on the back and front of the system unit
 Connectors (wires)
 Used to plug into ports
 Male connectors
 Female connectors
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The Components of the System Unit
 Ports and Connectors
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USB
USB 2.0
USB 3.0
FireWire
Bluetooth
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What is Input?
 Any data or instructions you enter into the
memory of a computer
 Data – unprocessed items
 Programs - series of instructions that tells the
computer how to perform a task
 Commands - an instruction given to a computer
program
 User responses - responses to questions or
messages from the software
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What are Input Devices?
 Any hardware component that allows you to enter
data, programs, commands, and user responses
into a computer
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What are Input Devices?
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What are Input Devices?
1. Mouse
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One or two button mouse
Scroll wheel
Moving the mouse pointer
Clicking
Dragging
Double-clicking
Optical mouse
Wireless mouse
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What are Input Devices?
2. Touchpad and Pointing
Stick
 Touchpad – small, flat,
rectangular pointing
device that is sensitive to
pressure and motion
 Pointing Stick – pressuresensitive pointing device
shaped like a pencil
eraser
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What are Input Devices?
3. Trackball
 Like a mouse, but the
ball mechanism is on
top
 Requires frequent
cleaning
 Good when you have
limited desk space
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What are Input Devices?
4. Joystick
 Uses the movement of a vertical lever
 Often used with games
5. Wheel
 Steering-wheel type input device
 Used to simulate driving a car or other vehicle
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What are Input Devices?
6. Touch and multi-touch
screens
 Monitor has a touch
sensitive panel
 Used to issue simple
commands or choose
from a list of options
 Some models of
desktop and notebook
computers, all tablet
computers, and many
mobile devices have
touch screens
 Kiosks
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What are Input Devices?
7. Optical Scanners
 Captures an entire page of text or images such as
photographs or artwork electronically
 Converts the text or image on the original
document into digital data that can be stored on a
storage medium and processed by the computer
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What are Input Devices?
8. Pen Input
 Users write, draw,
and tap on a flat
surface to enter input
 Stylus – small metal
or plastic device that
looks like a tiny ink
pen but uses
pressure instead of
ink
 Digital pen – slightly
larger than a stylus
and provides more
functionality
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What are Input Devices?
9. Digital Cameras
 Allows you to take
pictures and store the
photographed images
digitally
 Download, or transfer,
pictures to your computer
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What are Input Devices?
10. Audio and Video Input
 Audio input
 Entering speech, music, or sound effects
 Sound card
 Speech Recognition
 Computer’s capability of distinguishing spoken words
 Video input
 Capturing a full-motion recording onto a computer
and storing the video on a computer’s storage
medium
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What is Output?
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Text
Graphics
Audio
Video
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What are Output Devices?
 Any computer component capable of conveying
information to the user
 Commonly used output devices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Display devices
Printers
Data projectors
Facsimile machines
Multifunction devices
Interactive whiteboards
Speakers, headphones, and earphones
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What are Output Devices?
1. Display devices
 Cathode ray tube (CRT)
 LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors
 Plasma monitors
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What are Output Devices?
 Monitor Quality
 Resolution (sharpness and clarity)
 Expressed as number of columns and rows
 1600 x 1200
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What are Output Devices?
2. Printers
An output device that produces text and graphics on
a physical medium such as paper or transparency
film.
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What are Output Devices?
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What are Output Devices?
Nonimpact Printers
Do not strike paper
Much quieter
A- Ink-jet printers
 Spray tiny drops of ink
onto the paper
 Both black-and-white
and color
B- Photo printers
 Produce photo lab
quality pictures
 Many use ink-jet
technology
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What are Output Devices?
C- Laser printers
 High-speed, high-quality
nonimpact printer
 Very high quality
resolution
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What are Output Devices?
3. Data Projectors
 Allows an audience to
view output
 LCD projectors
 Digital light processing
(DLP) projector
 Most LCD projectors
are five pounds and
up.
 LCD has historically
better color saturation
but less clear picture
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What are Output Devices?
4. Facsimile (Fax) Machine
 Used to transmit and
receive an image of a
document over a
telephone line
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What are Output Devices?
5. Multifunction Devices
 Can print, scan, copy
and fax
 Less space
 Lower cost than separate
units
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What are Output Devices?
6. Interactive whiteboards
 Touch-sensitive device,
resembling a dry-erase
board.
 I’ll have a demo
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What are Output Devices?
7. Speakers, Headphones,
and Earphones
 Voice output
 Audio output device
 Internal speaker
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What is Storage?
 The devices that record and
retrieve data, instructions,
and information
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Storage Media and Devices
 Storage device or Short term memory or RAM or
Random Access memory (active files, active
memory)
 Storage Medium or secondary storage or ROM
(Read Only Memory) such as Disk, CD, DVD,
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Storage Media and Devices
1. Magnetic Disk (Floppy or
ZIP)
 Uses magnetic patterns to
store data, instructions,
and information on the
disk’s surface
 Formatting is the process
of preparing a disk for
reading and writing by
organizing the disk into
storage locations called
tracks and sectors
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Storage Media and Devices
2. Hard Disks
 Provide large storage capacity
 Sizes range from 320 GB to 1.5 TB
 Consists of several inflexible, circular disks, called
platters
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Storage Media and Devices
3. Miniature and Portable Hard Disks
 Miniature hard disks are found in mobile devices
and consumer electronics and have greater
storage capacities than flash memory
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Storage Media and Devices
4- Portable Hard Disks (External Hard Discs)
Up to 4 TB
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Storage Media and Devices
5. Solid State Drives
 A storage device that typically uses flash memory
to store data, instructions, and information and
contains no moving parts
 Range in size from 16 GB to 512 GB
 Used in all types of computers
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Storage Media and Devices
6- Optical discs (CDs and DVDs)
 Type of storage medium that consists of a flat,
round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and
lacquer that is written to and read from using a
laser
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Storage Media and Devices
 CD-ROM
 Compact disc read-only
memory
 Can contain text,
graphics, video, as well
as sound
 Can hold up to 1 GB
 Used to distribute
software
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Storage Media and Devices
 CD-R and CD-RW
 Compact disc-recordable
 Can write on each part of the disc only one time
 Cannot be erased
 Compact disc-rewriteable
 Can write on multiple times
 Erasable disc
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Storage Media and Devices
 DVD and BD
 Digital video disc read-only memory (DVD-ROM)
 Can store from 4.7 GB to 17 GB
 High quality
 DVD-ROM drives
 BD (Blu-ray Disc) has storage capacities of 100GB,
with expectations of exceeding 200 GB
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Storage Media and Devices
7. Miniature Mobile Storage Media (memory cards)
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Miniature Mobile Storage Media
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Storage Media and Devices
8. USB Flash Drive
Storage device that plugs into a USB port on a
computer or mobile device
9. Smart Card
Similar in size to a credit card
Stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in
the card
10.Cloud Storage
Rapidly growing Internet service that provides
storage to computer users
Apple’s iCloud
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