tia10e_ch06_ppt - Computer and Information Science

Report
Technology
in Action
Alan Evans • Kendall Martin
Mary Anne Poatsy
Tenth Edition
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Technology in Action
Chapter 6
Understanding and Assessing Hardware:
Evaluating Your System
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Chapter Topics
• Your Ideal Computer
• Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
• Evaluating the Memory Subsystem
• Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
• Evaluating the Video and Audio
Subsystems
• Evaluating System Reliability and Making
a Final Decision
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2
Your Ideal Computer
• New technologies emerge so quickly that it
is hard to decide if expensive extras are
tools you would use
• Should you upgrade your system?
• Should you buy a new computer?
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3
Your Ideal Computer (cont.)
• Things to consider
– CPUs are becoming
faster
– Moore’s Law
– System components
continue to improve
– Hard drives growing in
storage capacity
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Your Ideal Computer (cont.)
• Huge number of choices
– Tablets
– Ultrabooks
– Netbooks
– Tablet PCs
– Laptops
– Desktops
• Mobility versus processing power
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Your Ideal Computer (cont.)
• Desktop
– Best value
– 24-inch or larger monitor
– More reliable
– Easier to expand and upgrade
– More difficult to steal
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Your Ideal Computer (cont.)
• Computers usually last 2 years and maybe
even 4 or 5
• Depends on how easy it is to upgrade
• Laptops often have an ExpressCard slot
– Solid-state drive
– New kinds of ports
– Other capabilities
– Ultrabooks and tablets don’t have
ExpressCard expansion options
• ExpessCards can add a solid-state drive (SSD)
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
• CPU
– Located on motherboard
– Processes instructions,
performs calculations, and
manages flow of information
through a computer system
– Intel Core processors
• Dominant processors (i7, i5,
and i3)
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
How the CPU Works
• CPU is composed of two units
– Control unit coordinates activities of all other
computer components
– Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic
calculations
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
How the CPU Works (cont.)
• Machine cycle is series of steps performed
to process a program instruction
– Fetch data or instruction from RAM
– Decode instruction that computer understands
– Execute instruction
– Store result in RAM
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
CPU Factors
• CPU’s processing power
– Clock speed – dictates how many instructions
the CPU can process each second
• Overclocking – run the CPU at a faster speed than
the manufacturer recommends
– Cores – contains the parts of the CPU
required for processing
– Cache memory
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
CPU Factors (cont.)
• Hyperthreading allows a new set of
instructions to start before the previous set
has finished
• Multiple cores used on one CPU chip
enable execution of two sets of
instructions at the same time
• Possible to design CPU to have multiple
cores and hyperthreading
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
CPU Factors (cont.)
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
CPU Factors (cont.)
• Cache memory allows immediate access
to data and instructions without having to
go to RAM
• Cache memory levels
– Level 1 cache is memory built onto CPU chip
for storage of data or commands just used
– Level 2 and Level 3 cache are slightly farther
away, take longer to access, and contain
more storage space
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
CPU Factors (cont.)
• CPU Benchmarks are measurements
used to compare processor performance
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
Measuring the CPU
• Computer’s OS has utilities to measure
CPU usage
– Task Manager
– CPU usage graph
– Depends on number of programs running at
one time
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Evaluating the CPU Subsystem
Measuring the CPU (cont.)
• Overall performance depends on many
factors, including RAM and hard drive
speed
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Evaluating the Memory Subsystem
• Random access memory (RAM) is a
computer’s temporary storage space
– Short-term memory
– Available only when computer is on
– Volatile storage
• ROM memory
– Holds critical startup instructions
– Nonvolatile storage
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Evaluating the Memory Subsystem
• Faster for CPU to retrieve data from RAM
• Fastest memory is more expensive
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Evaluating the Memory Subsystem
The RAM in Your System
• Types
– Double data rate 3 (DDR3)
– Double data rate 5 (DDR5)
• Memory modules are small circuit boards
that hold a series of RAM chips
• Dual inline memory modules (DIMMs)
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Evaluating the Memory Subsystem
The RAM in Your System (cont.)
• Amount of RAM is computer’s physical
memory
– System Properties window
– Measured in gigabytes
• SuperFetch: Monitors which applications
are used the most and preloads them
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Evaluating the Memory Subsystem
The RAM in Your System (cont.)
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Evaluating the Memory Subsystem
The RAM in Your System (cont.)
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Evaluating the Memory Subsystem
Adding RAM
• Motherboard has specific number of slots
for memory cards
• Each slot has limit on amount of RAM it
can hold
• Operating system imposes own RAM limit
– Windows 8 (32 bit) maximum is 4 GB
– Windows 8 (64 bit) maximum is 192 GB
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Evaluating the Memory Subsystem
Adding RAM
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
• Temporary storage
– RAM
• Permanent storage
– Hard drives
– Solid state drives (SSDs)
– Optical drives
– External hard drives
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Mechanical Hard Drives
• Largest capacity of any storage devices
– Some exceed 4 TB
• More economical than other storage
• Most systems can support more than one
internal hard drive
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Mechanical Hard Drives (cont.)
• Composed of coated platters stacked
on a spindle
– Platter – each plate that composes a hard
drive
• Data saved as pattern of magnetized
spots of 1s and 0s
• When retrieved, patterns of spots are
translated into data Access arms
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Mechanical Hard Drives (cont.)
Read/write
head
Access arms
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Mechanical Hard Drives (cont.)
• Access time – the time it takes the hard
drive to locate stored data and make it
available for processing
– Measured in milliseconds (ms)
• Optical drives have faster access time
• Large-capacity drives access time is 12 to
13 ms
• DVD drive can take over 150 ms
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Mechanical Hard Drives (cont.)
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Solid State Drives
• SSDs: Use electronic memory and have
no mechanical motors or moving parts
– Fast access times
– Run with no noise, generate little heat, require
little power
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Dig Deeper
How a Mechanical Hard Drive Works
• Track (concentric circles) and sector (pieshaped wedges) created in the
magnetized surface of each platter during
low-level formatting to prepare disks to
hold data
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Dig Deeper
How a Mechanical Hard Drive Works
• Read/write heads retrieve and record
magnetic data to and from the hard drive
platter
• Access time has two factors: seek time
and latency
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Optical Drives
• Store data as tiny
pits burned into the
disc by high-speed
laser
• Optical media
– Compact disc (CD)
– Digital video disc
(DVD)
– Blu-ray disc (BD)
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Optical Drives (cont.)
• Optical media formats
– Prerecorded
– Recordable
– Rewriteable
• Many lightweight systems don’t include
optical drives
• External optical drives
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Your Storage Capacity and Needs
• Hard drive capacity
– Measured in gigabytes or terabytes
• Need enough to store
– The OS
– Software applications
– Data files
– Digital libraries
• Other options
– External hard drive
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Your Storage Capacity and Needs
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Your Storage Capacity and Needs (cont.)
• Redundant array of independent disks
(RAID): Set of strategies for using more
than one drive
– RAID 0
• Cuts files in half between two drives
• Faster
– RAID 1
• Mirrored drives
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Evaluating the Storage Subsystem
Your Storage Capacity and Needs (cont.)
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Evaluating the Video Subsystem
Video Cards
• Video display depends on two components
– Video card
• Expansion card that translates binary data into images
– Monitor
• Ports
– DVI
– HDMI
– DisplayPort
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Evaluating the Video Subsystem
Video Cards (cont.)
• Video memory
– Graphics double data rate 3 (GDDR3)
– Graphics double data rate 5 (GDDR5)
• Evaluate system video card information
using Advanced Settings of the Screen
Resolution dialog box
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Evaluating the Video Subsystem
Video Cards (cont.)
• GPU performs computational work like
CPU
• Specialized to handle
– 3D graphics
– Image and video processing
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Evaluating the Video Subsystem
Video Cards (cont.)
• CPU runs more efficiently when a GPU
does all graphics computation
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Evaluating the Video Subsystem
Video Cards (cont.)
• Two or even three video cards can be
used
• Video chip set manufacturers
– Nvidia: SLI
– ATI: Crossfire
• 3-D panels
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Evaluating the Audio Subsystem
• Computers output sound with speakers
and a sound card
• 3-D sound technology is better at
convincing the human ear that sound is
omnidirectional
• Surround sound is a type of audio
processing that makes the listener
experience sounds as if it were coming
from all directions
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Evaluating the Audio Subsystem
• Dolby Digital 7.1
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Evaluating the Audio Subsystem
• Audio MIDI Interface
box – used to connect
MIDI instruments,
high-quality
microphones, and
recording equipment
to your computer
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Evaluating System Reliability
• Performance problems
– Slow performance
– Freezes
– Crashes
• Try to fix problem before buying a new
machine
• Proper upkeep and maintenance could
postpone upgrade or replacement
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Evaluating System Reliability (cont.)
• Clear out unnecessary files
• Install a reliable antivirus package
• Run spyware and adware removal programs
• Run the Disk Defragmenter utility
• These utilities can be configured to run
automatically at any time interval
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Evaluating System Reliability (cont.)
• System problems
– Troubleshooting
• Check RAM
• Refresh
• System restore
• Microsoft Knowledge Base
• Search Google
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Evaluating System Reliability (cont.)
• Latest version of software increases
reliability
• Upgrade or update OS, browser software,
and application software
• Problem Steps Recorder
• Automatic Updates
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Evaluating System Reliability (cont.)
• Upgrade the OS to the latest version
– Substantial increases in reliability
– Might require hardware upgrades
• Additional RAM
• Updated graphics processor
• Larger hard drive
– Windows 8 upgrade automatically checks
system compatibility
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Making a Final Decision
• How closely does your system meet your
needs?
• How much would it cost to upgrade your
system?
• How much would it cost to purchase a
new system?
• Price both scenarios to determine better
value
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
1. What kind of computer is best for me?
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
2. What does the CPU do, and how can I
evaluate its performance?
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
3. How does memory work in my computer?
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
4. How do I evaluate how much memory I
need?
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
5. What are the computer’s storage
devices?
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
6. How do I evaluate my storage devices?
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
7. What components affect the quality of
video on my computer?
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
8. How do I know if I need better video
performance?
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
9. What components affect my computer’s
sound quality?
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Chapter 6 Summary Questions
10. How can I improve the reliability of my
system?
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permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall

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