6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL

Report
Ch 6. Combinational Logic Design Practices
6.1 Documentation standards
The type of documentation depends on system complexity and the
engineering and manufacturing environments, a documentation package
should generally contain at least the following six item:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Specification ( I/O, function )
Block diagram ( pictorial description )
Schematic diagram (electrical components, interconnection IC type)
Timing diagram (logic signals as a function)
Structured logic device description
( logic equations, state tables/diagram)
Circuit description ( narrative text document)
6.1.1 Block Diagrams
Control Signal
6.1.2 Gate Symbols
A
B
F
F = (A’ * B’)’ = A’’ + B’’ = A + B
6.1.3 Signal Names and Active Levels
6.1.4 Active Levels for Pins
6.1.4 Active Levels for Pins
6.1.5 Bubble-to-Bubble Logic Design
6.1.5 Bubble-to-Bubble Logic Design
(A * SEL)’
(B * SEL’)’
= ((A*SEL)’ * (B * SEL’)’)’
= A*SEL + B*SEL’
(Hard to read)
(Easy to read)
6.1.5 Bubble-to-Bubble Logic Design
6.1.7 Drawing Layout
6.1.8 Buses
6.1.8 Buses
6.1.8 Buses
/ 16
/8
/8
6.1.9 Additional Schematic Information
6.2 Circuit Timing
Most digital systems are sequential circuits that operate step-by-step under
the control of a periodic clock signal, and the speed of the clock is limited by
the worst-case time that it takes for the operations in on step to complete.
Thus digital designers need to be keenly aware of timing behavior in order to
build fast circuits that operate correctly under all conditions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Timing Diagrams
Propagation Delay
Timing Specifications
Timing Analysis
Timing Analysis Tools
6.2.1 Timing Diagrams
Causality
6.2.1 Timing Diagrams
Uncertain transition
6.2.2 Propagation Delay
Vin
Vout
- maximum/minimum delay
- typical : average
- worst-case delay
tpHL
tpLH
ex) 99% good IC, CKT with 100 IC
100
(1 - 0.99 ) x 100 = 63% ( would not work)
=
sum of worst case delay through individual component
=
max. delay
6.2.3 Timing Specifications
The timing specification for a device may give minimum, typical, and
maximum values for each propagation-delay path and transition direction
6.3 Combinational PLDs
6.3.1 Programmable Logic Arrays : PLA
# of inputs (n)
# of outputs (m)
# of product term (P)
‘ n X m PLA with P product term ‘
Contains p AND gates(2n-input) and m OR gates(p inputs)
-
2n-input AND gate -> p
P-input OR gate -> m
-
→ PLA fuses are ‘x’ in the figure and nonvolatile memory cells.
→ They are programmed.
2n = true or complement of input
6.3.1 Programmable Logic Arrays
6.3.1 Programmable Logic Arrays
O1 = I1·I2 + I1´·I2´·I3´·I4´
O2 = I1·I3´ + I1´·I3·I4 + I2
O3 = I1·I2 + I1·I3´ + I1´·I2´·I4´
P1
P2
= I1*I2 + I1’*I2’*I3’*I4’
6.3.1 Programmable Logic Arrays
6.3.2 Programmable Array Logic Devices
6.3.3 Generic Array Logic Devices
[Ex-2] GAL16L8 : Fig 27
input output
• XOR gate between OR and inverter
output polarity
= if fuse -> intact, XOR = AB+AB (B =0)
= A (PASS)
-> blown , XOR = AB+AB (B=1)
= A ( inverting)
6.3.4 Complex Programmable Logic Devices(CPLDs)
Chapter 9
6.3.5 CMOS PLD Circuits
i) AND-OR diode logic
5V
A
A
X = A·B
B
B
• fusible link, high voltage ( 10~30V ) -> OFF
• masked programmed PLD -> ROM
X = A+B
6.3.5 CMOS PLD Circuits
ii) CMOS PLD CKTs
< AND plane >
< OR plane >
6.3.5 CMOS PLD Circuits
iii) erasable PLD
accumulated charge at high volt(25V)
ultra-violet light -> erase
floating gate ( change storage device)
10 years -> 70% decay
Ex) PLD writer : PLD programmer and testing (test vector generation)
6.4 Decoder
A decoder is a multiple-input, multiple-out logic circuit that converts coded
inputs into coded outputs, where the input and output codes are different
1.
2.
3.
4.
Binary Decoders
Logic Symbols for Larger-Scale Elements
The 74x138 3-to-8 Decoder
Decoders in VHDL
6.4.1 Binary Decoder
n
- 2 decoder
n bit binary
input code
n
1 out of 2 output code
6.4.1 Binary Decoder
P.52 [Fig6] Gary code
6.4.3 The 74x138 3-to-8 Decoder
Y5 = G1*G2A*G2B*CB’A
Enable
Select
6.4.3 The 74x138 3-to-8 Decoder
G2A = G2A_L’, G2B = G2B_L’, Y5 = Y5_L’
Y5 = G1 * G2A * G2B * CB’A
Y5_L = G1’ + G2A_L + G2B_L +C’ + B + A’
6.4.3 The 74x138 3-to-8 Decoder
• 3 enable inputs : G1, G2A , G2B
• ex) Y5 = G1· G2A · G2B·A·B·C
because of inversion bubble on Y5
Y5´ = (G1· G2A · G2B·A·B·C)´
= G1´+ G2A + G2B+A+B+C
6.4.4 Cascading Binary Decoders
higher order decoder : tree decoding
• 4 select inputs : N0 N1 N2 N3
+ 1 enable EN
• SN74154 ( 1 out of 16 decoder )
6.4.4 Cascading Binary Decoders
3LSBs
2MSBs
N4*N3 = 00,Y0’ = L
N4*N3 = 01,Y1’ = L
N4*N3 = 10,Y2’ = L
N4*N3 = 11,Y3’ = L
6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL
Entity : Simply a declaration
of a module’s inputs and
outputs
Architecture : a detailed
description of the module’s
internal behavior or
structure
6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL
When A = 010, then Y_L_i = 11011111
When G1*G2A’’*G2B’’ = G1*G2A_L’*G2B_L’
6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL
Active-level handling
6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL
6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL
6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL
Instead of Table 6-17 Dataflow
definition, Behavior Model
uses a process and sequential
statements
6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL
Page268 Table5-25
Convert std_logic_vector to integer
6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL
6.4.6 Decoder in VHDL
6.5 Encoder
A decoder’s output code normally has more bits than its input code. If the
device’s output code has fewer bits than the input code, the device is usually
called an encoder
1.
2.
3.
Priority Encoders
The 74x148 Priority Encoder
Encoders in VHDL
6.5.1 Priority Encoders
= I1 + I3 + I5 + I7
= I2 + I3 + I6 + I7
= I4 + I5 + I6 + I7
6.5.1 Priority Encoders
- 2n inputs  each indicates a ‘request’ for service
(=interrupt request)
- priority encoder
 each request has a priority
-ex) 8-to-3 encoder : 74x148 (I7 = highest priority)
 idle : if no input
6.5.2 The 74x148 Priority Encoder
-logic symbol :
· EI : enable input
· Gs : assert if Enable and more than 1 input  assert
(group select)
· E0 : enable output : connect to EI input of another 148
6.5.2 The 74x148 Priority Encoder
Ex) 15 input priority encoder
· 215 possible input combinations
6.5.2 The 74x148 Priority Encoder
If REQ30_L = 0, otehrs = 1
Then G3A2_L * G3A1_L * G3A0_L = 001
G3GS_L = 0, G3E0_L = 1
6.5.4 Encoder in VHDL
Initialization
When GS asserted, E0 deasserted
6.6 Three-State Devices
In Section 3.7.3 we described the electrical design of CMOS devices whose
outputs may be in one of three states 0,1,Hi-z. In this section we’ll show how
to use them
1.
2.
3.
Three-State Buffer
Standard MSI Three-State Buffer
Three-State Outputs in VHDL
6.6.1 Three-State Buffers
= If SELP_L = 0, SDATA = P
when ABC = ‘000’
6.6.1 Three-State Buffers
Turn-ON time
· tpLZ or tpHZ < tpZL or tpZH : to avoid fighting (= drive by two device)
Turn-OFF time
· dead time
 safe way to use 3-state devices to guarantee
during the dead time, no one IO driving
6.6.2 Standard MSI Three-State Buffers
6.6.2 Standard MSI Three-State Buffers
When RD_L = 0, SEL1_L = 0, SEL2_L = 1, PORT1 UP
When RD_L = 0, SEL1_L = 1, SEL2_L = 0, PORT2 UP
6.6.2 Standard MSI Three-State Buffers
6.6.2 Standard MSI Three-State Buffers
When ENTFR_L = G’ = L & ATOB = DIR = 1
Bus A -> Bus B
When ENTFR_L = G’ = L & ATOB = DIR = 0
Bus B -> Bus A
6.6.4 Three-State Outputs in VHDL
Unresolved type
6.6.4 Three-State Outputs in VHDL
6.6.4 Three-State Outputs in VHDL
6.7 Multiplexers
A multiplexer is a digital switch it connects data from one of n sources to its
output. Figure 6-57(a) shows the inputs and outputs of an n-input, b-bit
multiplexer.
1.
Standard MSI Multiplexers
2.
Expanding Multiplexers
3.
Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, and Buses
4.
Multiplexers in VHDL
6.7.1 Standard MSI Multiplexers
EN
Selcet(A,B,C)
Data(D0~D7)
Y
3
8
8x1
MUX
output
Y
6.7.1 Standard MSI Multiplexers
6.7.2 Expanding Multiplexers
6.7.3 Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, and Buses
6.7.3 Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, and Buses
6.7.5 Multiplexers in VHDL
A
B
8
Y
C
D
8
EN
Sel(S1S0)
output enable
6.7.5 Multiplexers in VHDL
- use case statement
A
B
8
Y
C
D
8
EN
Sel(S1S0)
output enable
6.7.5 Multiplexers in VHDL
6.8 Exclusive-Or Gates and Parity Circuits
1.
2.
3.
4.
Exclusive-OR and Exclusive-NOR Gates
Parity Circuits
Parity-Checking Applications
Exclusive-OR Gates and Parity Circuits in VHDL
f = XY + XY = XY + XY = XY· XY = (X + Y)(X + Y) = XY + XY
= XY·XY = (X+Y)(XY) = (X + Y)(X + Y)
X
X
Y
f
Y
f
X
Y
f=X+Y
6.8.1 Exclusive-OR and Exclusive-NOR Gates
6.8.2 Parity Circuits
-odd parity and even parity
ex) odd parity circuits
ex) Even parity circuits  output inverted
6.8.4 Parity-Checking Applications
74x280 9 bit parity generator : even and odd parity check
6.8.4 Parity-Checking Applications
• error detecting code between memory and micro processor
ex) parity generation and checking for an 8-bit-wide memory system
When read, parity checking
When write, parity generation
6.8.4 Parity-Checking Applications
Ex) error correcting code for Hamming code
Hamming Code :
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 …
P P D P D D D P D …
Check : C0 = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, …
C1 = 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, …
C2 = 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, …
6.8.6 Exclusive-OR Gates and Parity Circuits in VHDL
6.8.6 Exclusive-OR Gates and Parity Circuits in VHDL
First bit
XOR
P=1, if ODD
6.8.6 Exclusive-OR Gates and Parity Circuits in VHDL
Table 6-41 Y = A + B + C
6.8.6 Exclusive-OR Gates and Parity Circuits in VHDL
6.9 Comparators
Comparing two binary words for equality is a commonly used operation in
computer systems and device interfaces
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Comparator Structure
Iterative Circuits
An Iterative Comparator Circuit
Standard MSI Magnitude Comparators
Comparators in HDLs
6.9.1 Comparator Structure
- 74x86  4bit comparator
ex) magnitude comparator : SN74LS85
G = “A > B”
E = “A = B”
L = “A < B”
A = A3 A2 A1 A0
B = B3 B2 B1 B0
6.9.2 Iterative Circuits
primary input and output  upper inputs and lower output
cascading input and output  between stage
boundary input and output  left and right most
6.9.3 An Iterative Comparator Circuits
6.9.4 Standard MSI Magnitude Comparators
74LS85 : 4 bit magnitude comparator
Xi = Ai Bi + Ai Bi
E = X3 X2 X1 X0
(i = 0, 1, …)
; equivalence
G = A3 B3 + X3 A2 B2 + X3 X2 A1 B1 + X3 X2 X1 A0 B0
L = A3 B3 + X3 A2 B2 + X3 X2 A1 B1 + X3 X2 X1 A0 B0
GT = (A>B) + (A=B)·AGTBin
EQ = (A=B)·AEQBin
LT = (A<B) + (A=B)·ALTBin
6.9.4 Standard MSI Magnitude Comparators
12 bit comparator using 74 x 85
6.9.4 Standard MSI Magnitude Comparators
PEQQ = 0
if all 8 bit pairs equal
PGTQ = 0
if p[7 ~ 0] > Q[7 ~ 0]
6.9.4 Standard MSI Magnitude Comparators
8 bit MSI comparator
6.9.7 Comparators in VHDL
Initialize
6.9.7 Comparators in VHDL
6.10 Adders, Subtractors, and ALUs
Addition is the most commonly performed arithmetic operation in digital
systems. An adder combines two arithmetic operands using the addition
rules described in Chapter 2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Half Adders and Full Adders
Ripple Adders
Subtractors
Carry-Lookahead Adders
MSI Adders
MSI Arithmetic and Logic Units
Group-Carry Lookahead
Adders in VHDL
X
X
C
C
Y
Y
HA
S
S
6.10.1 Half Adders and Full Adders
Sum = A(BC+BC) + A(BC + BC)
= A(B + C) + A(B + C)
=A+B+C
Carry = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC
= C(AB + AB) + AB
= C(A + B) + AB
= BC + AC + AB
6.10.2 Ripple Adders
A = A3 A2 A1 A0
4
+ B = B3 B2 B1 B0
4
C
Cout
4 bit adder
4
Cin
S3 S2 S1 S0
6.10.3 Subtractor
full subtractors : x – y – Bin  B & D
X : minuend
Y : Subtrahend
D = XYBin + XYBin + XYBin + XYBin
Bin : borrow in
= X(Y + Bin) + X(Y + Bin)
Bout : borrow out
D : difference
= X + Y + Bin
B = XYBin + XYBin + XYBin + XYBin
= X(Y + Bin) + YBin) = XY + XBin + YBin
- 2’s Complement subtractor : X – Y = X + Y +1
6.10.3 Subtractor
6.10.4 Carry-Lookahead Adders
one stage carry lookahead adder
Si = Xi + Yi + Ci
Ci+1 = XY + XCi + YCi
= XY + (X + Y)Ci
carry lookahead factor
· carry generator : if Xi = Yi = 1, Ci+1 = 1
Gi = Xi ·Yi
independent of the input
· carry propagate signal Pi = Xi + Yi
· Ci+1 = gi + piCi  two level AND-OR expression
X0 ~ Xi-1
Y0 ~ Yi-1
6.10.5 MSI Adders
74x283 4-bit binary adder
6.10.5 MSI Adders
74x283 4-bit binary adder
i) half sum equation : hsi
Hsi = Xi + Yi = XiYi + XiYi
= XiYi + XiXi + XiYi + YiYi + (Xi + Yi)(Xi + Yi)
= (Xi + Yi)(XiYi) = pi qi
ii) carry equation
Ci+1 = pi ·qi + pi ·Ci = pi ·(qi + Ci)
6.10.6 MSI Arithmetic and Logic Unit
16 bit group ripple adder  4 bit carry lookahead adder + carry
6.10.6 MSI Arithmetic and Logic Unit
6.10.6 MSI Arithmetic and Logic Unit
6.10.7 Group-Carry Lookahead
multiple ALU to be cascaded without ripple carry between
4 bit groups ( = 74 182 = carry lookahead generator)
- 16 bit ALU using group carry lookahead
6.10.7 Group-Carry Lookahead
16 bit ALU using group carry lookahead
6.10.9 Adders in VHDL
Concatenation operator to make
A,B 8-bit to 9 bit S
6.10.9 Adders in VHDL
6.10.9 Adders in VHDL

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