CBC in Education - Association for the Teaching of Psychology

Report
Cognitive Behavioural
Coaching
In Education
Pepita Torbrand
Head of Psychology - Oxford High School
What is Cognitive Behavioural Coaching?
‘Coaching focuses on future possibilities – not past
mistakes’. John Whitmore 2002:7
Beck (1976, 1979) CBT; Ellis (1972) REBT
Based upon CBT but focuses on a non-clinical population,
often senior executives & managers
CBC aimed to coach someone in a leadership position to build
upon leadership skills
My idea? To use CBC on high school students!
How can it be used on students?
Why would it be effective?
CBC can be used to reduce the gap between desired and actual
performance
Reduce procrastination
Reduce maladaptive perfectionist beliefs
Increase self-efficacy (beliefs in one’s own capability)
Reduce irrational thinking and performance anxiety
Increase well-being
Suitable to stretching both high performing and slightly weaker students
Or in layman’s terms
CBC is effectively about helping
students use more positive/realistic
thinking
How does CBC work then?
What research has been done?
…a whistle stop tour…
Potential
Minus
Interference/disturbance
Is equal to
Performance
(Downey, 1999)
Current situation? - Evidence based research?
One of the biggest challenges for schools is knowing how best to assist
our students in developing and maintaining a strong performance.
Especially, as our opportunities for spending time with students on a 11 basis are becoming less frequent!
Based upon recent research showing that student performance is often
influenced by psychological factors such as unhelpful thinking patterns,
self-doubt, performance anxiety, and maladaptive perfectionism;
cognitive behavioural group-coaching can be an extremely effective
tool for teachers to help optimise performance, and build upon keystrengths to enhance wellbeing in a very cost effective way!
Evidence Based research?
CBC, based on the well-established and evidence based principles of
CBT/REBT, is extremely effective when used with students and young
adults.
A brief selection of some of the tools which I train teachers in is turning
Performance Interfering thoughts to Performance Enhancing
Thoughts (PITs to PETs), challenging frequently occurring Thinking
Errors such as ‘I should, ought and must’ (e.g. I should have started
earlier, I must perform better!)
In CBC I also use Socratic Questions, perhaps the most powerful tool to
effectively work with students to challenge the logic, usefulness and
effectiveness of unhelpful thinking, as well as train teachers to
effectively use the Coping Imagery, SPACE, ABCDE, and GROW models
to help students find & build upon their Signature Strengths.
So how does it work then? Today’s brief
session
Challenge Thinking Errors
Using Socratic Questions
Becoming familiar with the SPACE model to change unhelpful
behaviour
Use GROW to set specific goals and help students follow through with
goals
Changing PITs to PETs
Building upon Key/Signature Strengths
REBT - Ellis (1962); Burns (1980)
Challenging various thinking errors that inhibits performance:
All or nothing thinking: ‘it’s got to be perfect, or….’
Catastrophizing
Should and Must statements: ‘I must get an A/A* in my mock’
Mental filter (particular focus on negative details)..or..
Disqualifying the positive
Fortune telling
Mind reading
CBC- Becoming Focused
2010 Centre for Coaching
Performance
As more time & energy
is released by removing
those identified blocks,
There is a corresponding improvement
in performance
Psychological
blocks
The perils of procrastination....
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4P785j15Tzk
CBC - Socratic Dialogue
Logic
Usefulness
Evidence
Of students’ unhelpful perfectionist
beliefs and negative thinking
Challenging students recurring negative thoughts that inhibits
performance
Negative comparison
I can never get an A in
Psychology/Biology/Chemistry/Maths/Physics/Politics/History/Any
other subject...
I’m not going to do very well in my exams...
I won’t be able to remember it all! : 0
I will have a black out
I can’t remember anything, so what’s the point trying?
I won’t get the grade I want to take it at A-level...
Example: Negative Comparison – Socratic Dialogue
Is it logical?
Where is the evidence for your belief?
Where is this belief getting you?
Is this belief helping you to attain your goals?
Is this belief focussed on problem solving?
Are you rating yourself or your performance?
Quotes
‘I’ve stuck that piece of paper (Socratic challenges) above my desk, so every time I do start to
think like that, I just go back to that and just think ‘is this thought logical?’ ‘Is it helping me in
any way?’ […] you’re just like, No, carry on!’ Y13 student
‘I could sit at a desk for five hours and have the work in front of me and I still wouldn’t do it,
something was so stronger than me…It sounds crazy. But now I’m just doing it fine.’ Y13
student
I should be more positive, stop comparing myself to others as this will not help me to achieve
my potential! Y11 Student
Negative thinking is the DOOR, positive thinking is the KEY! Y11 Student
I’ve learnt to be less hard on myself. It was reassuring that other people procrastinate too. Y11
Student
Quotes
I feel a lot more determined and that I am capable of doing my best. Knowing
problems and how to tackle them really makes me feel more positive. Y11
Student
Awareness of the blocks stopping us from success. Realising ways to improve on
this. Acknowledging that our mental attitude isn’t always accurate and that we
can control the outcome if we put our minds to it. Y11 Student
Underestimating your ability is much more of an obstacle than your ability itself.
Perfectionism is a counter-productive habit. I have learnt to understand that I am
the only one standing in the way for achieving my goals. Y11 Student
The SPACE model: Peer Coaching
(Edgerton & Palmer, 2005)
?
Hormones Breathing
Sleeping Arousal levels
Social
Context
Physiology Tensions
Tendencies
Feelings
Behaviours
Mood
Emotions
Thoughts
Self-talk
Actions
Doing
Cognitions
Images
Memories
Expectancies beliefs
Some trigger points…
Essay writing
Examinations!
Presentations
Course work
The SPACE model: Peer Coaching
(Edgerton & Palmer, 2005)
?
Hormones Breathing
Sleeping Arousal levels
Social
Context
Physiology Tensions
Tendencies
Feelings
Behaviours
Mood
Emotions
Thoughts
Self-talk
Actions
Doing
Cognitions
Images
Memories
Expectancies beliefs
SPACE: ‘freeze time’
Social Context: …Essay Writing…
Cognitions: I can’t do it perfectly enough, I can’t make it perfect
straight away, Others can do it better than I can…
Emotions: Anxiety, Fear, Guilt, Self-blame, Embarrassment, Potential
loss of motivation
Physiology: Stress, Arousal, Tension, Breathing (shallow)
Action: I won’t do it now (but soon…) leads to anxiety reduction
(temporarily). But as we have to do the work later (but in a much
shorter time frame!) this leads to significantly increased anxiety
(vicious circle as a rushed piece of work confirms our negative
thinking…)
The SPACE model: Peer Coaching
(Edgerton & Palmer, 2005)
?
Hormones Breathing
Sleeping Arousal levels
Social
Context
Physiology Tensions
Tendencies
Feelings
Behaviours
Mood
Emotions
Thoughts
Self-talk
Actions
Doing
Cognitions
Images
Memories
Expectancies beliefs
SPACE: challenge ANTs
Social Context: …Essay Writing…
Cognitions: I can’t do it perfectly straight away, no one can! I
can try to write something to the very best of my ability
and ask my teacher to have a look at it…
Emotions: Determination, Motivation, Locus of Control
Physiology: Eustress, Being on a ‘flow’, Arousal
Action: No point delaying. Better just get on with it. Just do
it! Not trying to do perfectly all at once, but planning work
to decrease negative stress.
SPACE WORK – Peer Coaching
Applied Practice - Your time!
In pairs or threes
Start with the ‘Social Context’ and work your
way round the SPACE model challenging
negative thoughts as if one of you were the
student
Think about how you can work with students to
help them change unhelpful behaviour by
thinking differently, feeling differently, and
acting differently to become more effective!
The SPACE model: Peer Coaching
(Edgerton & Palmer, 2005)
?
Hormones Breathing
Sleeping Arousal levels
Social
Context
Physiology Tensions
Tendencies
Feelings
Behaviours
Mood
Emotions
Thoughts
Self-talk
Actions
Doing
Cognitions
Images
Memories
Expectancies beliefs
CBC with students
The rationale of
Performance Coaching
Is raising AWARENESS
And taking
RESPONSIBILITY
(Whitmore, 1996)
Centre for Coaching 2010
One student’s experience
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kUu4rv3ol34
What other tools can you use in CBC?
What focus can your sessions session take?
Let’s GROW – using Whitmore’s model for setting and
following GOALS.
Challenging Maladaptive Perfectionist beliefs (PITs and PETs)
Finding students’ signature strengths!
What is a PIT and a PET?
PIT = Performance Interfering Thought
PET = Performance Enhancing Thought
Can you turn some PITs into PETs?
Performance Interfering Thoughts
Performance Enhancing Thoughts
PITs
PETs
I can’t do it.
I can’t do it well enough.
I will try and try but I will never get it
perfect!
Others can do it better than me.
I will just do my very best to be
criticised, so what’s the point anyway?
Performance Interfering Thoughts
Performance Enhancing Thoughts
PITs
PETs
I can’t do it.
I can do it if I try!
I can’t do it well enough.
I can do it as good as I possibly can, my
teacher can give me feedback on how to
improve things.
I will try and try but I will never get it perfect!
I will get better if I try – practice makes
perfect!
Others can do it better than me.
No point thinking that everyone can do it
better. Is that helping me?
I will just do my very best to be criticised, so
what’s the point anyway?
I won’t get criticised. I am probably my
own worst enemy. My teacher wants me to
succeed. She’ll be glad to help.
Setting Goals - Students
Think of a goal for yourselves such as: Positive + Specific
Studying more effectively…
Getting up earlier in the morning…
Going to bed earlier at night!
Remain committed and focused…
Spending less than 2 hours on FB/Tumblr/Twitter a
......... Week!
Do now/Just do it!
I will now give you a moment to think about a goal for yourself!
A few ideas
Get all the marking done as soon as I can…
Design new, more effective seating plans
Using more ICT/ILT in my lessons
Set up a twitter account to share learning outside the classroom!
Upload more resources to Moodle
Do that budget! Target grids?
Do the SoWs for next academic year!
Find new interesting resources for teaching the more challenging topics
next year
Let’s GROW – Setting and following your goals Keeping it positive!
Peer coaching
G stands for Goal
What area would you like to improve on?
What type of performance outcome are you looking for?
What specific steps can you identify – in what time frame?
Exam Performance – Presentation skills – Feeling more confident
Effective revision – Practice presentation skills? How often? Up to final
exam?
Let’s GROW – group coaching
R stands for Reality
Describe your situation
How much control do you have over the outcome?
What resources have you got to help you?
Procrastinating, avoidance – have you got control?
Effective Time Management – CBC course!
Let’s GROW – group coaching
O stands for Obstacles
Are there any obstacles?
What are your options to overcome these? (make a list!)
Work for different subjects? – Other responsibilities? Working
part-time?
Effective time management?
Write exemplar essays – hand to teacher
Do revision cards
Let’s GROW – group coaching
W stands for Way Forward
What is your specific criteria for success?
On a scale of 1-10, what commitment do you have now? How
can you improve it?
Bs, As – A*?
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9?
2!!?
Following through with goals
Can be used in coaching where students generate and set their own
sub-goals which are small, easily achievable goals rather than a more
challenging goal that they are likely to procrastinate with!
To be unpacked and then followed through with and reflected upon in
the next session with encouragement and potential adaptions
GROW – Setting and following our goals - Keeping
it positive!
Peer coaching
Goal? (Outcome)
Reality? (Control)
Obstacles? (Options)
Way Forward? (Commitment)
Can you set a date for when to achieve this?
Quotes
I can set goals with reasonable steps in order to achieve! I should work
with my strengths instead of thinking only of my weaknesses. Y11 Student
I have learned how to optimise my potential and to believe in myself to do
better. I have found methods to target my procrastination. Y11 Student
I have found the sessions have made me realise that I can set goals really
easily and that it is a good idea to use the GROW model. Y8 Student
Learning how to change my desired goals to my actual performance. How
to change my behaviour patterns. Acknowledge what my bad behaviour
patterns are! Y11 Student
Perfectionism
3 types of perfectionism
Do you think you engage in any of these?
Self Oriented - I ‘must’ do it right
Other Oriented – they ‘must’ do it right
Socially Prescribed Perfectionism – Others expect me to do it right
The perils of Perfectionism – working with students
(Do you recognise any in yourself?)
Which ones does your students engage in?
Excessively high standards
Fear of failure
Procrastination
Conditional self-acceptance
Not satisfied by success – continually striving
Emotional disturbance when standards not met
All-or-nothing thinking
Overly self-critical
High levels of anxiety before, during and after a performance
Perfectionism is not always negative…
Enns & Cox 2002
What does the Helpful Perfectionist Beliefs really look like?
Maladaptive/Unhelpful
Adaptive/Helpful
Unable to experience pleasure
Able to experience satisfaction and pleasure from
one’s labours
Inflexibly high standards
Standards modified in accordance with the situation
Fear of Failure
Striving for success
Focusing on avoiding error
Focus on doing things as good as possible
Tense/anxious attitude toward tasks
Relaxed but careful attitude
Large experienced gap between performance and
standards
Reasonable match between attainable performance
and standards
Perfectionism is not always negative…
Enns & Cox 2002
What does the Helpful Perfectionist Beliefs really look like?
Maladaptive/Unhelpful
Adaptive/Helpful
Sense of self worth dependent on performance
Sense of self worth independent of performance
Failure often associated with harsh self criticism
Failure often associated with disappointment and
renewed efforts
Black or white thinking: perfectionism vs failure
Balanced thinking
Belief that one should/must excel
Desire to excel
Compulsive tendencies and doubting
Reasonable certainty about actions
Quotes
I now know that I don't always have to be perfect, and I know steps
and methods to achieve my goals and minimalize irrational thinking
and negative attitudes. Y8 Student
I have learnt to channel concepts of ‘perfect’ into inspiring me to excel
rather than scare me into failure. Y12 Student
What I have taken away from this? Positive thoughts, self-belief and
unconditional self acceptance! Y8 Student
Identifying Signature strengths!
Students find three key strengths that they believe can
help them optimise performance!
What are they?
How can they use them to improve performance?
Some Examples.....
Signature strengths adapted from Seligman
Curiosity - Interested in experience for its own sake, finding subjects and topics fascinating; love
exploring and discovering.
Good at writing – Good at summing up info and putting thoughts down on paper
Humour - Like to laugh! Try to see the light side in all situations.
Critical thinking – Good at evaluating ideas and thinking critically about information from different
perspectives
Good at listening – They actually listen to what their teachers tell them!
Open-mindedness – Open to new learning strategies and approaches to learning
Creative - Thinking of new ways to do things and never content with doing something the conventional
way if a better way is possible.
Artistic
Organised
Good at looking at the facts – Do not jump to conclusions but are that kind of person who rely on
evidence!
Citizenship - Excel as a member of a group. Are a loyal and dedicated teammate.
As a teacher/coach: which ones are your
signature strengths?
Signature strengths? Adapted from Seligman
Motivating – You are an expert in fostering a love of learning, involve all students actively in their own
learning, and encourage ownership
Leadership - You excel at the tasks of leadership: encouraging a group to get things done and preserving
harmony within the group by making everyone feel included
Caring – You are committed to and an expert in creating a calm, supportive and respectful
coaching/learning environment
Open-minded – You are open to new teaching/coaching strategies and approaches to learning
Creative - Thinking of new ways to do things and never content with doing something the conventional
way if a better way is possible
Perspective - You are able to provide wise counsel to others
Persistence - You work hard to finish what you start. No matter what the project is, you get it done in time
Social Intelligence - You are aware of the motives and feelings of other people. You know what to do to
put others at ease
Citizenship - You excel as a member of a group. You are a loyal and dedicated teammate.
CBC: What it is all about?
Become aware of irrational thinking
Take responsibility
Challenge maladaptive perfectionist beliefs
Identify and build upon signature strengths!
Set specific goals to increase performance
Change thinking – positive self talk!
Change actions!!!
How is CBC implemented
then?
Group Coaching taking place over 4-5 sessions for
selected students
Want to learn more? Want to be trained in
CBC?
www.coaching4schools.com
Website
[email protected]
email
Questions?
Thank You!

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